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rOUNDKD     BY    JAMES     LOBB,     LI>.D. 

tT.    E.    PAGE,    C.H.,    LITT.D. 

tE.  CAPPS,  PH.D.,  LL.D.  tW.  H.  D.  ROUSE,  litt.d. 

L.  A.  POST,  M.A.    E.  H.  WARMINGTON,  m.a.,  f.r.hist.soo. 







fE.  S.  FORSTER,  M.B.E.,  M.A.(Oxox.),  F.S.A. 











Printed  in  Oreat  Britain 


4. 7.  S-b- 



Prefatory  Note         .....      vii 
SlOLA  .......         xi 

Book  V 2 

Measurement  and  Shapes  of  Land— Number  of  Plants 
to  be  Set — Provincial  Vineyards — Cultivation  of  Vines 
and  Trees  for  Supporting  them — Olive-trees  and  Nurseries 
— Pomiferous  Trees — Grafting — Shrub-Trefoil. 

Book  VI 118 

Oxen,   their   Care    and    Diseases — Bulls   and   Cows — 

Breeding ^Diseases Horses Medicines Mules 


Book  VII 230 

The  Ass — Sheep — Diseases — the  Goat — Diseases — 
Cheese-making — Pigs — Diseases — Dogs — Diseases. 

Book  VIII 320 

Birds  and  Fishes — Farmyard  Poultry — Pigeons- 
Thrushes — Peafowl — Amphibious  Birds — Ducks — Fishes. 

Book  IX 420 

Wild  Animals — Bees,  the  Management  of  them,  their 
Diseases  and  Pests — Honey — Wax. 


Owing  to  the  death  of  Dr,  Harrison  Boyd  Ash  of      ' 
the  University  of  Pennsylvania  shortly  after  the  pub- 
lication of  the  first  volume  (Books  I-IV)  of  the  De 
Re  Rustica  of  Columella,  the  Editors  entrusted  me 
with  the  remainder  of  the  work. 

There  has  been  no  complete  modern  edition  of 
the  text  since  J.  G.  Schneider's  (Leipzig  1794),  but 
the  principles  laid  down  by  Dr.  Ash  (Vol.  I,  p.  xxi) 
appear  to  me  to  be  entirely  satisfactory.  He 
describes  them  as  follows :  "  The  text  and  manu- 
script readings  of  the  present  edition,  for  Books 
I-H,  Vl-Vn,  X-XI  and  the  De  Arboribus,  rest 
substantially  on  the  work  of  Lundstrom.  For 
Books  ni-V,  Vni-IX  and  XH,  the  translator  has 
attempted  to  construct  a  critical  text  in  some 
approximation  to  that  of  Lundstrom  by  the  collation 
of  four  major  manuscripts  with  the  text  of  Schneider." 
It  was  natural  to  conclude  from  these  words  that  a 
text  constructed  by  Dr.  Ash  would  be  available  for 
the  rest  of  the  work,  but  no  traces  of  the  existence 
of  such  a  text  have  been  found  in  America.  It  has, 
therefore,  been  necessary  to  undertake  the  con- 
struction of  a  new  text,  and  I  have  tried  to  conform 
as  far  as  possible  with  Dr.  Ash's  system,  using 
Lundstrom 's  edition  for  those  books  which  he  has 
edited  and  attempting  a  new  text  for  Books  V,  VIII, 
IX  and  XII.  For  this  purpose  I  have  been  fortunate, 
through  the  good  offices  of  Professor  L.  A.  Post,  in 
obtaining  from  America  photostats  of  the  four  most 


important  MSS.  (see  p.  xvi  of  Vol.  I),  which  fall  into 
two  classes,  (a)  the  two  9th-10th  century  MSS.  and  (b) 
the  two  best  of  the  15th-century  MSS.  The  photo- 
stats, which  were  used  by  Dr.  Ash  for  his  collation 
of  Books  III  and  IV,  were  purchased  with  a  grant 
provided  by  the  Faculty  Research  Fund  of  the 
University  of  Pennsylvania.  The  only  point  in 
which  my  text  of  these  books  differs  from  that  of 
Dr.  Ash  is  that  I  have  not  had  an  opportunity,  which 
Dr.  Ash  had,  of  comparing  my  text  with  that  of  the 
MS.  known  as  Morganensis  138,  formerly  Hamil- 
tonensis  184  in  the  Pierpont  Morgan  Library  in  New 

For  some  unexplained  reason  the  text  of  Book  V, 
especially  Chapter  VIII  to  the  end,  is  in  a  worse 
condition  than  in  any  other  part  of  the  work,  and 
there  is  the  further  complication  that,  from  Chapter 
X  to  the  end,  the  text,  though  slightly  longer,  is 
closely  identical  with  that  of  De  Arhorihus,  Chapter 
XVIII  to  the  end.  It  seems  certain  that  the  De 
Arhoribus  is  part  of  an  earlier  and  shorter  treatise 
which  was  afterwards  superseded  by  the  De  Re 
Rustica.  It  is  a  question  how  far  the  text  of  these 
similar  chapters  in  the  De  Re  Rustica  and  the  De 
Arhoribus  should  be  corrected  from  one  another. 
There  are  numerous  places  in  which  the  text  of 
Book  V  is  deficient  or  careless,  and  these  can  be 
corrected  from  the  De  Arhorihus,  but  it  also  appears 
that  the  author  made  a  good  many  verbal  changes 
as  well  as  inserting  new  matter.  I  have,  therefore, 
refrained  from  making  the  two  slightly  different 
versions  correspond  exactly  and  have  kept  the  MS. 
reading  in  both  treatises  where  it  makes  sense — 
very    often    the    same    sense    in    slightly    different 



words — but  the  fact  that  there  are  these  two 
versions  has  necessitated  a  larger  apparatus  criticus 
in  these  chapters  of  Book  V  than  for  any  other  part 
of  the  work. 

I  have  to  thank  His  Grace  the  Duke  of  Devonshire 
for  lending  me  [M.  C.  Curtius],  L.  Junius  Moderatus 
Columella  o?i  Husbandry  in  Twelve  Books  and  his 
Book  concerning  Trees  (London  1745)  (a  very  rare 
work)  from  the  Chatsworth  Library,  and  Mademoi- 
selle Helene  Rousseau  for  obtaining  for  me  in  Paris 
a  copy  of  M.  Nisard,  Les  Agronomes  Latins  (Paris, 
1844),  for  which  I  had  been  searching  for  many 

Edward  S.  Forster. 

Upon  the  death  of  Professor  Forster,  the  Editors 
of  this  Library  entrusted  to  me  the  responsibility 
of  completing  the  unfinished  project.  In  the  cir- 
cumstances this  assignment  naturally  extended  to 
the  making  of  a  thorough  examination  of  every 
aspect  of  the  work.  The  photostats  mentioned  by 
my  predecessor  in  the  above  lines  were  in  due  time 
returned  to  America  and  were  fully  utilized  in  the 
process  of  examination  and  study.  In  the  checking 
between  these  manuscripts,  as  well  as  in  the  verifi- 
cation of  references  to  important  earlier  editions  of 
Columella,  very  substantial  assistance  was  furnished 
to  me  by  my  wife,  which  I  desire  gratefully  to  ac- 
knowledge here.  It  is  to  be  hoped  that  the  process  of 
restudying  and  reviewing  has  resulted  in  an  improved 
product.  It  is  always  a  serious  thing  to  find  your- 
self differing  with  another  person  on  matters  of  a 
scholarly  nature ;  to  handle  such  materials  when  left 



by  the  hand  of  one  who  is  no  longer  able  to  speak  in 
defence  of  his  interpretation  imposes  many  a  delicate 
task.  Naturally  there  are  numerous  passages  in  the 
text  of  Columella,  and  also  in  the  English  version, 
which  I  would  have  handled  somewhat  differently 
from  the  manner  in  which  they  were  treated  by  my 
predecessor  if  I  had  been  free  to  shape  things  de  novo. 
However,  this  statement  applies  rather  to  materials 
involving  the  factors  of  taste  and  judgment  than  to 
those  where  the  essential  thought  was  an  issue. 

The  reader  might  be  reminded  of  the  Biblio- 
graphy prepared  by  the  late  Professor  Ash  and 
included  in  Vol.  I  of  this  Library.  The  works  per- 
taining to  Columella  that  are  there  cited  were 
obviously  made  use  of  by  Professor  Forster,  as  they 
were  also  utilized  by  me. 

Edward  H.  Heffner. 


S  =  Cod.    Sangermanensis   Petropolitanus   207    (9th 

A  =  Cod.  Ambrosianus  L  85  sup.  (9th-10th  cents.) 
jR  =:  all  or  consensus  of  the  15th  cent.  MSS. 
a  =  Cod.  Laurentianus  plut.  53.  32  (15th  cent.). 
c  =  Cod.  Caesenas  Malatestianus  plut.  24.  2  (15th 

ed.  pr.  =  editio  princeps  (Jensoniana),  Venice,  1472. 
Aid.  —  the  first  Aldine  edition,  Venice,  1514. 
Gesfi.  =  J.  M.  Gesner,  Scriptores  Ret  Rusticae  Veteres 

Latini,  Leipzig,  1735. 
Schneider  =  J.  G.  Schneider,  Scriptores  Rei  Rusticae 

Veteres  Latini,  Leipzig,  1794. 
LundstrQm  =    V.  Lundstrom,  L.  lun.  Mod.  Columella 

Lib.    I-II,    VI-VII,    X-XI,    de    Arboribus, 

Upsala-Goteborg,  1897-1940. 

Note. — In  Books  VI  and  VII,  where  the  apparatus 
criticus  is  based  on  Lundstrom's  recension,  his 
siglum  R  is  used  as  representing  the  reading  of  all 
or  the  majority  of  the  twenty-five  15th-century 
MSS.  collated  by  him.  In  Books  V  and  VIII  a  new 
collation  has  been  made  of  only  the  two  best  15th- 
century  MSS.,  for  which  the  sigla  a  and  c  are  used. 



VOL.  II. 




I.  Prioribus  libi-is,  quos  ad  te  de  constituendis 
colendisque  vineis,  Silvine,  scripseram,  nonnulla 
defuisse  dixisti,  quae  agrestium  operum  studiosi 
desiderarent ;  neque  ego  infitior  aliqua  me  prae- 
teriisse,  quamvis  inquirentem  sedulo,  quae  nostri 
saeculi  cultores  quaeque  veteres  literarum  monu- 
mentis  prodiderunt  :  sed  cum  sim  professus  ^  rusticae 
rei  praecepta,  nisi  fallor,  asseveraveram,  quae 
vastitas  ^  eius  scientiae  contineret,  non  cuncta  me 
dicturum,  sed  plurima.  Nam  illud  in  unius  hominis 
prudentiam  cadere  non  poterat.  Neque  enim  est 
ulla  disciplina,  non  ars,  quae  singular!^  consummata 
sit  ingenio.  Quapropter  ut  in  magna  silva  boni 
venatoris  est  indagantem  feras  quamplurimas  capere  ; 
nee  cuiquam  culpae  fuit  non  omnes  cepisse  :  ita  nobis 

*  sim  professus  c  :   sum  professus  a  :  summo  festus  SA. 

*  vastitas  ac  :  unitas  SA. 

'  singulari  ac  :   consulari  8 A, 




I.  You   have   said,   Silvinus,   that    in   the    earlier  The 
books,  which  I  had  written  to  vou  about  estabhsh-  '"^^'^'*- 

1  1    •         •  •  1  1  •  ment 

ing  and  cultivating  vineyards,  some  things  were  of  land. 
omitted  of  which  those  who  devote  themselves  to 
agriculture  felt  the  want ;  and  indeed  I  do  not  deny 
that,  although  I  carefully  studied  what  the  agricul- 
turists of  our  own  age  and  also  the  ancients  have 
handed  down  in  written  records,  there  are  some 
topics  which  I  have  passed  over.  But  when  I  under- 
took to  teach  the  precepts  of  husbandry,  if  I  mistake 
not,  I  did  not  assert  that  I  would  deal  with  all  but 
only  with  very  many  of  those  subjects  which  the  vast 
extent  of  that  science  embraces ;  for  it  could  not 
fall  within  the  scope  of  one  man's  knowledge,  and  2 
there  is  no  kind  of  learning  and  no  art  which  has  been 
completely  mastered  by  a  single  intellect.  There- 
fore, just  as  the  task  of  a  good  sportsman,  tracking 
his  prey  in  a  vast  forest,  is  to  catch  as  many  wild 
beasts  as  he  can  nor  has  blame  ever  attached  to  any- 
one if  he  did  not  catch  them  all,  so  it  is  amply 
sufficient  for  us  to  have  treated  of  the  greatest  part  of 


abunde  est,  tam  difFusae  materiae,  quam  suscepimus, 
maximam  partem  tradidisse.  Quippe  cum  ea  velut 
omissa  desiderentur,  quae  non  sunt  propria  nostrae 
professionis,  ut  proxime,  cum  de  commetiendis  agris 
rationerai  M.  Trebellius  noster  requireret  a  me, 
vicinum  atque  adeo  coniunctum  esse  censebat  de- 
monstranti,  quemadmodum  agrum  pastinemus,  prae- 
cipere  etiam  pastinatum  quemadmodum  metiri  de- 
beamus.  Quod  ego  non  agricolae  sed  mensoris 
officium  esse  dicebam :  cum  praesertim  ne  architect! 
quidem,  quibus  necesse  est  mensurarum  nosse 
rationem,  dignentur  consummatorum  aedificiorum, 
quae  ipsi  disposuerint,  modum  comprehendere,  sed 
aliud  existiment  professioni  suae  convenire,  aliud 
eorum,  qui  iam  exstructa  ^  metiuntur,  et  ^  imposito  ' 
calculo  perfect!  operis  rationem  computant.  Quo 
magis  veniam  tribuendam  esse  nostrae  disciplinae 
censeo,*  si  eatenus  progreditur,  ut  dicat,  qua  quidque 
ratione  faciendum,  non  quantum  id  sit  quod  effecerit. 
Verum  quoniam  familiariter  a  nobis  tu  quoque, 
Silvine,  praecepta  mensurarum  desideras,  obsequar 
voluntati  tuae,  cum  eo,  ne  dubites  id  opus  geome- 
trarum  magis  esse  quam  rusticorum,  desque  veniam, 
si  quid  in  eo  fuerit  erratum,  cuius  scientiam  mihi  non 

Sed  ut  ad  rem  redeam,  modus  omnis  areae  pedali 
mensura   comprehenditur,   qui  ^  digitorum   est  xvi. 

^  exstructa  ac  :   exstructam  S :  extrunctam  A. 

*  post  et  add.  SA  iuncturae  :   om.  ac. 

*  imposito  Aac  :   posito  S, 

*  censeo  add.  edd. 

'  qui  Aac  :  quia  8. 

BOOK  V.  I.  2-4 

the  extensive  material  with  which  we  have  under- 
taken to  deal.  For  indeed  subjects,  which  do  not 
properly  belong  to  our  profession,  are  demanded  as 
though  they  had  been  left  out;  for  example,  only 
recently,  when  my  friend  Marcus  Trebellius  required 
from  me  a  method  of  measuring  land  he  expressed 
the  opinion  that  it  was  a  kindred  and  indeed  closely 
connected  task  for  one  who  was  showing  how  we 
ought  to  trench  land  to  give  instructions  also  how  we 
ought  to  measure  the  land  thus  trenched.  I  replied 
that  this  was  the  duty  not  of  a  farmer  but  of  a  sur- 
veyor, especially  as  even  architects,  who  must 
necessarily  be  acquainted  with  the  nnethods  of 
measurement,  do  not  deign  to  reckon  the  dimensions 
of  buildings  which  they  have  themselves  planned, 
but  think  that  there  is  a  function  which  befits  their 
profession  and  another  function  which  belongs  to 
those  who  measure  structures  after  they  have  been 
built  and  reckon  up  the  cost  of  the  finished  work  by 
applying  a  method  of  calculation.  Therefore  I  hold 
that  excuse  should  rather  be  made  for  our  system 
of  instruction  if  it  only  goes  as  far  as  to  state  by  what 
method  each  of  the  operations  of  farming  should  be 
carried  out  and  not  the  area  over  which  it  has  been 
performed.  But  since,  Silvinus,  you  also  ask  us  in  a 
friendly  spii'it  for  instructions  about  measure- 
ments, I  will  comply  with  your  wish,  on  condition 
that  you  harbour  no  doubt  that  this  is  really  the 
business  of  geometricians  rather  than  of  countrymen, 
and  make  allowances  for  any  errors  that  may  be 
committed  in  a  sphere  where  I  do  not  claim  to  possess 
scientific  knowledge. 

But  to  return  to  my  subject,  the  extent  of  every  area 
is  reckoned  by  measurement  in  feet,  and  a  foot  consists 


Pes  multiplicatus  in  passus  et  actus  et  climata  et 
iugera  et  stadia  centuriasque  mox  etiam  in  niaiora 
spatia  pi'ocedit.  Passus  pedes  habet  v.  Actus 
minimus  (ut  ait  M.  Varro)  latitudinis  ^  pedes  quattuor, 
longitudinis  habet  pedes  cxx.  Clima  quoquo  versus 
pedum  est  lx.  Actus  quadratus  undique  finitur 
pedibus  cxx.  Hoc  duplicatum  facit  iugerum,  et  ab 
eo,  quod  erat  iunctum,  nomen  iugeri  usurpavit :  sed 
hunc  actum  provinciae  Baeticae  rustici  acnuam  ^ 
vocant :  itemque  triginta  pedum  latitudinem  et 
CLxxx  longitudinem  porcam  dicunt.  At  Galli  cande- 
tum  ^  appellant  in  areis  urbanis  spatium  centum 
pedum,  in  agrestibus  autem  pedum  CL.*  Semi- 
iugerum  quoque  arepennem  vocant.  Ergo  (ut  dixi) 
duo  actus  iugerum  efficiunt  longitudinem  pedum 
ccxL,  latitudinem  pedum  cxx.  Quae  utraeque  summae 
in  se  multiplicatae  quadratorum  faciunt  pedum 
milia  viginti  octo  et  octingentos.  Stadium  deinde 
habet  passus  cxxv,  id  est  pedes  dcxxv,  quae  mensura 
octies  efficit  mille  passus,  sic  veniunt  quinque  milia 
pedum. ^  Centuriam  nunc  dicimus  (ut  idem  Varro  ait) 
ducentorum  iugerum  modum.  Olim  autem  ab 
centum  iugeribus  vocabatur  centuria,  sed  mox  du- 
plicata  nomen  retinuit :  sicuti  tribus  dictae  primum 
a  partibus  populi  tripartite  divisi,  quae  tamen  nunc 
multiplicatae  pristinum  nomen  possident.  Haec 
non  aliena,  nee  procul  a  ratiocinio,  quod  tradituri 
sumus,  breviter  praefari  oportuit. 

*  latitudinis  ac  :  latitudinem  A  :  latitudine  S. 

*  agnuam  SAac. 

'  candetum  Aa  :   candentum  c  :   gandetum  S. 

*  post  CL  add.  quod  aratores  candetum  nominant  SAac. 

*  sic   veniunt   quinque  millia  pedum  ac  :    sunt   campum 


BOOK  V.  I.  4-8 

of  \%  fingers.  The  multiplication  of  the  foot  produces 
successively  the  pace,  the  actus,  the  clima,  the  iugerum, 
the  stadium  and  the  centuria,  and  afterward  still  larger 
measurements.  The  pace  contains  five  feet.  The 
smallest  actus  (as  Marcus  Varro  says)  is  four  feet  wide 
and  120  feet  long.  The  c/i'raa  is  60  feet  each  way.  The 
squai-e  actus  is  bounded  by  120  feet  each  way ;  when 
doubled  it  forms  a  iugerum,  and  it  has  derived  the 
name  of  iugerum  from  the  fact  that  it  was  formed  by 
joining."  This  actus  the  country  folk  of  the  province 
of  Baetica  call  acnua ;  they  also  call  a  breadth  of  30 
feet  and  a  length  of  180  feet  a  porca.  The  Gauls  give 
the  name  candeium  to  areas  of  a  hundred  feet  in  urban 
districts  but  to  areas  of  150  feet  in  rural  districts ; 
they  also  call  a  ha\i-iugei'um  an  arepennis.  Two 
actus,  as  I  have  said,  form  a  iugerum  240  feet  long 
and  120  feet  wide,  which  two  numbers  multiplied 
together  make  28,800  square  feet.  Next  a  stadium 
contains  125  paces  (that  is  to  say  625  feet)  which 
multiplied  by  eight  makes  1000  paces,  which  amount 
to  5000  feet.  We  now  call  an  area  of  200  iugera  a 
centuria,  as  Varro  again  states ;  but  formerly  the 
centuria  was  so  called  because  it  contained  100  iugera, 
but  afterwards  when  it  was  doubled  it  retained  the 
same  name,  just  as  the  tribes  were  so  called  because 
the  people  were  divided  into  three  parts  but  now, 
though  many  times  more  numerous,  still  keep  their 
old  name.  It  was  proper  that  we  should  begin  by 
briefly  mentioning  these  facts  first,  as  being  rele- 
vant to  and  closely  connected  with  the  system  of 
calculation  which  we  are  going  to  set  forth. 

"  I.e.  iugerum  is  derived  from  the  verb  iungere  "  to  join  ", 
because  it  consists  of  two  square  actus  joined  together. 


Nunc  veniamus  ad  propositum.  lugeri  partes 
non  omnes  posuimus,^  sed  eas,  quae  cadunt  in  aesti- 
mationem  facti  operis.  Nam  minores  persequi  super- 
vacuum  fuit,  pro  quibus  nulla  merces  dependitur.^ 
Igitur  (ut  diximus)  iugerum  habet  quadratorum 
pedum  viginti  octo  milia  et  octingentos  :  qui  pedes 
efficiunt  scripula  cclxxxviii.  Ut  autem  a  minima 
parte,  id  ^  est,  ab  dimidio  scripulo  incipiam,  pars 
quingentesima  septuagesima  sexta  pedes  efficit 
quinquaginta ;  id  est  iugeri  dimidium  scripulum. 
Pars  ducentesima  octogesima  octava  pedes  centum; 
hoc  est  scripulum.^  Pars  cxliv  pedes  cc,  hoc  est 
scripula  duo.  Pars  septuagesima  et  secunda  pedes 
cccc,  hoc  est  ^  sextula  in  qua  sunt  scripula  quattuor. 
Pars  quadx'agesima  octava  ^  pedes  do,  hoc  est  sici- 

^  posuimus  edd.  :   possumus  SAac. 

*  dependitur  SAc  :   deprehenditur  a. 

*  ut  autem — id  om.  A  :    autem  om.  Sac. 

*  post  est  scripulum  add.  pars  septuagesima  et  secunda 

*  sextula  Aac  :   sextulam  S. 

*  quadragesima  octava  om.  a. 

The  divisions  of  a  iugerum  mentioned  hy  Columella  with  the 

number  of  square  feet,  both  Roman  and  English,  in  each  division. 


Latin  name  of  the 

of  scri- 




divisions  of  the 

pula  in 

tions  of 








Dimidium  scripulum           ^ 




Scripulum                               1 




Duo  scripula 
















BOOK  V.  I.  8-9 

Let  us  now  come  to  our  real  purpose.  We  have 
not  put  down  all  the  parts  of  the  iugerum  but  only 
those  which  enter  into  the  estimation  of  work  done. 
For  it  was  needless  to  follow  out  the  smaller  fractions 
on  which  no  business  transaction  depends.  The 
iugerum,  therefore,  as  we  have  said,  contains  28,8)0 
square  feet,  which  number  of  feet  is  equivalent  to  288 
scripula.  But  to  begin  with  the  smallest  fraction,  the 
haM-scripulum,  the  576th  part  of  a  iugerum,  contains 
50  feet ;  it  is  the  haif-scripuluiii  of  the  iugerum.  The 
288th  part  of  the  iugerum  contains  100  feet ;  this  is  a 
scripulum.  The  144th  part  contains  200  feet,  that  is 
two  scripula.  The  72nd  part  contains  400  feet  and  is  a 
sextula,  in  which  there  are  four  scripula.  The  48th 
part,  containing  600  feet,  is  a  sicilicus,  in  which  there 

The  divisions  of  a  iugerum  {continued). 


Latin  name  of  the 

of  scri- 




divisions  of  the 

pula  in 

tions  of 










































































10  licus,  in  quo  sunt  scripula  sex.  Pars  vigesima  quarta 
pedes  mille  ducentos,  hoc  est  semuncia,  in  qua 
scripula  xii.  Pars  duodecima  duo  milia  et  quadrin- 
gentos,  hoc  est  uncia,  in  qua  sunt  scripula  xxiv.  Pars 
sexta  pedes  quattuor  milia  et  octingentos,  hoc  est 
sextans,  in  quo  sunt  scripula  xlviii.  Pars  quarta 
pedes  1  septem  milia  et  ducentos,  hoc  est  quadrans,  in 

11  quo  sunt  scripula  Lxxii.  Pars  tertia  pedes  novem 
milia,  et  sexcentos,  hoc  est  triens,  in  quo  sunt  scripula 
xcvi.  Pars  tertia  et  duodecima  pedes  duodecim 
milia  hoc  est  quincunx,  in  quo  sunt  scripula  cxx. 
Pars  dimidia  pedes  quattuordecim  milia  et  quadrin- 
gentos,  hoc  est  semis,  in  quo  sunt  scripula  cxliv. 
Pars  dimidia  et  duodecima,  pedes  sexdecim  milia  et 
octingentos,  hoc  est  septunx,  in  quo  sunt  scripula 
CLXviii.  Partes  duae  tertiae  pedes  decern  novem 
milia  et  ducentos,  hoc  est  bes,  in  quo  sunt  scripula 
cxcii.  Partes  tres  quartae  pedes  unum  et  viginti 
milia    et  sexcentos,  hoc    est  dodrans,  in  quo    sunt 

12  scripula  ccxvi.  Pars  dimidia  et  tertia  ped.  viginti 
quattuor  milia,  hoc  est  dextans,^  in  quo  sunt  scripula 
CCXL.3  Partes  duae  tertiae  *  et  una  quarta  pedes 
viginti  sex  milia  et  quadringentos,  hoc  est  deunx,  in 
quo  sunt  scripula  cclxiv,  lugerum  pedes  viginti 
octo  milia   et  octingentos,  hoc  est  as,^   in  quo  sunt 

13  scripula  cclxxxviii.  lugeri  autem  modus  ®  si  semper 
quadraret,  et  in  agendis  mensuris  in  longitudinem 
haberet  pedes  ccxl,'^  in^  latitudinem  pedes  cxx, 
expeditissimum  esset  eius  ratiocinium.  Sed  quo- 
niam  diversae  formae  agrorum  veniunt  in  disputa- 

^  pedes  om.  A. 

*  destas  SA. 

*  pars  dimidia — ccxl  om.  ac. 

*  tertiae  et  II  8A  :  duae  tertiae  et  ac. 


BOOK  V.  I.  9-13 

are  six  scripula.  The  24th  part,  containing  1200  feet,  10 
is  a  semi-uncia,  in  which  there  are  12  scripula.  The 
12th  part,  containing  2400  feet,  is  the  uncia,  in  which 
there  are  24  scripula.  The  6th  part,  containing  4800 
feet,  is  a  sextans,  in  which  there  are  48  scripula.  The 
4th  part,  containing  7200  feet  is  a  quadra7is,  in  which 
there  are  72  scripula.  The  3rd  part,  containing  9600  11 
feet,  is  a  triens,  in  which  there  are  96  scripula.  The 
3rd  part  plus  the  12th  part,  containing  12,000  feet,  is 
the  quincunx,  in  which  there  are  120  scripula.  The 
half  of  a  iugerum,  containing  14,400  feet,  is  a  semis,  in 
which  there  are  144  scripula.  A  half  plus  a  12th  part, 
containing  16,800  feet,  is  a  septunx,  in  which  there  are 
168  scriptda.  Two-thirds  of  a  iugerum,  containing 
19,200  feet,  is  a  hes,  in  which  there  are  192  scripula. 
Three-quarters,  containing  21,600  feet,  is  a  dodrans, 
in  which  there  are  216  scripula.  A  half  plus  a  third,  12 
containing  24,000  feet,  is  a  dextans,  in  which  there  are 
240  scripula.  Two-thirds  plus  a  quarter,  containing 
26,400  feet,  is  a  deunx,  in  which  there  are  264  scripula. 
A  iugerujn,  containing  28,800  feet,  is  the  as,'^  in  which  13 
there  are  288  scripula.  If  the  form  of  the  iugerum 
were  always  rectangular  and,  when  measurements 
were  being  taken,  were  always  240  feet  long  and 
120  feet  wide,  the  calculation  would  be  very  quickly 
done ;  but  since  pieces  of  land  of  different  shapes 
come  to  be  the  subjects  of  dispute,  we  will  give  below 

"  The  as  is  the  unit  which  forms  the  standard  in  Roman 
measures,  weights  and  coinage. 

*  as  SAc  :  axis  a. 

*  modus  ac  :   modum  SA. 

^  ccxL  a  :  CXL  c  :  ccXLViii  8 A. 

*  in  add.  edd. 



tionem,  cuiusque  generis  species  subiciemus,  quibus 
quasi  formulis  utemur. 

II.  Omnis  ager  aut  quadratus,  aut  longus,  aut 
cuneatus,  aut  triquetrus,  aut  rotundus,  aut  etiam 
semicirculi  vel  arcus,  nonnunquam  etiam  plurium 
angulorum  fox'mam  exhibet.^  Quadrati  mensura 
facillima  est.  Nam  cum  sit  undique  pedum  totidem, 
multiplicantur  in  se  duo  latera,  et  quae  summa  ex 
multiplicatione  efFecta  est,  earn  dicemus  esse  quad- 
ratorum  pedum.  Tanquam  est  locus  quoquo  versus 
c  pedum  :  ducimus  centies  centenos,  fiunt  decern 
milia.  Dicemus  igitur  eum  locum  habere  decern 
milia  pedum  quadratorum,  quae  efficiunt  iugeri 
trientem,  et  sextulam,  pro  qua  portione  operis  effecti 
numerationem  facere  oportebit. 

At  si  longior  fuerit,  quam  latior,  ut  exempli  causa 
iugeri  forma  pedes  habeat  longitudinis  ccxl,  lati- 
tudinis  pedes  cxx,  ita  ut  paulo  ante  dixi,  latitudinis 
pedes  cum  longitudinis  pedibus  sic  multiplicabis. 
Centies  vicies  duceni  quadrageni  fiunt  viginti  octo 
milia    et    octingenti.     Dicemus    iugerum    agri    tot 

^  exibet  ac:   exiget  8 A. 

«  I.e.  9600  +  400  Roman  square  feet  =  10,000  square  feet. 

BOOK  V.  I.  13-11.  3 

specimens  of  every  kind  of  shape  which  we  will  use  as 

II.  Every  piece  of  land  is  square,  or  long,  or  wedge-  The  shapes 
shaped,  or  triangular,  or  round,  or  else  presents  the  the'rrm-'*"'^ 
form  of  a  semi-circle  or  of  the  arc  of  a  circle,  some-  mensions. 
times  also  of  a  polygon.     The  measuring  of  a  square 
is  very  easy  ;  for,  since  it  has  the  same  number  of  feet 
on  every  one  of  its  sides,  two  sides  are  multiplied 
together  and  the  product  of  this  multiplication  we 
shall  say  is  the  number  of  square  feet.     For  example 

100  feet 

100  feet 

square  feet 

100  feet 

100  feet 

if  an  area  were  100  feet  each  way,  we  multiply  100  by 
100  and  the  result  is  10,000.  We  shall,  therefore,  say 
that  the  area  contains  10,000  square  feet,  which 
make  a  iriens  {\)  plus  a  sextula  (^)  of  a  iugenim,^  and 
on  the  basis  of  this  fraction  we  shall  have  to  calculate 
the  amount  of  work  done. 

If  it  is  longer  than  it  is  broad  (for  example  let  the 
form  of  the  iugerum  have  240  feet  of  length  and  120  of 
breadth),  as  I  said  just  now,  you  will  multiply  the  feet 
of  the  breadth  with  the  feet  of  the  length  in  the 
following  manner  :  120  times  240  make  28,800,  and  we 
shall  say  that  the  iugerum  of  land  contains  this  number 



4  pedes  quadrates  habere.  Similiterque  omnis  longi- 
tudinis  pedes  cum  pedibus  latitudinis  multiplica- 
bimus.  ^ 

Sin  autem  cuneatus  ager  fuerit,  ut  puta  longus 
pedes  centum,  latus  ex  una  parte  pedes  xx,  et  ex 
altera  pedes  x:  tunc  duas  latitudines  componemus, 
fiet  utraque  summa  pedes  xxx.  Huius  pars  dimidia 
est  quindecim ;  ^  decies  et  quinquies  longitudinem 
multiplicando  efficiemus  pedes  niille  et  quingentos. 
Hos  igitur  in  eo  cuneo  quadrates  pedes  esse  dicemus, 
quae  pars  erit  iugeri  semuncia  et  scripula  tria. 

5  At  si  tribus  paribus  ^  lateribus  triquetrum  metiri 
debueris,  banc  formam  sequeris.  Esto  ager  tri- 
angulus  pedum  quoquo  versus  tricentorum.  Hunc 
numerum  in  se  multiplicato.  Fiunt  pedum  nona- 
ginta  milia.     Huius  summae  partem  tertiam  sumito, 

^  omnis  longitudinis  pedes  cum  pedibus  latitudinis  multi- 
plicabimus  SAac  :  fiet  de  omnibus  agris,  quorum  longitudo 
maior  sit  latitudine  Schneider. 

*  quindecim  edd.  :   decus  quinquies  SA  :    oni.  ac. 

*  paribus  ac  :  om,  SA, 

»  I.e.  1200  +  300  Roman  square  feet  =  1500  square  feet. 

BOOK  V.  11.  3-5 

of  square  feet.     Similarly  we  shall  always  multiply 
the  feet  of  the  length  with  those  of  the  width. 

240  feet 



28,800  square  feet 



240  feet 

But  if  the  field  is  wedge-shaped  (for  instance, 
suppose  it  to  be  100  feet  long  and  20  feet  broad  on  one 
side  and  10  feet  on  the  other  side)  we  shall  add  the 
two  breadths  together,  making  a  total  of  30  feet. 
Half  of  this  sum  is  15,  and  by  multiplying  the  longi- 
tude by  15  we  shall  obtain  the  result  of  1500.  We 
shall  say  then  that  this  is  the  number  of  square  feet 
in  the  wedge-shaped  field  which  will  be  a  semuncia 
plus  three  scripula  (ofg  of  ^  iugerum)."' 
100  feet 

20  feet 

1500  square  feet 

10  feet 

100  feet 

But  if  you  have  to  measure  a  triangle  with  three 
equal  sides,  you  will  follow  this  formula.  Suppose 
the  field  to  be  triangular,  three  hundred  feet  on  every 
side.  Multiply  this  number  by  itself  and  the  result 
is  90,000  feet.     Take  a  third  part  of  this  sum,  that  is 



id  est  triginta  milia.  Item  sumito  decumam,  id  est 
novem  milia.  Utramque  summam  componito.  Fiunt 
pedes  triginta  novem  milia.  Dicemus  hanc  sum- 
mam pedum  quadratorum  esse  in  eo  triquetro,  quae 
mensura  efficit  iugerum,  et  trientem,  et  ^  sicilieum. 

Sed  si  triangulus  disparibus  fuerit  lateribus  ager, 
tanquam  in  subiecta  forma,  quae  habet  rectum 
6  angulum,  aliter  ratiocinium  ordinabitur.  Esto  unius 
lateris  linea,  pedum  ^  quinquaginta,  et  alterius  pedum 
centum.  Has  duas  summas  in  se  multiplicato ; '  quin- 
quagies  centeni  fiunt  quinque  milia.  Horum  pars 
dimidia  duo  milia  quingeni,  quae  pars  iugeri  unciam 
et  scripulum  efficit.  Si  rotundus  ager  erit,  ut  circuli 
speciem    habeat,    sic    pedes    sumito.*     Esto  ^    area 

^  et  ac  :    om.  SA. 

^  pedum  edd.  :   pedes  SAac. 

^  multiplicato  c  :  multiplico  SAa. 

*  pedes  sumito  edd.  :    podis   minito   SA  :    sic  pedis   mu- 
miiito  a. 

*  esto  om.  S. 

'  I.e.  28,800  +  9600  +  600  (Roman)  square  feet  =  39,000 
square  feet. 

*  I.e.    2400  +  100    (Roman)    square    feet  =  2500    square 


BOOK  V.  II.  5-6 

30,000.  Likewise  take  a  tenth  part,  that  is  9,000. 
Add  the  two  numbers  together ;  the  result  is 
39,000.  We  shall  say  that  this  is  the  total  number  of 
square  feet  in  this  triangle,  which  measure  makes  a 
iugerum,  plus  a  triens  (^),  plus  a  sicilicus  (4^)." 

But  if  your  field  is  triangular  with  unequal  sides,  as 
in  the  figure  given  below,  which  has  a  right  angle, 
the  calculation  will  be  ordered  differently.  Let  the 
line  on  one  side  of  the  right  angle  be  50  feet  long  and 
that  on  the  other  side  100  feet.  Multiply  these  two 
numbers  together;  50  times  100  makes  5000;  half 
of  this  is  2500,  which  makes  an  uncia  {j^  of  a  iugerum) 
-{-  a  scripubtm  (jsg).^ 

50  feet 

100  feet 

If  the  field  is  to  be  round,  so  as  to  have  the  appear- 
ance of  a  circle,  reckon  the  number  of  feet  as 
follows.     Let  there  be  a  circular  area  of  which  the 



rotunda,  cuius  diametros,!  id  est  dimensio,  habeat 
pedes  Lxx.  Hoc  in  se  multiplicato,^  septuagies  septua- 
geni  fiunt  ^  quattuor  milia  et  nongenti.  Hanc 
summam  undecies  multiplicato,  fiunt  pedes  quinqua- 
ginta  tria  milia  nongenti.  Huius  summae  quartam 
decimam  subduco,  scilicet  pedes  tria  milia  octin- 
genti  et  quinquaginta.  Hos  esse  quadratos  in  eo 
circulo  dico,  quae  summa  efficit  iugei'i  sexcunciam, 
scripula  duo  et  dimidium. 

Si  semicirculus  fuerit  ager,  cuius  basis  habeat 
pedes  cxL,  curvaturae  autem  latitudo  ^  pedes  lxx  : 
oportebit  multiplicare  latitudinem  cum  basi.  Septua- 
gies centeni  quadrageni  fiunt  novem  milia  et 
octingenti.  Haec  undecies  multiplicata  fiunt  centum 
septem  milia  et  octingenti;  Huius  summae  quarta 
decima  est  septem  milia  et  septingenti.  Hos  pedes 
esse  dicemus  in  semicirculo,  qui  efficiunt  iugeri 
quadrantem  scripula  quinque. 

1  diametros  ac  :  dimidia  metres  SA. 
"  multiplicato  c  :   multiplico  SAa. 
^  fiunt  om.  SAac. 
*  latitudo  ac  :  latitudinem  SA. 

"  I.e.  a  sexcvncia  (36  scripula)  and  2^  scripula  =  38^  scri- 
pula =  3850  square  feet, 

''  A  quadrans  (72  scripula)  and  5  scripula  —  77  scripula  = 
7700  square  feet. 


BOOK  V.  n.  6-8 

diameter  (that  is,  the  measurement  across)  is  70 
feet.  Multiply  this  number  by  itself:  70  times  70 
makes  4900.  Multiply  this  sum  by  11  and  the  result 
is  53,900  feet.     I  subtract  a  fourteenth  part  of  this 

sum,  namely  3850,  and  this  I  declare  to  be  the 
number  of  square  feet  in  the  circle,  which  sum 
amounts  to  a  sexcuncia  of  a  iugerum  and  two  scripula 
(T44)  ^i^d  a  \ia\i  scripulum  (5^).* 

If  the  piece  of  land  is  to  be  semi-circular  and  its 
base  measures  140  feet  and  the  depth  of  the  circular 
portion  is  70  feet,  it  will  be  necessary  to  multiply  the 

/    Total 


/      area  of 

/      semicircle 

'^                                    \ 

/      7700  square 

/               feet 

140  feet 
depth  by  the  base.  70  times  140  makes  9800.  This 
sum  multiplied  by  11  makes  107,800,  and  a  fourteenth 
part  of  this  is  7700.  This  we  shall  say  is  the  number 
of  square  feet  in  the  semi-circle,  which  makes  a 
quadrans  (^)  of  a  iugerum  and  5  scripula  (288)-'' 



9  Si  autem  minus  quam  semicirculus  erit,  arcum  sic 
metiemur.  Esto  arcus,  cuius  basis  habeat  pedes 
XVI,  latitude  autem  pedes  iv.  Latitudinem  cum  basi 
pono.  Fit  utrumque  pedes  xx.  Hoc  duco  quater. 
Fiunt  Lxxx.  Horum  pars  dimidia  est  xl.  Item 
sedecim  pedum,  qui  sunt  basis,  pars  dimidia  viii. 
Hi  VIII  in  se  multiplicati,  fiunt  Lxiv.^  Quartam 
decimam  partem  duco,^  ea  efficit  pedes  iv  paulo 
amplius.  Hos  adicies  ad  quadraginta.^  Fit  utraque  * 
summa  pedes  xliv.  Hos  in  arcu  quadratos  ^  esse 
dico,  qui  faciunt  iugeri  dimidium  scripulum,  quinta  et 
vigesima  ^  parte  minus. 

10  Si  fuerit  sex  angulorum,  in  quadratos  pedes  sic  redi- 
gitur.  Elisto  hexagonum  quoquo  versus  lineis  pedum 
XXX,  Latus  unum  in  se  multiplico.  Tricies  triceni 
fiunt  Dcccc.  Huius  summae  tertiam  partem  statue 
ccc,    eiusdem   partem    decumam   xc.     Fiunt   cccxc. 

^  Hi  VIII  in  se  multiplicati  fiunt  lxiv  om.  A. 

*  duco  edd.  :   dico  SAac. 

*  quadraginta  ac  :   quadragies  SA. 

*  utraque  ac  :   utrumque  <S^. 

*  quadratos  edd.  :    quadratus  SA  :    quadrato  ac. 

*  quinta  et  vigesima  ac  :  nona  SA. 

"  Actually  4-57. 

*  Half  a  scripulum  is  50  square  feet,  ^\  of  a  scripulum  is  4 
square  feet,  whereas  the  actual  total  is  44  square  feet. 


BOOK  V.  11.  9-10 

But  if  the  area  is  to  be  less  than  a  semicircle,  we 
shall  measure  the  arc  as  follows :  let  there  be  an  arc 
the  base  of  which  measures  16  feet  and  the  depth 
4  feet.  I  add  the  base  to  the  depth,  which  together 
make  20  feet.  This  I  multiply  by  4,  making  80,  of 
which  the  half  is  40.     Again,  the  half  of  16  feet,  which 

16  feet 

form  the  base,  is  8.  This  I  multiply  by  itself,  making 
61.  I  then  take  a  fourteenth  part  of  this,  which 
make  4  feet  and  a  little  more.'*  This  you  will  add  to 
40,  and  together  they  make  a  total  of  44.  This  I 
declare  to  be  the  number  of  square  feet  in  the  arc, 
which  is  equivalent  to  half  a  scripulum  (576^  of  a 
mgerum)  less  ^  of  a  scripulum.^ 

If  the  area  has  six  angles,  it  is  reduced  to  square  10 
feet    in    the    following    manner.     Let    there    be    a 
30  feet 

30  feet 

30  feet 

Total  area 

square  feet 

30  feet 

30  feet 
hexagon,  each  side  of  which  measures  30  feet.     I 
multiply  one  side  by  itself:   30  times  30  makes  900. 
Of  this  sum  I  take  one-third,  which  is  300,  a  tenth  part 
of  which  is  90 :   total  390.     This  must  be  multiplied 



Hoc  sexies  ducendum  est,  quoniam  sex  latera  sunt, 
quae  consummata  efficiunt  duo  milia  trecenteni  et 
quadraginta.  Tot  igitur  pedes  quadratos  esse 
dicemus.  Itaque  ^  erit  iugeri  uncia  dimidio  scripulo 
et  decima  parte  scripuli  minus. 

III.  His  igitur  velut  primordiis  talis  ratiocinii 
perceptis  non  difficiliter  mensuras  inibimus  agrorum, 
quorum  nunc  omnes  persequi  species  et  longum  et 
arduum  est.  Duas  etiam  nunc  formulas  praepositis 
adiciam,^  quibus  frequenter  utuntur  agricolae  in 
disponendis  seminibus. 

Esto  ager  longus  pedes  mille  ducentos,  latus  pedes 
cxx.  In  eo  vites  disponendae  sunt  ita,  ut  quini  pedes 
inter  ordines  relinquantur.  Quaero  ^  quot  *  semini- 
bus opus  sit,  cum  quinum  pedum  spatia  inter  semina 
desiderantur.  Duco  quintam  partem  longitudinis, 
fiunt  ccxl;  et  quintam  partem  latitudinis,  hoc  est 
XXIV.  His  utrisque  summis  semper  singulos  asses 
adicito,  qui  efficiunt  extremos  ordines,  quos  vocant 
angulares.  Fit  ergo  altera  summa  ducentorum 
quadraginta  unius,  altera  viginti  quinque.  Has 
summas  sic  multiplicato.  Quinquies  et  vicies  duceni 
quadrageni  singuli,  fiunt  sex  milia  et  viginti  quinque. 
Totidem  dices  opus  esse  seminibus. 

Similiter  inter  ^  senos  pedes  si  voles  ponere,  duces 
sextam  partem  longitudinis  ^  mille  ducentorum,  fiunt 
cc,  et  sextam  latitudinis  '  cxx,  id  est  xx.  His  summis 
singulos  asses  adicies  quos  dixi  angulares  esse.     Fiunt 

^  itaque  ac,  ex.  inque  cor.  A  :  inque  S. 

*  adiciam  ac  :   indiciam  SA. 
'  quaero  om.  S. 

*  quod  SAac. 

*  inter  ac  :   om.  SA. 

*  sextam  partem  longitudinis  Aac  :   longi  S. 
'  sextam  partem  post  latitudinis  add.  S. 


BOOK  V.  II.  lo-iii.  3 

by  6,  because  there  are  6  sides  :  the  product  is  2310. 
We  shall  say,  therefore,  that  this  is  the  number  of 
square  feet.  It  will,  then,  be  equivalent  to  an  imcia 
(A  of  a  iugeruni)  less  half  a  scripulum  (5^)  plus  -^  of 
a  scripulum."^ 

III.  Having  grasped  what  may  be  called  the  first  How  many 
principles  of  this  kind  of  calculation,  we  shall  have  plants  can  a 

T  JU       T  .  1  lugerum  of 

no  dimculty  about  entering  upon  the  measurement  land  con- 
of  pieces  of  land,  with  the  various  kinds  of  which  it  fnJgrvals  of 
is  a  long  and  arduous  task  to  deal  at  this  point.     I  three  to  tan 
will  now  also  add,  in  addition  to  those  which  I  have  '^^  ^^^"^  ' 
already  set  forth,  two  rules  which  husbandmen  often 
employ  in  the  setting  out  of  plants. 

Suppose  that  you  have  a  piece  of  land  1200  feet 
long  and  120  feet  wide,  in  which  vines  have  to  be; 
so  arranged  that  five  feet  are  left  between  the  rows. 
How  many  plants,  I  ask,  are  necessary  when  spaces 
of  five  feet  are  required  between  the  plants.  I  take  2 
a  fifth  of  the  length,  which  makes  240,  and  a  fifth  of 
the  breadth,  which  makes  24.  To  each  of  these 
numbers  always  add  one  unit,  which  forms  the 
outermost  row,  and  which  they  call  the  angular  row ; 
one  number,  therefore  amounts  to  241,  the  other  to 
25.  Multiply  these  figures  as  follows :  25  times 
241  makes  6025.  This,  you  will  say,  is  the  number  3 
of  plants  required. 

Similarly,  if  you  wish  to  set  them  six  feet  apart, 
you  will  take  a  sixth  of  the  longitude  (which  is  1200), 
that  is  200,  and  a  sixth  of  the  breadth  (which  is  120), 
that  is  20.  To  each  of  these  figures  you  will  add 
what  I  called  the  angular  units.     The  numbers  are 

"  Y^  of  a  iugerum  =  2400  square  feet :  half  a  scripulum  = 
50  square  feet :  -[\  of  a  scripulum  —  10  :  therefore  2400  —  60 
=  2340  square  feet. 



cci,  et  XXI.  Has  summas  inter  se  multiplicabis,  vicies 
et  semel  ducentos  et  unum,  atque  ita  efficies  quattuor 
milia  ducentos  et  viginti  unum.^  Totidem  seminibus 
opus  esse  dices. 

Similiter  si  inter  septenos  pedes  ponere  voles, 
septimam  partem  longitudinis  et  latitudinis  duces, 
et  adicies  asses  angulares,  eodem  modo  eodemque  ^ 
ordine  ^  consummabis  numerum  seminum.  Denique 
quotcunque  pedum  spatia  facienda  censueris,'*  totam 
partem  longitudinis  et  latitudinis  duces,  et  prae- 
dictos  asses  adicies.  Haec  cum  ita  sint,  sequitur 
ut  iugerum  agri,  quod  habet  pedes  ccxl  longitudinis 
et  latitudinis  pedes  ^  cxx,  recipiat  inter  pedes  ternos 
(hoc  enim  spatium  minimum  esse  placet  vitibus 
ponendis)  per  longitudinem  semina  lxxxi,  per 
latitudinem  inter  quinos  pedes  semina  xxv.  Qui 
numeri  inter  se  multiplicati  fiunt  seminum  duo  milia 
et  viginti  quinque. 

Vel  si  ^  quoquo  versus  inter  quaternos  pedes  vinea 
erit  disposita,  longitudinis  ordo  habebit  semina  Lxi, 
latitudinis  xxxi,  qui  numeri  efficiunt  in  iugero  vites 
mille  octingentas  et  nonaginta  unam.  Vel  si  in 
longitudinem  per  quaternos  pedes,  in  latitudinem 
per  quinos  pedes  fuerit  disposita,  ordo  longitudinis 
habebit  semina  lxi,  latitudinis  xxv.  Quod  si  '  inter 
quinos  pedes  consitio  fuerit,  per  longitudinem  ordinis 
habebit  semina  xlix,  et  rursus  per  latitudinem  semina 
xxv.  Qui  numeri  duo  inter  se  multiplicati  efficiunt 
mille  ducentum  et  viginti  quinque.     At  si  per  senos 

1  XXI  ac  :    XI  8A. 

*  -que  Aac  :   quae  S. 

*  ordine  ac  :   ordines  SA. 

*  censueris  Aac  :   censeris  S. 

'  CCXL  longitudinis  et  latitudinis  pedes  ac  :   om.  SA. 

*  vel  si  xxv  a  :  versi  xxv  SA  :  om.  c. 

BOOK  V.  III.  3-7 

201  and  21.  These  sums  you  will  multiply  together, 
21  times  201,  and  you  will  get  4221.  This,  you  will 
say,  is  the  number  of  plants  required. 

Similarly,  if  you  wish  to  set  them  seven  feet  apart, 
you  will  take  a  seventh  of  the  length  and  of  the 
breadth  and  you  will  add  the  angular  units,  and  by 
the  same  method  and  the  same  arrangement  you  will 
make  up  the  number  of  the  plants.  In  a  word,  how- 
ever many  feet  you  have  decided  for  the  distance 
between  the  plants,  you  will  take  the  total  length 
and  the  total  breadth  and  add  the  units  mentioned 
above.  This  being  so,  it  follows  that  the  iugerum  of 
land,  which  is  240  feet  long  and  120  feet  broad,  if  the 
distance  between  the  plants  is  three  feet  (and  this 
we  consider  to  be  the  smallest  distance  which  should 
be  left  when  planting  vines),  will  accommodate  81 
plants  in  its  length,  and  in  its  breadth,  with  a  dis- 
tance of  five  feet  between  them,  it  will  hold  25  plants. 
These  numbers  when  multiplied  together  make 

If  the  vineyard  is  arranged  with  intervals  of  four 
feet  each  way,  the  row  which  runs  lengthways  will 
contain  61  plants,  and  the  row  which  runs  breadth- 
ways 31  plants ;  this  gives  1891  vines  to  a  iugerum. 
If  the  vineyard  be  laid  out  so  that  there  are  intervals 
of  four  feet  lengthways  and  five  feet  breadthways, 
the  row  which  runs  lengthways  will  have  61  plants 
and  that  which  runs  breadthways  25  plants.  If  the 
planting  is  carried  out  with  intervals  of  five  feet,  the 
row  will  contain  49  plants  lengthways  and  25  breadth- 
ways ;  thetwonumbersmultipliedtogether  make  1225. 
If,  however,  you  have  decided  to  lay  out  the  same  area 

'  si  ac  :  om.  SA. 



pedes  eundem  vitibus  locum  placuerit  ordinare,  nihil 
dubium  est  quin  longitudini  dandae  sint  xli  vites, 
latitudini  autem  viginti  una.  Quae  inter  se  multi- 
plicatae  efficiunt  numerum  dccclxi.  Sin  autem  inter 
septenos  pedes  vinea  fuerit  constituenda,  ordo  per 
longitudinem  recipiet  capita  triginta  quinque,  per 
latitudinem  xviii.  Qui  numeri  inter  se  multiplicati 
efficiunt  dcxxx.  Totidem  dicemus  semina  prae- 
paranda.  At  si  inter  octonos  pedes  vinea  conseretur, 
ordo  per  longitudinem  recipiet  semina  xxxi,  per 
latitudinem  autem  xvi.  Qui  numeri  inter  se  multi- 
plicati efficiunt  ccccxcvi.  At  si  inter  novenos  pedes, 
ordo  in  longitudinem  recipiet  semina  viginti  septem, 
et  in  latitudinem  quattuordecim.  Qui  numeri  inter 
se  multiplicati  faciunt  ccclxxviii.  Vel  inter  denos 
pedes,  ordo  longitudinis  recipiet  semina  xxv,  latitu- 
dinis  XIII.  Hi  numeri  inter  se  multiplicati  faciunt 
cccxxv,  Et  ne  in  infinitum  procedat  disputatio 
nostra,  eadem  portione,  ut  cuique  placuerint^  laxiora 
spatia,  semina  faciemus.  Ac  de  mensuris  agrorum 
numerisque  seminum  dixisse  abunde  sit.  Nunc  ad 
Qrdinem  redeo. 

IV.  Vinearum  provincialium  plura  genera  esse  com- 
peri.  Sed  ex  iis,  quas  ipse  incognovi,^  maxime  pro- 
bantur  velut  arbusculae  brevi  crure  sine  adminiculo 
per  se  stantes  :  deinde  quae  pedaminibus  adnixae 
singulis  iugis  imponuntur :  eas  rustici  canteriatas 
appellant.     Mox    quae    defixis   arundinibus   circum- 

1  placuerit  SAac. 

*  incognovi  SA  :  cognovi  ac. 

»  See  note  on  Book  IV.  12.  2. 

BOOK  V.  III.  7-iv.  I 

with  the  vines  at  intervals  of  six  feet,  there  is  no 
doubt  that  41  vines  must  be  assigned  to  the  length 
and  21  to  the  breadth ;  these  numbers  multiplied 
together  make  a  total  of  861.  But  if  the  vineyard  8 
has  to  be  arranged  with  intervals  of  seven  feet,  a  row 
will  accommodate  35  heads  lengthways  and  18 
breadthways ;  these  numbers  multiplied  together 
make  630,  and  this,  we  shall  say,  is  the  number  of 
plants  which  must  be  got  ready.  But  if  the  vine- 
yard is  to  be  planted  with  intervals  of  eight  feet,  a 
row  will  accommodate  31  plants  lengthways  and  16 
breadthways ;  these  numbers  multiplied  together 
make  496.  If  the  interval  is  to  be  nine  feet,  a  row  9 
will  hold  27  plants  lengthways  and  14  breadthways ; 
these  numbers  multiplied  together  make  378.  With 
intervals  of  ten  feet,  a  row  will  hold  25  plants  length- 
ways and  13  breadthways  ;  these  numbers  multiplied 
together  make  325.  So  that  our  discussion  may  not 
be  infinitely  prolonged,  we  shall  carry  out  our  plant- 
ing by  using  the  same  proportion  to  suit  the  wider 
spacing  which  any  one  of  us  prefers.  Let  what  we 
have  said  about  the  measurement  of  land  and  the 
number  of  plants  suffice.  I  now  return  to  my  pro- 
posed order  of  subjects. 

IV.  I  have  found  that  there  are  several  kinds  of  Of  the  cui- 
vines  in  the  provinces  ;   but  of  those  of  which  I  have  yinci^  ^iw- 
personal   knowledge    those   resembling    small   trees  yards. 
and  standing  by  themselves  on  a  short  stock  without 
any  suppport  are  the  most  highly  approved.     Next 
come  those  which  are  supported  by  props  and  placed 
each    on    a   single   frame ;    these   the   peasants   call 
"  horsed  "<»  vines.     Next    come    those    which    are 
fastened  round  canes  fixed  in  the  ground  and  are 
bent  into  curves  and  circles,  their  firm-wood  branches 



vinctae  ^  per  statumina  calamorum  materiis  ligatis  in 
orbiculos  gyrosque  flectuntur  ^  :  eas  non  nulli 
characatas  vocant.  Ultima  est  conditio  stratarum 
vitium,  quae  ab  enata  stirpe  confestim  velut  proiectae 
per  humum  porriguntur. 

Omnium  autem  sationis  fere  eadem  est  conditio. 
Nam  vel  scrobe  vel  sulco  semina  deponuntur,  quo- 
niam  pastinationis  expertes  sunt  exterarum  gentium 
agricolae  :  quae  tamen  ipsa  paene  supervacua  est  his 
locis  quibus  solum  putre  et  per  se  resolutum  est : 
namque  hoc  imitamur  arando,  ut  ait  Vergilius,  id  est 
etiam  pastinando.  Itaque  Campania,  cum  vicinum 
ex  nobis  capere  possit  exemplum,  non  utitur  hac 
molitione  terrae  quia  facilitas  eius  soli  minorem 
operam  desiderat.  Sicubi  autem  densior  ager  pro- 
vincialis  rustici  ^  maiorem  poscit  impensam,  quod 
nos  pastinando  efficimus,  ille  sulco  facto  consequitur, 
ut  laxius  subacto  solo  deponat  semina. 

V.  Sed  ut  singula  earum  quae  proposui  vinearum 
genera  persequar,  praedictum  ordinem  repetam. 
Vitis  quae  sine  adminiculo  suis  viribus  consistit, 
solutiore  terra,  scrobe ;  densiore,  sulco  ponenda  est. 
Sed  et  scrobes  et  sulci  plurimum  prosunt,  si  in  locis 
temperatis,*  in  quibus  aestas  non  est  praefervida, 
ante  annum  fiant,  quam  vineta  conserantur.^     Soli 

^  circumvinctae  SAac  :   circummunitae  edd, 

*  flectuntur  c  :   flectentur  SAa. 

^  provincialem  rusticum  SAac  :   provincialis  rustici  edd. 

*  temperatis  a  :  tempatis  c  :  terrae  spatio  S  :  prao  spatio 

*  ante — conserantur  om.  SA. 


«  Oeorg.  II.  184. 

*  jiaatinare  is  to  dig  with  a  pastinum,  a  fork. 

BOOK  V.  IV.  i-v.  I 

being  tied  by  means  of  props  formed  of  reeds.  These 
some  people  call  "  staked  "  vines.  The  type  which  2 
comes  last  in  esteem  is  the  vine  which  lies  flat  on  the 
ground  and  which,  being  as  it  were  projected  from 
the  stock  as  soon  as  it  grows  out  of  the  earth,  stretches 
all  over  the  ground. 

The  conditions  under  which  all  these  vines  are 
planted  are  almost  identical.  The  plants  are  placed 
either  in  a  plant-hole  or  in  a  furrow,  since  the 
farmers  of  foreign  races  are  unacquainted  with 
trenching,  which  indeed  is  almost  superfluous  in 
places  where  the  soil  crumbles  and  has  fallen  to  pieces 
of  its  own  accord,  for,  as  Vergil  says  ;  * 

'Tis  this  that  with  the  plough  we  imitate, 

that  is  to  say  in  fact  by  trenching.*  Thus  3 
the  Campanians,  though  they  might  take  a  neigh- 
bouring example  from  us,  do  not  employ  this  method 
of  working  the  ground,  because  the  ease  with  which 
their  soil  can  be  cultivated  calls  for  less  labour ;  but 
wherever  a  dense  soil  calls  for  a  greater  expenditure 
on  the  part  of  the  pi*ovincial  peasant,  what  we  effect 
by  soil-preparation  he  achieves  by  making  a  furrow 
in  order  that  he  may  set  his  plants  in  soil  which  has 
already  been  worked  into  a  looser  condition. 

V.  But  that  I  may  deal  particularly  with  each  Methods  of 
kind  of  the  vine  of  which  I  have  proposed  to  speak,  v?ies[**"^ 
I  will  resume  the  order  already  mentioned.  The 
vine  which  stands  by  virtue  of  its  own  strength  with- 
out any  prop  must  in  rather  loose  soil  be  placed  in  a 
planting-hole,  in  denser  soil  in  a  furrow,  but  both 
planting-holes  and  furrows  are  very  beneficial,  if,  in 
temperate  regions  where  the  summer  is  not  ex- 
cessively hot,  they  are  made  a  year  before  the  vine- 



tamen  ante  bonitas  exploranda  est.^  Nam  si  ieiuno 
atque  exili  agro  semina  deponentur,  sub  ipsum 
tempus  sationis  scrobis  aut  sulcus  faciendus  est.  Si 
ante  annum  fiant,  quam  vinea  conseratur,  scrobis  ^ 
in  longitudinem  altitudinemque  defossus  tripedaneus 
abunde  est,  latitudine  tamen  bipedanea :  vel  si 
quaterna  pedum  spatia  inter  ordines  relicturi  sumus, 
commodius  habetur  eandem  quoquo  versus  dare 
mensuram  scrobibus,  non  amplius  tamen  quam  in 
tres  pedes  altitudinis  depressis.  Ceterum  quattuor 
angulis  semina  applicabuntur  subiecta  minuta  terra, 
et  ita  scrobes  adobruentur. 

Sed  de  spatiis  ordinum  eatenus  praecipiendum 
habemus,  ut  intelligant  agricolae,  sive  aratro  vineas 
culturi  sint,  laxiora  interordinia  relinquenda,  sive 
bidentibus,  angustiora  :  sed  neque  spatiosiora  quam 
decern  pedum,  neque  contractiora  quam  quattuor. 
Multi  tamen  ordines  ita  disponunt,  ut  per  rectam 
lineam  binos  pedes  aut  ut  plurimum,  ternos  inter 
semina  relinquant,  transversa  rursus  laxiora  spatia 
faciant,^  per  quae  vel  fossor  vel  arator  incedat. 

Sationis  autem  cura  non  alia  debet  esse,  quam  quae 
tradita  est  a  me  tertio  volumine.  Unum  tamen  huic 
consitioni  Mago  Carthaginiensis  adicit,*  ut  semina 
ita  deponantur,  ne  protinus  totus  scrobis  terra  com- 
pleatur,  sed  dimidia  fere  pars  eius  sequente  biennio 
paulatim   adaequetur.     Sic   enim  putat  vitem  cogi 

^  si  ante  annum  fiant  -post  exploranda  est  add.  SA. 
^  scrobis  SA  :   scrobibus  ac. 
3  faciant  ac  :   fiat  SA . 
*  adioit  Aac  :  adigit  S. 

"  Two-pronged  instruments. 
»  Chapters  14-16. 


BOOK  V.  V.  1-4 

yards  are  planted.  Inquiry,  however,  must  first  be 
made  into  the  excellence  of  the  soil ;  for  if  the  plants 
are  going  to  be  set  in  hungry  and  poor  land,  planting- 
holes  or  furrows  must  be  made  just  before  the  time  of 
planting.  If  they  are  made  a  year  before  the  vine- 
yard is  planted,  it  is  quite  enough  for  the  planting- 
hole  to  be  dug  three  feet  in  length  and  depth,  but 
two  feet  in  width ;  or,  if  we  are  going  to  leave  four 
feet  between  the  rows,  it  is  generally  reckoned  more 
convenient  to  give  the  planting-hole  the  same 
measurement  in  every  dimension  without,  however, 
sinking  them  to  a  greater  depth  than  three  feet. 
Each  plant,  then,  will  be  applied  to  the  four  corners 
after  fine  soil  has  been  put  into  the  bottom  of  the 
planting-holes,  which  will  then  be  filled  in. 

As  to  the  spaces  between  the  rows  we  have  this 
much  advice  to  offer,  that  farmers  should  understand 
that,  if  they  intend  to  cultivate  their  vineyards  with 
the  plough,  wider  intervals  must  be  left,  but  they  can 
be  narrower  if  hoes  "  are  used ;  but  they  should  never 
be  wider  than  ten  feet  or  narrower  than  four.  Many 
people,  however,  arrange  the  rows  so  as  to  leave  two 
or  at  most  three  feet  in  a  straight  line  between  the 
plants,  while  on  the  other  hand  they  make  the 
transverse  spaces  wider,  so  that  the  digger  or  plough- 
man may  pass  freely. 

The  precautions  taken  in  planting  ought  not  to 
differ  from  those  which  I  directed  in  my  Third  Book.* 
Mago,  the  Carthaginian,  however,  makes  one 
addition  to  this  system  of  planting,  namely,  that  the 
plants  should  be  put  into  the  ground  in  such  a  way 
that  the  whole  plant-hole  is  not  immediately  filled 
with  soil  but  about  half  of  it  is  gradually  levelled  up 
in  the  two  following  years ;  for  he  thinks  that  in  this 



deorsum  agere  radices.  Hoc  ego  siccis  locis  fieri 
utiliter  non  negaverim ;  sed  ubi  aut  uliginosa  regie 
est,  aut  caeli  status  imbrifer,  minime  faciundum 
censeo.  Nam  consistens  in  semiplenis  ^  scrobibus 
nimius  ^  humor,  antequam  convalescant,  semina 
6  necat.  Quare  utilius  ^  existimo,  repleri  quidem 
scrobes  stirpe  deposita,  sed  cum  semina  compre- 
henderint,  statim  *  post  aequinoctium  autumnale 
debere  diligenter  atque  alte  ablaqueari,  et  recisis 
radiculis,  si  quas  in  summo  solo  citaverint,  post  paucos 
dies  obrui.^  Sic  enim  utrumque  incommodum  vita- 
bitur,  ut  nee  radices  in  superiorem  partem  evocentur, 
neque    immodicis    pluviis    parum    valida    vexentur 

6  semina.  Ubi  vero  iam  corroborata  fuerint,^  nihil 
dubium  est,  quin  caelestibus  aquis  plurimum  iuven- 
tur.  Itaque  locis,  quibus  dementia  hiemis  permittit, 
adapertas  vites  relinquere  et  tota  hieme  ablaqueatas 
habere  eas  conveniet. 

De  qualitate  autem  seminum  inter  auctores  non 
convenit.  Alii  malleolo '  protinus  conseri  vineam 
melius  existimant,  alii  viviradice  :    de   qua  re  quid 

7  sentiam,  iam  superioribus  professus  sum.  Et  nunc 
tamen  hoc  adicio,  esse  quosdam  agros,  in  quibus  non 
aeque  bene  translata  semina  quam  immota  respon- 

^  semiplenis  ac  :   semipleni  SA. 

*  nimius  ac  :  seminis  A  :   om.  S. 

'  quare  utilius  ac  :   quarum  et  ilius  SA. 

*  comprehend erint  statim  ac :  om.  SA. 
'  obrui  SA  :   adobrui  ac. 

*  corroborata  fuerint  Pontedera :  corroboraverint  ac  : 
comprobaverunt  SA . 

'  malleolo  ac  :  malleoli  SA. 

"  ablaqueare  is  to  dig  round  a  plant  so  as  to  make  a  shallow 
furrow  to  hold  water. 

*  Book  ill.  14.  2. 


BOOK  V.  V.  4-7 

way  the  vine  is  forced  to  drive  its  roots  downwards. 
I  shall  not  deny  that  this  can  be  done  with  advantage 
in  dry  places  ;  but  where  either  the  district  is  marshy 
or  the  climate  rainy,  I  am  of  opinion  that  it  should 
certainly  not  be  done,  for  excessive  moisture  standing 
in  the  half-filled  plant-holes  kills  the  plants  before 
they  can  gain  strength.  Therefore  I  think  that  it 
is  more  expedient  that  the  plant-holes  should  be 
filled  up  again  after  the  vine-stock  has  been  put 
into  them,  but,  when  the  plants  have  taken  root, 
immediately  after  the  autumn  equinox,  the  soil  round 
them  ought  to  be  carefully  dug  up  "  to  a  good  depth 
and,  after  the  rootlets  which  they  may  have  put  forth 
on  the  surface  of  the  ground  have  been  cut  away,  the 
earth  ought  to  be  filled  in  again  after  a  few  days. 
In  this  way  two  inconveniences  will  be  avoided ; 
firstly,  the  roots  are  not  drawn  to  the  upper  part  of 
the  soil,  and,  secondly,  the  plants  will  not  be  troubled 
by  excessive  rains  while  they  are  still  weak.  When, 
however,  they  have  become  quite  strong,  there  is  no 
doubt  that  they  are  greatly  benefited  by  the  rains 
from  heaven ;  and  so,  in  places  where  the  mildness 
of  the  winter  allows  it,  it  will  be  expedient  to  leave 
the  vines  uncovered  and  to  keep  the  soil  round  them 
loose  the  whole  winter. 

As  regards  the  sort  of  vine-plants,  the 
authorities  are  not  agreed  amongst  themselves. 
Some  think  that  it  is  better  to  plant  a  vineyard  with 
mallet-shoots  from  the  first,  others  think  that  it 
should  be  planted  with  quick-sets ;  I  have  already 
stated  my  opinion  in  the  earlier  part  of  this  work.^ 
However,  I  now  add  this  further  point,  that  there  are 
some  lands  where  vines  which  have  been  transplanted 
do  not  answer  as  well  as  those  which  have  not  been 


VOL.  II.  c 


deant :     sed   istud    rarissime    accidere.     Notandum 
item  diligenter  explorandum  esse,^ 

quid  quaeque  ferat  regio,  quid  quaeque  recuset. 

Depositam  ergo  stirpem,  id  est,  malleolum  vel  vivi- 

8  radicem,^  formare  sic  convenit,  ut  vitis  sine  pedamine 
consistat.  Hoc  autem  protinus  effici  non  potest. 
Nam  nisi  adminiculum  tenerae  viti  ^  atque  infirmae  * 
contribueris,  prorepens  pampinus  terrae  se  applicabit.^ 
Itaque  posito  semini  arundo  adnectitur,  quae  velut 
infantiam  eius  tueatur  atque  educet,  producatque  in 
tantam  staturam,  quantam  permittit  agricola.  Ea 
porro  non  debet  esse  sublimis  :    nam  usque  in  sesqui- 

9  pedem  coercenda  est.  Cum  deinde  robur  accipit,  et 
iam  sine  adiumento  consistere  valet,  aut  capitis  aut 
bracchiorum  incrementis  adolescit.  Nam  duae  species 
huius  quoque  culturae  sunt.  Alii  capitatas  vineas, 
alii  bracchiatas  magis  probant.  Quibus  cordi  est  in 
bracchia  vitem  componere,  convenit  a  summa  parte, 
qua  decisa  novella  vitis  est,  quicquid  iuxta  cicatricem 
citaverit,  conservari,  et  in  quattuor  bracchia  pedalis 
mensurae    dividere,    ita    ut    omnem    partem    caeli  * 

10  singula  aspiciant.  Sed  haec  bracchia  non  statim 
primo  anno  tam  procera  submittuntur,  ne  oneretur 
exilitas  vitis ;  sed  compluribus  putationibus  in  prae- 
dictam  mensuram  educuntur.  Deinde  ex  bracchiis 
quasi  quaedam  cornua  prominentia  relinqui  oportet, 

^  post  explorandum  esse  add.  versibus  aliter  SA. 
2  viviradicem  ac  :   viridem  SA . 
^  vite  add.  edd. 

*  infirmae  ac  :  infirmum  SA . 

*  applicabit  ac  :   adplicavit  SA. 

*  celiac  :   cesi  SA. 

Verg.  Oeorg.  I.  53. 

Not,  however,  pointing  straight  upwards. 


BOOK  V.  V.  7-IO 

moved,  but  that  this  happens  very  rarely.  It  must 
also  be  noted  that  we  ought  to  try  diligently  to  dis- 
cover : 

What  every  clime  may  yield  and  what  refuse." 

When,  therefore,  the  plant  has  been  put  into  the 
ground,  whether  it  be  a  mallet-shoot  or  a  quick-set, 
it  is  proper  to  adjust  it  in  such  a  way  that  the  vine 
may  stand  up  without  any  prop.  This,  however,  8 
cannot  be  achieved  immediately.  For  unless  you 
have  provided  the  vine  with  a  support  when  it  is 
tender  and  weak,  the  young  shoots  will  creep  along  and 
keep  close  to  the  ground.  So,  when  the  plant  is  set 
in  the  earth,  a  reed  is  attached  to  it,  so  that  it  may, 
as  it  were,  watch  over  its  infancy  and  train  it  and 
raise  it  to  such  stature  as  the  husbandman  allows  it 
to  reach.  This,  moreover,  ought  not  to  be  high,  for 
it  must  be  checked  when  it  reaches  a  foot  and  a  half. 
Afterwards,  when  it  gains  strength  and  can  already  9 
stand  without  any  help,  it  comes  to  maturity  by  the 
growth  of  its  head  or  its  branches.  For  here  too 
there  are  two  methods  of  cultivation,  some  people 
preferring  vines  which  grow  to  a  head,  others  those 
which  grow  out  in  arms.  Those  who  delight  in 
shaping  a  vine  into  arms  should  preserve  whatever 
it  puts  forth  near  the  scar  where  the  young  vine  has 
had  its  top  removed,  and  divide  it  into  four  arms  a 
foot  long  in  such  a  way  that  each  of  them  looks 
towards  a  different  region  of  the  sky.*  But  these  arms  10 
are  not  allowed  to  reach  this  height  immediately  in 
the  first  year,  lest  the  vine  be  too  heavily  laden  while 
it  is  still  weak,  but  they  must  only  reach  the  length 
which  I  have  indicated  after  numerous  prunings. 
Next  there  must  be  left  projecting  from  these  arms 



atque  ita  totam  vitem  omni  parte  in  orbem  difFundi. 

11  Putationis  autem  ratio  eadem  ^  est,  quae  in  iugatis 
vitibus :  uno  tamen  difFert,  quod  pro  materiis 
longioribus  pollices  quaternum  aut  quinum  gemmarum 
relinquuntur :  pro  custodibus  autem  bigemmes  reseces 
fiunt.  In  ea  deinde  vinea  quam  capitatam  diximus, 
iuxta  ipsam  matrem  usque  ad  corpus  sarmentum  ^ 
detrahitur,    una    aut    altera    tantummodo    gemma 

12  relieta,  quae  ipsi  trunco  adhaeret.  Hoc  autem  riguis 
aut  pinguissimis  locis  fieri  tuto  potest,  cum  vires 
terrae  et  fructum  et  materias  valent  praebere. 
Maxime  autem  aratris  excolunt,^  qui  sic  formatas 
vineas  habent,  eamque  rationem  sequuntur  detra- 
hendi  vitibus  bracchia,  quod  ipsa  capita  sine  ulla 
extantia  neque  aratro  neque  bubus  obnoxia  sunt. 
Nam  in  bracchiatis  plerumque  fit,  ut  aut  crure  aut 
cornibus  boum  ramuli  vitium  defringantur,  saepe 
etiam  stiva,  dum  sedulus  arator  vomere  perstringere 
ordinem,  et  quam  proximam  partem  vitium  excolere 

13  Atque  haec  quidem  cultura  vel  bracchiatis  vel  capi- 
tatis  antequam  gemment,  adhibetur.  Cum  deinde 
germinaverint,  fossor  insequitur,  ac  bidentibus  eas 
partes  subigit,  quas  bubulcus  non  potuit  pertingere. 
Mox  ubi  materias  vitis  exigit,  insequitur  pampinator 
et  supervacuos  deterget  fructuososque  palmites  sub- 

*  eadem  ac  :   nam  eodem  8 A. 

*  sarmentum  ac  :  lumbrae  A  :   inmte  (?)  5. 
'  excolxmt  ac  :  cxcoli  S  :   excolis  A. 

"  Cf.  Book  IV.  21.  3.  »  I.e.  sideways. 


BOOK  V.  V.  10-13 

what  may  be  called  horns,  and  thus  the  whole  vine 
must  be  spread  in  a  circular  form  on  all  sides.  The  11 
method  of  pruning  is  the  same  as  for  vines  which 
are  trained  on  frames,  though  it  differs  in  one  respect, 
namely,  that  instead  of  longer  firm- wood  branches 
stumps  with  four  or  five  "  eyes  "  are  left,  and  instead 
of  "  keepers  "  "  short-cut  branches  with  two  "  eyes  " 
are  formed.  Then  in  the  vine  which  we  described 
as  growing  to  a  head,  the  shoot  is  pulled  off  close  to 
the  mother-vine  right  up  to  the  stock,  one  or  two 

eyes  "  only  being  left  which  adhere  to  the  trunk 
itself.  This  can  be  done  with  safety  in  well-  12 
watered  and  very  rich  districts  when  the  strength  of 
the  earth  can  supply  both  fruit  and  firm-wood. 
Those  who  have  vineyards  formed  in  this  way  culti- 
vate them  mainly  with  ploughs  and  follow  this 
method  of  pulling  off  the  arms  from  the  vines, 
because  the  heads  themselves,  having  nothing  pro- 
jecting'' from  them,  are  not  liable  to  damage  from 
the  plough  or  from  the  oxen.  For  in  vines  which 
grow  out  into  arms  it  generally  happens  that  the 
small  bi'anches  are  broken  off  by  the  legs  or  horns 
of  the  oxen,  and  often  too  by  the  handle  of  the  plough 
while  the  careful  ploughman  is  striving  to  graze  the 
edge  of  the  row  with  the  ploughshare  and  to  cultivate 
the  ground  as  near  as  possible  to  the  vines. 

Such  then  is  the  cultivation  applied  to  vines  13 
whether  they  grow  to  arms  or  to  a  head,  before  they 
bud.  When  they  have  budded,  a  digger  follows  the 
ploughman  and  breaks  with  a  hoe  the  parts  which 
the  ploughman  could  not  reach.  Then,  when  the 
vine  puts  forth  its  firm- wood  branches,  the  vine- 
trimmer  follows  and  clears  away  the  superfluous 
shoots  and  allows  those  which  are  fruitful  to  grow ; 



mittit,  qui  cum  induruerunt,  velut  in  coronam  re- 
ligantur.  Hoc  duabus  ex  causis  fit  :  una,  ne  libero 
excursu  in  luxuriam  prorepant,^  omniaque  alimenta 
pampini  absumant ;  altera,  ut  religata  vitis  rursus 
aditum  bubulco  fossorique  in  excolenda  ^  se  praebeat. 

14  Pampinandi  autem  modus  is  erit,  ut  opacis  locis 
humidisque  et  frigidis  aestate  vitis  nudetur,  foliaque 
palmitibus  detrahantur,^  ut  maturitatem  fructus 
capere  possit,  et  ne  situ  putrescat :  locis  autem  siccis 
calidisque  et  apricis  e  contrario  palmitibus  uvae  con- 
tegantur ;  et  si  parum  pampinosa  vitis  est,  advectis 
frondibus  et  interdum  stramentis  fructus  muniatur. 

15  M.  quidem  Columella  patruus  meus,  vir  illustribus 
disciplinis  eruditus,  ac  diligentissimus  agricola  Bae- 
ticae  provinciae,  sub  ortu  Caniculae  palmeis  tegetibus 
vineas  adumbrabat,  quoniam  plerumque  dicti  sideris 
tempore  quaedam  partes  eius  regionis  sic  infestantur 
Euro,  quern  incolae  Vulturnum  appellant,  ut  nisi 
teguminibus  vites  opacentur,  velut  halitu  flammeo 
fructus  uratur. 

Atque  haec  capitatae  bracchiataeque  vitis  cultura 
est.  Nam  ilia,  quae  uni  iugo  superponitur,  aut  quae 
materiis  *  submissis  arundinum  statuminibus  per 
orbem  connectitur,  fere  eandem  curam  exigit,  quam 

16  iugata.     Non    nuUos    tamen    in    vineis    characatis 

^  prorepant  SAac  :   properent  edd. 

*  excolendam  SAac. 

3  detrahantur  c  :   detrahuntur  SAa. 

*  materiis  ac  :  materies  <S^. 


BOOK  V.  V.  13-16 

and  when  these  have  hardened  they  are  tied  up  into 
a  kind  of  crown.  This  is  done  for  two  reasons : 
firstly,  lest,  if  they  are  allowed  to  run  free,  the 
shoots  should  creep  forward  and  become  over- 
luxuriant,  and  use  up  all  the  shoot's  nourishment,  and, 
secondly,  in  oi-der  that  the  vine,  being  tied  back, 
may  give  the  ploughman  and  the  digger  free  access 
again  for  carrying  on  the  cultivation  of  it. 

The  following  will  be  the  method  of  trimming.  14 
In  places  which  are  shady  and  damp  and  cold,  the 
vine  should  be  stripped  in  summer  and  the  leaves 
plucked  from  the  shoots,  so  that  the  fruit  may  reach 
maturity  and  not  become  mouldy  and  rot  away.  In 
dry,  warm  and  sunny  places,  on  the  contrary,  the 
clusters  of  grapes  should  be  covered  by  its  shoots,  and, 
if  the  vine  is  not  sufficiently  covered  with  foliage, 
the  fruit  should  be  protected  with  leaves  brought  from 
elsewhere  and  sometimes  with  straw.  Indeed,  my  15 
paternal  uncle,  Marcus  Columella,  a  man  learned  in  the 
noble  sciences  and  a  most  industrious  farmer  of  the 
province  of  Baetica,  used  to  shelter  his  vines  about  the 
rising  of  the  Dogstar  with  palm-mats,  because  usually 
during  the  period  of  the  said  constellation  some 
parts  of  that  district  are  so  troubled  by  the  East 
wind,  which  the  inhabitants  call  Vulturnus,  that, 
unless  the  vines  are  shaded  with  coverings,  the  fruit 
is  scorched  as  it  were  with  a  fiery  breath. 

Such  is  the  method  of  cultivating  both  the  vine 
which  grows  into  a  head  and  that  which  grows  into 
arms.  The  vine  which  is  placed  on  a  single  rail,  or 
that  of  which  the  firm-wood  is  allowed  to  grow  and 
which  is  tied  in  a  circular  form  to  props  of  reeds, 
requires  almost  the  same  treatment  as  that  trained 
on  a  frame.     I  have,  however,  noticed  that  some  16 



animadverti,  et  maxime  elvenaci  ^  generis,  prolixos 
palmites  quasi  propagines  summo  solo  adobruere, 
deinde  rursus  ad  ^  arundines  erigere,  et  in  fructum 
submittere,  quos  nostri  agricolae  mergos,  Galli 
candosoccos  ^  vocant,  eosque  adobruunt  simplici  ex 
causa,  quod  existiment,  plus  alimenti  terram  *  prae- 
bere  fructuariis  flagellis.  Itaque  post  vindemiam 
velut  inutilia  sarmenta  decidunt,  et  a  stirpe  sub- 
movent.  Nos  autem  praecipimus  easdem  virgas, 
cum  a  matre  fuerint  praecisae,  sicubi  demortuis 
vitibus  ordines  vacent,  aut  si  novellam  quis  vineam 
instituere  velit,  pro  viviradice  ponere.  Quoniam 
quidem  partes  sarmentorum,  quae  fuerant  obrutae, 
satis  multas  habent  radices,  quae  depositae  scrobibus 
confestim  comprehendant. 
17  Superest  reliqua  ilia  cultura  prostratae  vineae, 
quae  nisi  violentissimo  caeli  statu  suscipi  non  debet. 
Nam  et  difficilem  laborem  colonis  exhibet,  nee  un- 
quam  generosi  saporis  vinum  praebet.  Atque  ubi 
regionis  conditio  solam  earn  culturam  recipit,^  bi- 
pedaneis  scrobibus  malleolus  deponitur.  Qui  cum 
egerminavit,  ad  unam  materiam  revocatur  :  eaque 
primo  anno  compescitur  *  in  duas  gemmas  :  sequente 
deinde,  cum  palmites  profudit,  unus  "^  submittitur, 
ceteri  decutiuntur.     At  ille  qui  submissus  est,  cum 

^  eluaenaci  a  :  eluenaci  c  :  et  luennaci  SA. 

"  ad  ac  :   om.  SA. 

'  andooccos  SA  :   candos  {corr.  ocros)  c  :  candos  occos  a. 

*  plus  alimenti  terram  ac  :   eius  alimenta  terri  <S^. 
'  recipit  ac  :   recepit  SA . 

*  compescitur  edd.  :   conspicitur  SAac, 
'  post  unus  add.  cum  SA. 


BOOK  V.  V.  16-17 

people  when  dealing  with  "  staked  "  vines,  especially 
those  of  the  Helvenacan  "  kind,  bury  the  sprawling 
shoots,  as  though  they  were  layers,  under  the  surface 
of  the  soil,  and  then  again  erect  them  on  reeds  and 
let  them  grow  for  fruit-bearing.  These  our  husband- 
men call  viergi  ("  divers  "),  while  the  Gauls  call  them 
candosocci  (' '  layers ' ') ,  and  they  bury  them  for  the  simple 
reason  that  they  think  that  the  earth  provides  more 
nourishment  for  the  fruit-bearing  whips  ;  and  so  after 
the  vintage  they  cut  them  off  as  useless  shoots  and 
remove  them  from  the  stem.  Our  advice,  however, 
is  that  these  same  rods,  when  they  have  been  cut 
away  from  the  mother-vine,  should  be  planted  as 
quick-sets  in  any  vacant  spaces  in  the  rows  where 
vines  have  died  or  in  a  new  vineyard  which  anyone 
wants  to  establish  ;  for  indeed  the  parts  of  the  shoots 
which  had  been  buried  have  enough  roots  to  take 
hold  immediately  if  they  are  put  into  plant-holes. 

There  still  remains  the  cultivation  of  the  vine  17 
which  grows  on  the  ground ;  but  this  should  not  be 
undertaken  except  where  the  climate  is  very  boister- 
ous ;  for  it  presents  a  difficult  task  for  the  husband- 
men and  it  never  produces  wine  of  a  generous 
flavour.  Where  local  conditions  admit  of  this  form 
of  cultivation  only,  a  hammer-shoot  is  put  into 
plant-holes  two  feet  deep.  When  it  has  budded, 
it  is  reduced  to  one  firm-wood  branch  ;  this  in  the  first 
year  is  confined  to  two  "  eyes."  Then  in  the 
following  year,  when  it  has  put  forth  a  profusion  of 
shoots,  one  is  allowed  to  grow  and  the  rest  are 
struck  off.  The  shoot  which  has  been  allowed  to 
grow,  when  it  has  produced  fruit,  is  pruned  back  to 

«  See  Book  III.  2.  25  :  Pliny,  N.H.  XIV.  §§  32-33;  it  pro- 
duced a  wine  of  a  pale  yellow  colour. 



fructum  edidit,  in  earn  longitudinem  deputatur,  uti 

18  iacens  non  excedat  interordinii  spatium.  Nee  magna 
est  putationis  differentia  cubantis  et  stantis  rectae 
vineae  :  nisi  quod  iacenti  viti  breviores  materiae 
submitti  debent,  reseces  quoque  angustius  in  modum 
furunculorum  relinqui,  Sed  ^  post  putationem,  quam 
utique  autumno  in  eiusmodi  vinea  fieri  oportet,  vitis 
tota  deflectitur  ^  in  alteram  interordinium  :  atque 
ita  pars  ea  quae  fuerat  occupata  vel  foditur  vel  aratur, 
et  cum  exculta  ^  est,  eandem  vitem  reeipit,  ut  altera 

19  quoque  pars  excoli  possit.  De  pampinatione  talis 
vineae  parum  inter  auctores  convenit.  Alii  negant  * 
esse  nudandam  vitem,  quo  melius  contra  iniuriam 
ventorum  ferarumque  ^  fructum  abscondat  :  aliis 
placet  parcius  pampinari,  ut  et  vitis  non  in  totum 
supervacuis  frondibus  oneretur,  et  tamen  fructum 
vestire  aut  protegere  possit  :  quae  ratio  mihi  quoque 
commodior  videtur. 

VI.  Sed  iam  de  vineis  satis  diximus.  Nunc  de 
arboribus  praecipiendum  est.  Qui  volet  frequens  et 
dispositum  arbustum  paribus  spatiis  fructuosumque 
habere,  operam  dabit,  ne  emortuis  arboribus  rarescat 
ac  primam  quamque  senio  aut  tempestate  afflictam 
submoveat,  et  in  vicem  novellam  sobolem  substituat. 
Id  autem  facile  consequi  poterit,  si  ulmorum  semi- 

^  relinqui  sed  edd.  :  relictis  et  SA  :  relictis  sed  a  :  relinqui 
relictis  c. 

^  deflectatur  ac  :   deplectitur  8 A. 

'  exculta  ac  :   exeuncta  SA. 

*  negant  ac  :  negent  8 A.  ^  -que  ac  :   quo  8 A. 

"  I.e.  for  supporting  vines. 

BOOK  V.  V.  17-VI.  I 

such  a  distance  that,  as  it  Ues  on  the  ground,  it  does 
not  reach  beyond  the  space  between  the  rows.  Nor  18 
is  there  a  great  difference  between  the  pruning  of  a 
recumbent  vine  and  of  one  which  stands  upright, 
except  that  the  firm-wood  branches  in  the  vine  which 
Hes  on  the  ground  should  be  allowed  to  grow  to  a 
shorter  length  and  the  stumps  ought  to  be  left 
narrower  so  as  to  resemble  knobs.  But  after  the  prun- 
ing, which  in  this  kind  of  vine  ought  naturally  to  be 
carried  out  in  the  autumn,  the  whole  vine  is  bent 
aside  into  one  of  the  two  spaces  between  the  rows  ;  and 
the  part  which  was  previously  occupied  is  either  dug 
up  or  ploughed,  and  when  it  has  been  thoroughly 
cultivated,  it  receives  the  same  vine  back  again,  so 
that  the  other  space  may  also  be  cultivated.  About  19 
the  trimming  of  this  kind  of  vineyard,  there  is  little 
agreement  between  the  authorities.  Some  say  that 
the  vine  ought  not  to  be  stripped,  that  it  may  the 
better  conceal  the  fruit  from  injury  by  the  wind  and 
by  wild  beasts ;  others  hold  that  it  should  be 
trimmed  only  sparingly,  so  that  the  vine  may  not  be 
wholly  burdened  with  superfluous  leaves  and  yet 
may  be  able  to  cover  or  conceal  the  fruit.  The  latter 
method  seems  to  me  too  to  be  the  more  expedient. 

VI.  We  have  now  said  enough  about  vines ;    we  Plantations 
must  now  give  directions  about  trees."   He  who  wishes  po^rt  of  ^'^^' 
to  have  a  thick  and  profitable  plantation  for  support-  vines. 
ing  vines  with  the  trees  set  at  equal  distances  from 
one  another  will  take  care  that  it  does  not  grow  sparse 
because  the  trees  have  died  and  will  be  careful  to 
remove  any  tree  as  soon  as  it  is  aflSicted  with  old 
age  or  damaged  by  storm  and  substitute  a  young 
growth  in  its  place.     This  he  will  easily  be  able  to 
achieve  if  he  has  a  nursery  for  elms  ready  prepared. 



narium  paratum  habuerit :  quod  ^  quomodo  et  qualis 
generis  faciendum  sit,  non  pigebit  deinceps  praeci- 

Ulmorum  duo  esse  genera  convenit,  Gallicum  et 
vernaculum  :  illud  Atinia,  hoc  nostras  dicitur.  Ati- 
niani  ulmum  Tremellius  Scrofa  non  ferre  sameram, 
quod  est  semen  eius  arboris,  falso  est  opinatus.  Nam 
rariorem  sine  ^  dubio  creat,  et  idcirco  plerisque  et 
sterilis  videtur,  seminibus  inter  frondem,  quam  prima 
germinatione  edit,  latentibus.  Itaque  nemo  iam 
serit  ex  samera,  sed  ex  sobolibus.  Est  autem  ulmus 
longe  laetior  et  procerior,  quam  nostra,^  frondemque 
iucundiorem  bubus  praebet  :  *  qua  ^  cum  assidue 
pecus  paveris,  et  postea  generis  alterius  frondem  dare 
institueris,  fastidium  bubus  afferes.^  Itaque  si  fieri 
poterit,  totum  agrum  genere  uno  Atiniae  ulmi  con- 
seremus  :  si  minus,  dabimus  operam,  ut  in  ordinibus 
disponendis  pari  numero  vernaculas  et  Atinias  alter- 
nemus.  Ita  semper  mixta  fronde  utemur,  et  quasi 
hoc  condimento  illectae  pecudes  fortius  iusta  ^ 
cibariorum  conficient. 

Sed  vitem  maxime  populus  videtur  alere,  deinde 
ulmus,  post  etiam  fraxinus.  Populus,  quia  raram, 
neque  idoneam  frondem  pecori  praebet,  a  plerisque 
repudiata  est.  Fraxinus,  quia  capris  et  ovibus 
gratissima  est,  nee  inutilis  bubus,  locis  asperis  et 

^  quod  ac  :   quo  SA .  *  sine  ac  :   semini  SA . 

*  nostras  SAc  :   nostra  a.  *  praebet  ac  :   om.  SA. 

*  qua  a  :   -que  SA  :   quia  c,  *  afferes  SAa  :   adfert  c. 
'  iusta  c  :   iuxta  SAa. 

"  From  the  town  of  Atina  in  Cispadane  Gaul, 
*  A  contemporary  of  Varro  and  one  of  the  speakers  in 
Varro's  agricultural  treatise. 


BOOK  V.  VI.  1-5 

In  what  manner  and  of  what  kind  of  trees  it  must  be 
formed,  I  shall  have  no  objection  to  stating  forth- 

It  is  generally  agreed  that  there  are  two  kinds  of 
elms,  the  Gallic  and  the  native ;  the  former  is  called 
the  Atinian,"  the  latter  our  own  Italian.  Tremellius 
Scrofa  *  was  wrong  when  he  expressed  the  opinion 
that  the  Atinian  elm  does  not  bear  samera,  which  is 
the  seed  of  that  tree ;  it  certainly  produces  it  but 
rather  thinly  and  for  that  reason  most  people  think 
that  it  is  actually  barren,  since  the  seeds  are  hidden 
among  the  foliage  which  it  produces  at  its  first 
budding.  That  is  why  no  one  now  grows  it  from  seed 
but  by  means  of  shoots.  This  elm  is  much  more 
luxuriant  and  taller  than  ours  and  produces  foliage 
which  is  more  acceptable  to  oxen ;  when  you  have 
fed  cattle  on  it  constantly  and  then  begin  to  give 
them  foliage  of  the  other  kind,  you  will  cause  them  to 
feel  a  loathing  for  the  latter.  Therefore,  if  possible, 
we  shall  plant  a  whole  field  with  the  Atinian  kind  of 
elm  only,  or,  failing  that,  we  shall  take  care,  in  arrang- 
ing the  rows,  to  plant  native  and  Atinian  elms  to  the 
same  number  alternately.  In  this  way  we  shall 
always  have  a  mixture  of  foliage  for  use  and  the 
cattle,  attracted  by  this  kind  of  seasoning  for  their 
food,  will  finish  off  with  greater  heartiness  the  full 
ration  allotted  to  them. 

But  the  poplar  seems  to  sustain  the  vine  best  of 
all  trees,  then  the  elm,  and  after  it  the  ash.  The 
poplar  tree,  because  it  provides  foliage  which  is 
scanty  and  unsuitable  for  cattle,  has  been  rejected  by 
most  people ;  the  ash,  because  it  is  most  acceptable  to 
goats  and  sheep  and  of  some  use  for  oxen,  is  rightly 
planted  in  rough  and  mountainous  places  in  which  the 



montosis,  quibus  minus  laetatur  ulmus,  recte  seritur. 
Ulmus,  quod  et  vitem  commodissime  patitur,  et 
iucundissimum  pabulum  bubus  affert,  variisque 
generibus  soli  provenit,  a  plerisque  praefertur. 
Itaque  si^  arbustum  novum  instituere  cordi  est, 
seminaria  ulmorum  vel  fraxinorum  parentur  ea 
ratione,  quam  deinceps  subscripsimus.  Nam  populi 
melius  cacuminibus  in  arbusto  protinus  deponuntur. 
Igitur  pingui  solo  et  niodice  humido  bipalio  terram 
pastinabimus,  ac  diligenter  occatam  et  resolutam 
humum  verno  tempore  in  areas  componemus. 
Sameram  deinde,  quae  iam  rubicundi  coloris  erit,  et 
compluribus  diebus  insolata  iacuerit,  ut  aliquem 
tamen  succum  et  lentorem  habeat,  iniciemus  areis, 
et  eas  totas  seminibus  spisse  contegemus,  atque  ita 
cribro  putrem  terram  duos  alte  digitos  incernemus, 
et  modice  rigabimus,  stramentisque  areas  cooperie- 
mus,  ne  prodeuntia  cacumina  seminum  ab  avibus 
praerodantur.  Ubi  deinde  prorepserint  ^  plantae, 
stramenta  colligemus,  et  manibus  herbas  carpemus  : 
idque  leviter  et  curiose  faciendum  est,  ne  adhue 
tenerae  brevesque  radiculae  ulmorum  convellantur. 
Atque  ipsas  quidem  areas  ita  anguste  compositas  ha- 
bebimus,  ut  qui  runeaturi  sunt,  medias  partes  earum 
facile  manu  contingant  :  nam  si  latiores  fuerint,  ipsa 
semina  ^  proculcata  noxam  capient.  Aestate  deinde 
prius  quam  sol  oriatur,  aut  ad  vesperum,  seminaria 

^  si  S  :   cui  ac  :   om.  A, 
"  prorepserit  SAac. 

*  ipsa  semina  Schneider  :  ipsiseminibus  S  :  ipsi  seminibus 


BOOK  V.  VI.  5-8 

elm  is  less  flourishing.  The  elm  is  preferred  by  most 
people,  because  it  both  accommodates  itself  very  well 
to  the  vine  and  provides  food  most  acceptable  to 
oxen  and  flourishes  in  various  kinds  of  soil.  So  if  it 
is  desired  to  establish  a  new  plantation,  nurseries  of 
elms  or  ash-trees  should  be  prepared  on  the  system 
which  we  have  described  hereafter ;  for  poplars  are 
better  put  straight  into  the  plantation  in  the  form  of 
tree-tops  planted  in  the  ground.  We  will,  therefore, 
prepare  the  ground  with  a  double  mattock  where 
the  earth  is  rich  and  moderately  moist,  and  in  the 
spring-time,  after  the  soil  has  been  carefully  harrowed 
and  broken  up,  we  shall  mark  it  out  into  beds.  We 
shall  then  cast  upon  the  beds  the  elm-seed  which 
will  now  be  of  a  ruddy  colour  and  has  been  exposed 
to  the  sun  for  several  days,  but  still  retaining  some 
juice  and  stickiness,  and  we  shall  thickly  cover  the 
beds  all  over  with  the  seed  and  scatter  crumbling 
earth  over  them  with  a  sieve  to  the  depth  of  two 
inches  and  give  them  a  moderate  watering  and  cover 
the  beds  with  straw,  so  that  the  heads  of  the  plants, 
when  they  come  up,  may  not  be  pecked  off  by  birds. 
Then,  when  the  plants  have  crept  forth,  we  shall 
collect  the  straw  and  pull  up  the  weeds  by  hand — ■ 
a  process  which  must  be  carried  out  gently  and 
carefully,  so  that  the  still  tender  and  short  little 
roots  of  the  elms  may  not  be  pulled  up  with  the 
weeds.  We  shall  have  the  beds  themselves  planned 
so  as  to  be  so  narrow  that  those  who  are  going  to 
weed  them  can  easily  reach  to  the  middle  of  them 
with  their  hands ;  for,  if  they  are  broader,  the 
seedlings  themselves  will  be  trodden  upon  and  receive 
damage.  Then  in  the  summer,  before  the  sun  rises 
or  towards  evening,  the  nursery-beds  ought  to  be 



conspergi  saepius  ^  quam  rigari  debent  :  ^  et  cum 
ternum  pedum  plantae  fuerint,  in  aliud  seminarium 
transferri,  ac  ne  radices  altius  agant  (quae  res  postmo- 
dum  in  eximendo  magnum  laborem  affert,  cum  plantas 
in  aliud  seminarium  transferemus)  oportebit  non 
maximos  scrobiculos  sesquipede  inter  se  distantes 
fodere  :  deinde  radices  in  nodum,  si  breves,  vel  in 
orbem  coronae  similem,  si  longiores  erunt,  inflecti,  et 
oblitas  fimo  bubulo  scrobiculis  deponi,  ac  diligenter 

9  circumcalcari.  Possunt  etiam  collectae  cum  stirpi- 
bus  plantae  eadem  ratione  disponi  :  quod  in  Atinia 
ulmo  fieri  necesse  est,  quae  non  seritur  e  samera. 
Sed  haec  ulmus  autumni  tempore  melius  quam  vera 
disponitur;  paulatimque  ramuli  eius  manu  detor- 
quentur,  quoniam  primo  biennio  ferri  reformidat 
ictum.  Tertio  demum  anno  acuta  falce  abraditur,' 
atque  ubi  translationi  iam  idonea  est,  ex  eo  tempore 
autumni,  quo  terra  imbribus  permaduerit,  usque  in 
vernum  tempus,  antequam  radix  ulmi  in  eximendo 

10  delibretur,  recte  seritur.  Inde^  in  resoluta  terra 
ternum  pedum  quoquo  versus  faciendi  scrobes.  At 
in  densa,  sulci  eiusdem  altitudinis  et  latitudinis,  qui 
arbores  recipiant,^  praeparandi.  Sed  deinde  in  solo 
roscido  et  nebuloso  conserendae  sunt  ulmi,  ut  earum 
rami  ad  orientem  et  occidentem  dirigantur,  quo  plus 

^  saepius  ecW.  :  seminis  ac  :  seminus  5^4. 

*  debet  SAac. 

'  abraditur  a  :   ablanditur  SAc. 

*  inde  scripsi  :  in  se  SAac. 
'  respiciat  Aac  :   respiat  S. 

"  I.e  those  which  are  planted  in  the  form  of  cuttings  as 
opposed  to  seedlings. 


BOOK  V.  vr.  8-10 

sprinkled  from  time  to  time  rather  than  soaked,  and 
when  the  plantshave  growth  three  feet  highjthey  should 
be  transferred  to  another  nursery-bed,  and  that  they 
may  not  strike  their  roots  too  deep  (for  this  after- 
wards involves  much  labour  in  lifting  them  when  we 
are  going  to  transfer  them  to  another  nursery-bed), 
we  shall  have  to  dig  not  very  large  plant-holes  a  foot 
and  a  half  apart.  Next  the  roots,  if  they  are  short, 
will  have  to  be  bent  as  it  were  into  a  knot,  or,  if  they 
are  too  long,  into  a  circle  resembling  a  crown  and, 
after  being  smeared  with  ox-dung,  they  must  be 
lowered  into  small  plant-holes  and  carefully  trodden 
down  all  round.  The  plants,  too,  which  are  9 
gathered  on  their  stocks  "  can  be  set  out  in  the 
same  manner,  and  this  is  essential  in  the  case  of  the 
Atinian  elm  which  is  not  raised  from  seed.  It  is 
better  to  set  this  kind  of  elm  in  the  autumn  rather 
than  in  the  spring,  and  its  small  branches  are  twisted 
little  by  little  by  hand,  since  in  its  first  two  years  it 
dreads  the  blow  of  an  iron  implement.  Finally,  in 
its  third  year  it  is  scraped  with  a  sharp  pruning- 
hook,  and  when  it  is  fit  for  transplantation  (that  is, 
from  the  season  of  autumn,  when  the  ground  has  been 
thoroughly  soaked  with  rain,  until  the  spring,  before 
the  root  of  the  elm  is  likely  to  lose  its  bark  while 
being  removed  from  the  soil),  then  is  the  proper  time 
for  planting  it.  Next  plant-holes  measuring  three  10 
feet  each  way  must  be  made  if  the  soil  is  loose, 
but,  if  it  is  dense,  furrows  of  the  same  depth  and 
width  must  be  prepared  to  receive  the  trees.  But  also 
in  a  soil  which  is  exposed  to  dew  and  mist  the  elms 
must  be  planted  in  such  a  way  that  their  branches 
may  be  directed  towards  the  east  and  west,  in 
order   that  the   middle  of  the   trees,  to  which  the 



solis  mediae  arbor es,  quibus  vitis  appBcata  et  religata 
innititur,  accipiant. 

11  Quod  si  etiam  frumentis  consulemus,  uberi  solo 
inter  quadraginta  pedes,  exili,  ubi  nihil  seritur,  inter 
viginti,  arbores  disponantur.  Cum  deinde  adolescere 
incipient,  falce  formandae,  et  tabulata  instituenda 
sunt.^  Hoc  enim  nomine  usurpant  agricolae  ramos 
truncosque  prominentes,  eosque  vel  propius  ^  ferro 
compescunt,  vel  longius  promittunt,  ut  vites  laxius 
difFundantur  :    hoc  in   solo   pingui  melius,   illud   in 

12  gracili.  Tabulata  inter  se  ne  minus  ^  ternis  pedibus 
absint,  atque  ita  formentur,  ne  superior  ramus  in 
eadem  linea  sit,  qua  inferior.  Nam  demissum  ex  eo 
palmitem  germinantem  inferior  atteret,  et  fructum 

Sed  quamcunque  arborem  severis,  earn  biennio 
proximo  putare  non  oportet.  Post  deinde  si  ulmus 
exiguum  incrementum  recipit,*  verno  tempore, 
antequam  librum  demittat,  decacuminanda  est  iuxta 
ramulum,  qui  videbitur  esse  nitidissimus,  ita  tamen, 
uti  supra  eum  trunco  ^  stirpem  dodrantalem  ®  re- 
linquas,  ad  quam  ductus '  et  applicatus  ramus 
alligetur,   et   correptus  ^    cacumen   arbori  praebeat, 

13  Deinde  stirpem  post  annum  praecidi  et  allevari 
oportet.  Quod  si  nullum  ramulum  arbor  idoneum 
habuerit,  sat  erit  novem  pedes  a  terra  relinqui,  et 
superiorem  partem  detruncari,  ut  novae  virgae,  quas 

^  instituenda  sunt  Aa  :   instituenda  c  :   instituendis  S. 
"  propius  c  :   proprius  Aa  :   prius  S. 
^  se  si  minus  S  :   seminibus  A  :   se  minus  ac. 
*  recipit  om.  SAac.  *  truncum  SAac. 

«  dodrantem  *S' :  drodant  partem  A  :  dodrantanitem  a  : 
dodrantanidem  c. 

'  ductus  edd.  :  dubitus  8Aa  :  dubius  c. 
^  correptus  SAac  :   correctus  edd. 


BOOK  V.  VI.  10-13 

vine    is    applied    and    fastened,    may   receive    more 

But  if  we  have  in  view  the  sowing  of  cereals  also,  the  11 
trees  should  be  placed,  if  the  soil  is  rich,  at  intervals 
of  forty  feet  from  one  another,  but  if  it  is  thin  and 
nothing  is  planted  in  it,  at  intervals  of  twenty  feet. 
Then  when  they  begin  to  grow  tall,  they  must  be 
shaped     with     the     pruning-hook     and     successive 

stages  "  must  be  arranged;  for  the  husbandmen 
call  prominent  branches  and  trunks  by  this  name  and 
either  cut  them  closer  with  the  knife  or  let  them  grow 
longer,  that  the  vines  may  spread  more  loosely,  the 
latter  process  being  better  on  rich  soil,  the  former  on 
thin  soil.  The  "  stages  "  should  be  not  less  than  12 
three  feet  apart  from  one  another  and  so  shaped 
that  an  upper  branch  may  not  be  in  the  same  line 
as  a  lower;  for  the  lower  branch  will  rub  against 
the  budding  shoot  let  down  from  the  upper  branch 
and  shake  off  the  fruit. 

But  whatever  tree  you  plant,  you  should  not  prune 
it  during  the  next  two  years.  Then  afterwards,  if 
the  elm  receives  only  a  little  growth,  in  the  spring, 
before  it  sheds  its  bark,  its  top  must  be  lopped  off 
near  the  small  branch  which  appears  to  be  the  most 
healthy,  but  in  such  a  way  as  to  leave  above  it  on  the 
trunk  a  stump  nine  inches  long,  towards  which  the 
branch  can  be  trained  and  then  applied  and  fastened, 
that,  when  it  has  been  thus  caught,  it  may  provide 
a  top  for  the  tree.  Then  after  a  year  the  stump  must  13 
be  cut  away  and  the  place  smoothed  off.  If,  how- 
ever, the  tree  has  no  suitable  small  branch,  it  will  be 
enough  if  nine  feet  from  the  ground  it  is  left 
standing  and  the  upper  part  lopped  off,  in  order  that 
the  new  rods  which  it  will  have  put  forth  may  be  safe 



emiserit,^  ab  iniuria  pecoris  tutae  sint.  Sed  si  fieri 
poterit,  uno  ictu  arborem  praecidi ;  si  minus,  serra 
desecari,  et  plagam  falce  allevari  oportebit,  eamque 
plagam   luto   paleato    contegi,    ne    sole    aut   pluviis 

14  infestetur.  Post  annum  aut  biennium,  cum  enati 
ramuli  recte  convaluerint,  supervacuos  deputai-i, 
idoneos  in  ordinem  submitti  conveniet.  Quae  ulmus 
a  positione  bene  provenerit,^  eius  summae  virgae 
falce  debent  enodari.  At  si  robusti  ramuli  erunt,  ita 
ferro  amputentur,  ut  exiguam  stirpem  prominentem 
trunco  relinquas.  Cum  deinde  arbor  convaluerit, 
quicquid  falce  contingi  poterit,  exputandum  est, 
allevandumque  eatenus,  ne  plaga  corpori  matris 
applicetur.     Ulmum    autem    novellam    formare    sic 

15  conveniet.  Loco  pingui  octo  pedes  a  terra  sine  ramo 
relinquendi,  vel  in  arvo  gracili  septem  pedes  :  supra 
quod  spatium  deinde  per  circuitum  in  tres  partes 
arbor  dividenda  est,  ac  tribus  lateribus  singuli  ramuli 

16  submittendi  primo  tabulate  assignentur.  Mox  de 
ternis  pedibus  superpositis  alii  rami  submittendi 
sunt,  ita  ne  iisdem  lineis,  quibus  in  inferiore  positi 
sint.  Eademque  ^  ratione  usque  in  cacumen  ordi- 
nanda  erit  arbor.  Atque  in  frondatione  cavendum,  ne 
aut  prolixiores  pollices  fiant,  qui  ex  amputatis  virgis 

^  emiserant  Sa  :   emiserint  A  :  emiserat  c. 
-  provenerit  c  :   provenerint  SAa. 

'  positis  in  easdemque  S  :  postas  in  eadem  quae  A  :  positis 
in  eademque  ac. 


BOOK  V.  VI.  13-16 

from  injury  by  cattle.  If  possible,  the  tree  should 
be  cut  through  with  a  single  blow ;  if  not,  it  will 
have  to  be  sawn  through  and  the  wound  smoothed 
off  with  a  pruning-hook  and  covered  with  mud 
mixed  with  straw,  so  that  it  may  not  be  damaged  by 
the  sun  or  the  rain.  After  a  year  or  two,  when  the  14 
little  branches  which  have  come  forth  have  duly 
gained  strength,  it  will  be  fitting  that  those  which 
are  superfluous  should  be  pruned  away  and  those 
which  are  suitable  should  be  allowed  to  grow  freely 
and  take  their  place  in  the  row.  If  an  elm  has  made 
good  progress  since  it  was  planted,  its  topmost  rods 
should  be  freed  from  knots  with  a  pruning-hook ; 
but  if  the  small  branches  are  vigorous,  they  should 
be  cut  off  with  a  knife  in  such  a  way  that  you  leave 
a  little  stump  projecting  from  the  trunk.  Then  when 
the  tree  has  gained  strength,  whatever  can  be  reached 
with  a  pruning-hook  should  be  cut  away  and  smoothed 
off,  without,  however,  any  wound  being  inflicted  on 
the  body  of  the  mother-tree.  It  will  be  proper  to 
shape  the  young  elm  in  the  following  manner.  Where  15 
the  soil  is  rich,  eight  feet  should  be  left  from  the 
ground,  without  any  branches,  or  seven  feet  in  poor 
soil ;  then  above  this  the  tree  must  be  divided  into 
three  parts  throughout  its  circumference,  and  small 
branches,  one  on  each  of  the  three  sides,  should  be 
allowed  to  grow  and  be  allotted  to  the  first"  stage."  16 
Then,  three  feet  above,  other  branches  must  be 
allowed  to  grow  in  such  a  manner  that  their  position 
is  not  in  the  same  line  as  in  the  stage  underneath  ;  and 
the  tree  will  have  to  be  arranged  on  the  same  principle 
right  up  to  the  top.  In  stripping  the  tree  care  must  j 
be  taken  that  the  knobs  which  are  left  where  the  rods 
have  been  cut  away  do  not  project  too  much,  and  that 



relinquuntur,  aut  rursus  ita  alleventur,  ut  ipse 
truncus  laedatur,  aut  delibretur  ;  nam  parum  gaudet 
ulmus  1  in  corpus  nuda.  Vitandumque  ne  de  duabus 
plagis  una  fiat,  cum  talem  cicatricem  non  facile  cortex 

17  comprehendat.  Arboris  autem  perpetua  cultura  est, 
non  solum  diligenter  earn  ^  disponere,  sed  etiam  trun- 
cum  circumfodere,  et  quicquid  frondis  enatum  fuerit, 
alternis  annis  aut  ferro  amputare  aut  astringere,  ne 
nimia  umbra  viti  noceat.  Cum  deinde  arbor  vetus- 
tatem  ^  fuerit  adepta,  propter  terram  *  vulnerabitur 
ita,  ut  excavetur  usque  in  medullam,  deturque  exitus 
humori,  quem  ex  superiore  parte  conceperit.  Vitem 
quoque,  antequam  ex  toto  arbor  praevalescat,  con- 
serere  convenit. 

18  At  si  teneram  ulmum  maritaveris,  onus  iam  non 
sufFeret  :  si  vetustae  ^  vitem  applicueris,  coniugem 
necabit.  Ita  suppares  esse  aetate  et  viribus  arbores 
vitesque  convenit.  Sed  arboris  maritandae  causa 
scrobis  viviradici  fieri  debet  latus  pedum  duorum, 
altus  levi  terra  totidem  pedum  (gravi,  dupondio  ^  et 
dodrante)  longus  pedum  sex  aut  minimum  quinque. 
Absit  autem  hie  ab  arbore  ne  minus  sesquipedali 
spatio.  Nam  si  radicibus  ulmi  iunxeris,  male  vitis 
comprehendet,  et  cum  tenuerit,  incremento  arboris 

19  opprimetur,  Hunc  scrobem,  si  res  permittit,  autum- 
no  facito,  ut  pluviis  et  gelicidiis  maceretur.  Circa 
vernum  deinde  aequinoctium  binae  vites,  quo  celerius 

^  post  ulmus  add.  quae  SAac. 

*  earn  S  :   eadem  Aa  :   om.  c. 

*  vetustate  SAac. 

*  terram  S  :  ramum  A  ac. 

*  vetustae  Schneider  :  vetustate  S :  vetustatem  A  :  vetustam 
a  '.   om.  c. 

*  dupondio  a  :   dupundio  c  :  dupundiu  8A. 


BOOK  V.  VI.  16-19 

they  are  not,  on  the  other  hand,  so  much  smoothed 
away  that  the  trunk  itself  is  damaged  or  stripped  of 
its  bark;  for  an  elm  takes  little  pleasure  in  being 
bared  to  the  quick.  Also  we  must  avoid  making  one 
wound  out  of  two,  for  the  bark  does  not  easily  grow 
over  a  scar  of  this  kind.  The  elm  requires  constant  17 
attention,  not  only  in  training  it  carefully  but  also  in 
digging  round  the  trunk  and  in  alternate  years 
cutting  off  with  a  knife  or  tying  back  any  foliage 
which  has  grown  from  it,  so  that  excessive  shade 
may  not  harm  the  vine.  Then  when  the  tree  has 
reached  a  good  age,  a  wound  will  be  made  in  it  near 
the  ground  in  such  a  way  that  a  hole  is  made  reaching 
to  the  pith  and  a  passage  thus  given  to  the  moisture, 
which  it  has  formed  in  its  upper  portion.  It  is  well 
also  to  plant  the  vine  before  the  tree  has  reached  its 
full  strength. 

But  if  you  wed  a  tender  young  elm  to  a  vine,  it  will  18 
now  not  support  the  weight ;  if  you  couple  a  vine  with  an 
old  elm,  it  will  kill  its  mate.  The  trees  and  the  vines, 
therefore,  ought  to  be  nearly  equal  in  age  and 
strength.  In  order  to  wed  the  tree  and  the  vine,  a 
trench  ought  to  be  made  for  the  quick-set  two  feet 
wide  and  the  same  number  of  feet  deep,  if  the  soil  is 
light  (but  if  it  is  heavy,  two  feet  and  three-quarters 
deep)  and  six  or  at  least  five  feet  long.  The  trench, 
however,  should  not  be  less  than  a  foot  and  a  half 
from  the  tree ;  for  if  you  put  the  vine  close  to  the 
roots  of  the  elm,  it  will  not  strike  root  properly  and, 
when  it  has  taken  hold,  it  will  be  smothered  by  the 
growth  of  the  tree.  If  circumstances  allow,  make  19 
the  trench  in  the  autumn,  that  it  may  be  softened 
by  the  rains  and  frosts ;  then,  about  the  time  of  the 
spring  equinox,  in  order  more  quickly  to  clothe  the 



ulmum  vestiant,  pedem  inter  se  distantes  scrobibus 
deponendae  :  cavendumque  ne  aut  septentrio- 
nalibus  ventis  aut  rorulentae  sed  siccae  serantur. 

20  Hanc  observationem  non  solum  in  vitium  positione, 
sed  in  ulmorum  ceterarumque  arborum  praecipio  : 
et  uti  cum  de  seminario  eximuntur,  rubrica  notetur 
una  pars,  quae  nos  admoneat,  ne  aliter  arbores  con- 
stituamus,  quam  quemadmodum  in  seminario  stete- 
rint.  Plurimum  enim  refert,  ut  eam  partem  caeli 
spectent,  cui  ab  tenero  consueverunt.^  Melius 
autem  locis  apricis,  ubi  caeli  status  neque  praege- 
lidus  neque  nimium  pluvius  est,  autumni  tempore  et 

21  arbores  et  vites  post  aequinoctium  deponuntur.  Sed 
eae  ita  conserendae  sunt,  ut  summam  terram,^  quae 
aratro  subacta  sit,  semipedem  alte  substernamus, 
radicesque  omnes  explicemus,  et  depositas  stercorata, 
ut  ego  existimo,  si  minus,  certe  subacta  operiamus, 
et  circumcalcemus  ipsum  seminis  codicem.  Vites  in 
ultimo  scrobe  deponi  oportet,  materiasque  earum  per 
scrobem  porrigi,  deinde  ad  arborem  erigi ;    atque  ab 

22  iniuria  pecoris  caveis  emuniri.  Locis  autem  prae- 
fervidis  semina  septentrionali  parte  arbori  appli- 
canda  sunt  :  locis  frigidis  a  meridie,  temperate ' 
statu  caeli  aut  ab  oriente  aut  ab  occidente,  ne  toto 
die  solem  vel  umbram  patiantur. 

Proxima  deinde  putatione  melius  existimat  Celsus 
ferro  abstineri,  ipsosque  caules  in  modum  coronae  con- 

1  consueverunt  c  :    consuerunt  SAa. 

*  siimraam  terram  Aac  :   somnum  a  terra  S. 

^  temperato  a  :   tempato  c  :   temperatu  SA. 


"  See  note  on  Vol.  I.  p.  35. 

BOOK  V.  VI.  19-22 

elm,  two  vines  a  foot  apart  should  be  put  into  the 
trench,  and  care  should  be  taken  that  they  are  not 
planted  when  the  north  winds  are  blowing,  nor  when 
the  vines  are  wet  with  dew,  but  when  they  are  dry. 

This  rule  I  lay  down  not  only  when  vines  are  being  20 
planted  but  also  elms  and  the  other  trees ;  also,  that, 
when  they  are  removed  from  the  nursery-bed,  one 
side  should  be  marked  with  ruddle  to  warn  us  not  to 
plant  trees  in  any  position  other  than  that  in  which 
they  stood  in  the  nursery-bed ;  for  it  is  very  import- 
ant that  they  should  face  that  quarter  of  the  sky  to 
which  they  have  been  accustomed  from  their  early 
days.  In  sunny  positions,  however,  when  the  climate 
is  neither  very  cold  nor  too  rainy,  both  trees  and  vines 
are  better  planted  in  the  autumn  after  the  equinox. 
They  should  be  planted  on  the  principle  of  putting  21 
beneath  them  to  a  depth  of  half  a  foot  top-soil  which 
has  been  broken  by  the  plough  and  uncoiling  all  the 
roots  and  covering  the  plants  when  they  are  set  with 
dunged  soil,  which  I  consider  the  best  course,  or,  if 
not,  at  least  with  broken  soil,  and  treading  round  the 
actual  stem  of  the  plant.  The  vines  should  be  set  at 
the  edge  of  the  trench  and  their  firm-wood  branches 
stretched  along  the  trench  and  then  erected  into  the 
tree  and  protected  by  railings  from  damage  by  cattle. 
In  very  hot  localities  the  plants  should  be  attached  22 
to  the  tree  on  the  north  side,  in  cold  places  to  the 
south  side,  in  a  temperate  climate  either  on  the  east 
or  on  the  west  side,  so  that  they  may  not  have  to 
endure  the  sun  or  the  shade  all  day. 

Celsus  "  is  of  opinion  that  at  the  next  pruning- 
season  it  is  better  to  refrain  from  using  the  knife  and 
that  the  shoots  themselves  should  be  twisted  and 
wrapped  round  the  tree  in  the  shape  of  a  crown,  so 



tortos  arbori  circumdari,  ut  flexura  materias  ^  pro- 
fundat,  quarum  validissimam  sequente  anno  caput 

23  vitis  faciamus.  Me  autem  longus  docuit  usus,  multo 
utilius  esse  primo  quoque  tempore  falcem  vitibus 
admovere,  nee  supervacuis  ^  sarmentis  pati  silves- 
cere.  Sed  earn  quoque,  quae  primo  submittetur, 
materiam  ferro  coercendam  censeo  usque  in  alteram 
vel  tertiam  gemmam,  quo  robustiores  palmites  agat, 
qui  cum  primum  tabulatum  apprehenderint,  proxima 
putatione  disponentur,  omnibusque  annis  alioquin  ^ 
in  superius  tabulatum  excitabuntur,^  relicta  semper 
una  materia,  quae  applicata  trunco  cacumen  arboris 

24  lamque  viti  constitutae  certa  lex  ^  ab  agricolis 
imponitur  :  plerique  ima  tabulata  materiis  frequen- 
tant,  uberiorem  fructum  et  magis  facilem  cultum 
sequentes.  At  qui  bonitati  vini  student,  in  summas 
arbores  vitem  promovent :  ut  quaeque  materia 
se  dabit,^  ita  in  celsissimum  quemque  ramum 
extendunt,  sic,  ut  summa  vitis  summam  arborem 
sequatur,  id  est,  ut  duo  palmites  extremi  trunco 
arboris  applicentur,  qui  cacumen  eius  spectent,  et 
prout    quisque    ramus    convaluit,    vitem    accipiat.' 

25  Plenioribus  ramis  plures  palmites  alius  ab  alio  separati 
imponantur,  gracilioribus  pauciores  ;  vitisque  novella 
trlbus  toris  ad  arborem  religetur,  uno,  qui  est  in  crura 

materie  Sac  :   materiae  A . 

supervacuus  SAa  :    supervacuis  c. 

alioquin  SAac  :   aliquis  edd. 

excitabuntur  scripai :   excitabitur  edd. 

lex  om.  S. 

sedebit  S  :  sed  vetata  A  :  sed  evecta  a  :  sed  evetita  c. 

accipit  SAac. 


BOOK  V.  VI.  22-25 

that  this  bending-back  may  cause  a  profusion  of 
firm-wood  branches,  the  strongest  of  which  we  may 
make  the  head  of  the  vine  in  the  following  year. 
But  long  experience  has  taught  me  that  it  is  much  23 
more  expedient  to  apply  the  pruning-hook  to  the 
vines  on  the  first  possible  opportunity  and  not  allow 
them  to  become  bushy  with  superfluous  shoots.  I 
also  hold  that  the  firm-wood  branch  which  is  to  be 
allowed  to  grow  at  first,  should  be  cut  back  with  the 
knife  as  far  as  the  second  or  third  bud,  so  that  it  may 
put  forth  more  vigorous  shoots,  which,  when  they 
have  taken  hold  of  the  first  "  story  "  of  the  tree,  will 
be  trained  in  different  directions  at  the  next  pruning, 
and  furthermore  will  every  year  be  raised  to  the 
story  above,  one  firm- wood  branch  being  always  left 
which,  applied  to  the  trunk,  will  face  towards  the  top 
of  the  tree. 

Once  the  vine  is  set  in  its  place  a  fixed  rule  is  24 
applied  to  it  by  husbandmen.  Most  of  them  crowd 
the  lower  "  stories  "  with  firm-wood  branches,  their 
object  being  a  more  abundant  yield  of  fruit  and  easier 
cultivation.  But  those  whose  chief  object  is  high 
quality  in  the  wine,  encourage  the  vine  to  mount  to 
the  top  of  the  trees,  and,  as  each  firm-wood  shoot 
offers  itself,  they  stretch  it  out  to  the  highest  possible 
branch  in  such  a  way  that  the  top  of  the  vine  keeps 
pace  with  the  top  of  the  tree,  that  is,  that  the  two 
furthest  vine-shoots  are  applied  to  the  trunk  of  the 
tree  so  that  they  face  its  top  and,  as  each  branch 
gathers  strength,  it  takes  up  the  burden  of  the  vine. 
On  the  stouter  branches  more  shoots  should  be  placed,  25 
separate  from  one  another,  but  fewer  on  the  slenderer 
branches,  and  the  young  vine  should  be  attached  to 
the  tree  with  three  bindings,  one  on  the  stem  of  the 



arboris  a  terra  quattuor  pedibus  distans  ;  ^  altero,  qui 
summa  parte  vitem  capit ;  tertio,  qui  mediam  vitem 
complectitur.  Torum  imum  imponi  non  oportet, 
quoniam  vires  vitis  adimit.  Interdum  tamen  ne- 
cessarius  habetur,  cum  aut  arbor  sine  ramis  truncata 
est,  aut  vitis  praevalens  in  luxuriam  evagatur. 

26  Cetera  putationis  ratio  talis  est,  ut  veteres 
palmites,  quibus  proximi  anni  fructus  pependit, 
omnes  recidantur  :  novi,  circumcisis  undique  capreolis 
et  nepotibus,  qui  ex  his  nati  sunt,  amputatis,  sub- 
mittantur  ^  et  si  laeta  vitis  est,  ultimi  potius 
palmites  per  cacumina  ramorum  praecipitentur ;  si 
gracilis,  trunco  proximi,  si  mediocris,  medii ;  quo- 
niam ultimus  palmes  plurimum  fructum  affert, 
proximus  minimum  vitemque  exhaurit  atque  atte- 

27  Maxime  autem  prodest  vitibus,  omnibus  annis 
resolvi.  Nam  et  commodius  enodantur,  et  refri- 
gerantur,  cum  alio  loco  alligatae  sunt,  minusque 
laeduntur,  ac  melius  convalescunt.  Atque  ipsos 
palmites  ita  tabulatis  superponi  convenit,  ut  a  tertia 
gemma  vel  quarta  religati  dependeant,  eosque  non 

28  constringi,  ne  sarmentum  vimine  praecidatur.  Quod 
si  ita  longe  tabulatum  est,  ut  ^  materia  parum  com- 
mode in  id  perduci  possit,  palmitem  ipsum  viti 
alligatum  supra  tertiam  gemmam  religabimus.  Hoc 
ideo  fieri  praecipimus,  quia  quae  pars  palmitis  prae- 

^  distant  SAac, 

*  submittantur  Gesner  :   committantur  SAac. 

'  in  SAac. 

'  Cf.  Cato,  E.R.  32,  who  warns   his  readers  against  this 


BOOK  V.  VI.  25-28 

tree  four  feet  from  the  ground,  a  second  holding  the 
vine  at  its  top,  and  a  third  clasping  it  in  the  middle. 
A  binding  should  not  be  placed  at  the  bottom,  since 
it  takes  away  the  strength  of  the  vine  ;  however,  it  is 
sometimes  considered  necessary  when  the  tree  has 
had  its  branches  lopped  off  or  when  the  vine,  growing 
too  strong,  runs  riot. 

The  other  points  to  be  observed  in  pruning  are  that  26 
the  old  shoots,  upon  which  the  fruit  of  the  previous 
year  has  hung,  should  be  all  cut  away,  but  the  new 
ones  should  be  allowed  to  grow  after  their  tendrils 
have  been  cut  back  all  round  and  the  side-shoots 
which  have  grown  from  them  have  been  lopped  off — if 
the  vine  is  in  a  flourishing  state,  the  furthest  shoots 
should  be  let  down  "  through  the  top  of  the  branches,  if 
the  vine  is  slender,  the  shoots  nearest  to  the  stock, 
and  if  it  is  of  middling  size,  those  in  the  middle.  For 
the  furthest  shoot  produces  the  most  fruit,  the  nearest 
the  least  and  exhausts  and  enfeebles  the  vine. 

It  is  of  great  benefit  to  vines  to  unbind  them  every  27 
year ;  for  they  can  then  be  more  conveniently  freed 
from  knots  and  they  are  refreshed  by  being  bound  in 
another  place  and  they  are  less  damaged  and  recover 
strength  better.  Also  it  is  expedient  that  the  shoots 
themselves  should  be  so  placed  upon  the  "  stories  " 
of  the  tree  that  they  hang  down,  being  attached  at 
the  third  or  fourth  bud,  and  that  they  should  not  be 
bound  too  tightly,  lest  the  vine-twig  be  cut  by  the 
osier.  But  if  the  "  story  "  is  so  far  away  that  the  28 
firm-wood  branch  cannot  conveniently  be  made  to 
reach  it,  we  shall  bind  the  shoot  itself  to  the  vine, 
attaching  it  above  the  third  bud.  We  give  instruc- 
tions that  this  should  be  done  because  it  is  the  part 
of  the  shoot  that  is  bent  over  which  is  clothed  with 



cipitata  est,  ea  ^  fructu  induitur :    at  quae  vinculo 
adnexa  ^  sursum  tendit,  ea  materias  sequent!  anno 

29  praebet.  Sed  ipsorum  palmitum  duo  genera  sunt : 
alterum,  quod  ex  duro  provenit,  quod  quia  primo 
anno  plerumque  fi'ondem  sine  fructu  aiFert,  pam- 
pinarium  vocant ;  alterum,  quod  ex  anniculo  palmite 
procreatur :  quod  quia  protinus  creat,  fructuarium 
appellant.  Cuius  ut  semper  habeamus  copiam  in 
vinea,^  palmitum  partes  ad  tres  gemmas  religandae 
sunt,    ut    quicquid     intra    vinculum     est    materias 

30  exigat.  Cum  deinde  annis  et  robore  vitis  convaluit, 
traduces  in  proximam  quamque  arborem  mittendae, 
casque  post  biennium  amputare  atque  alias  tene- 
riores  transmittere  convenit.  Nam  vetustate  vitem 
fatigant.  Nonnunquam  etiam  cum  arborem  totam 
vitis  comprehendere  nequit,  ex  usu  fuit  partem 
aliquam  eius  deflexam  terrae  immergere,  et  rursus 
ad  eandem  arborem  duas  vel  tres  propagines  excitare, 
quo  pluribus  vitibus  circumventa  celerius  vestiatur. 

31  Viti  novellae  pampinarium  immitti  non  oportet, 
nisi  necessario  loco  natus  est,  ut  viduum  ramum 
maritet.  Veteribus  vitibus  loco  ^  nati  palmites  pam- 
pinarii  utiles  sunt,  et  plerique  ad  tertiam  gemmam 
resecti  optime  submittuntur.     Nam  insequenti  anno 

32  materias  fundunt.  Quisquis  autem  pampinus  loco 
natus  in  exputando  vel  alligando  ^  fractus  est,  modo 

^  ex  SAac.  *  abnexa  SAac. 

*  inae  <S'^  :  in  ea  ac. 

*  loco  a  :  loca  SAc. 

'  alligando  ac  :  alligandi  SA. 


BOOK  V.  VI.  28-32 

fruit,  and  it  is  the  part  which,  being  tied  with  a  band, 
grows  upwards  that  provides  the  firm-wood  branches 
for  the  following  year.  There  are  two  kinds  of  the  fruit-  29 
bearing  shoots  themselves,  one  that  comes  out  of  the 
hard-Avood  of  the  vine,  which,  because  in  the  first 
year  it  usually  puts  forth  leaves  but  no  fruit,  is  called 
a  tendril-bearing  shoot,  and  another  which  is  pro- 
duced from  a  one-year-old  shoot  and,  because  it  bears 
fruit  immediately,  is  called  a  fructuary  shoot.  In 
order  that  we  may  have  plenty  of  shoots  of  this  kind 
in  our  vineyard,  the  portions  of  the  shoots  up  to  three 
buds  must  be  tied  back,  so  that  whatever  is  below  the 
band  may  produce  firm-wood.  Then,  afterwards,  30 
when  the  vine  has  increased  in  years  and  strength, 
the  cross-branches  must  be  conveyed  to  all  the 
nearest  trees  and  after  two  years  must  be  cut  away 
and  others  which  are  younger  must  be  trained  across  ; 
for  when  they  grow  old  they  wear  out  the  vine. 
Sometimes  too,  when  the  vine  cannot  occupy  the 
whole  tree,  it  has  been  found  useful  to  bend  part  of 
it  down  and  sink  it  into  the  earth  and  raise  two  or 
three  layers  again  into  the  same  tree,  so  that  it  may 
be  surrounded  by  several  vines  and  so  be  more  quickly 

A  tendril-bearing  shoot  ought  not  to  be  allowed  to  31 
grow  on  a  young  vine,  unless  it  has  grown  in  a  place 
where  it  is  required,  so  that  it  may  be  wedded  to  a 
branch  which  lacks  a  vine-shoot.  Tendril-bearing 
shoots  which  grow  in  the  right  place  on  old  vines  are 
useful  and  are  generally  cut  back  to  the  third  bud  and 
allowed  to  grow  with  very  good  results ;  for  in  the 
following  year  they  produce  firm-wood  in  abundance. 
But  if  any  tendril  growing  in  the  right  place  is  broken  32 
in  the  process  of  pruning  or  tying,  provided  that  it 



ut    aliquam   gemmam   habuerit,    ex    toto   tolli   non 
oportet,     quoniam    proximo     anno    vel    validiorem 

33  materiam  ex  una  creabit.^  Praecipites  palmites  di- 
cuntur,  qui  de  hornotinis  ^  virgis  enati  in  duro  alli- 
gantur.  Hi  plurimum  fructus  afFerunt,  sed  plurimum 
matri  nocent.  Itaque  nisi  extremis  ramis,  aut  si  vitis 
arboris  cacumen  superaverit,  praecipitari  palmitem 

34  non  oportet.  Quod  si  tamen  id  genus  colis  propter 
fructum  submittere  quis  velit,  palmitem  intorqueat. 
Deinde  ita  alliget  et  praecipitet.  Nam  et  post  eum 
locum  quern  intorseris,  laetam  materiam  citabit,  et 
praecipitata  minus  virium  *  in  se  trahet,  quamvis 
fructu  exuberet.  Praecipitem  vero  plus  anno  pati  non 

35  Alterum  *  genus  palmitis,  quod  de  novello  nascitur 
et  in  tenero  alligatum  dependet,  materiam  vocamus  ; 
ea  et  fructum  et  nova  flagella  bene  procreat.  Et  iam 
si  ex  uno  capite  duae  virgae  submittantur,  tamen 
utraque  ^  materia  dicitur ;  ^  nam  pampinarius  quam 
vim  habeat,  supra  docui.  Focaneus  est,  qui  inter 
duo  bracchia  velut  in  furca  de  medio  nascitur.  Eum 
colem  deterrimum  esse  comperi,  quod  neque  fructum 
ferat,  et  utraque  bracchia,  inter  quae  natus  est, 
attenuet.     Itaque  tollendus  est. 

36  Plerique  vitem  validam  et  luxuriosam  falso  credi- 
derunt  feraciorem  fieri,  si  multis  palmitibus  submissis 

^  creabit  a  :   creavit  SAc. 
^  annotinis  codd. 

*  vinum  SAac. 

*  est  Sc  :  ei  Aa:   om.  Poniedera. 
^  utramque  SAac. 

*  deciditur  SA  :    decitur  a  :   decidunt  c. 

»  See  Book  IV.  24.  10. 


BOOK  V.  VI.  32-36 

has  some  bud  left,  it  should  not  be  entirely  removed, 
since  in  the  following  year  it  will  produce  an  even 
stronger  firm-wood  branch  from  a  single  bud.  Shoots  33 
are  called  "  precipitated  "  which,  sprung  from  rods 
one  year  old,  are  tied  to  the  hard  wood.  These  bear 
fruit  very  freely  but  do  much  damage  to  the  mother- 
vine  ;  and  so  a  shoot  ought  not  to  be  "  precipitated  " 
except  from  the  ends  of  the  branches  or  if  the  vine  has 
surmounted  the  top  of  the  tree.  If,  however,  any-  34 
one  wishes  to  let  this  kind  of  stem  grow  freely  for  the 
sake  of  the  fruit,  let  him  twist  the  shoot,  and  then 
tie  it  in  that  position  and  bend  it  over ;  for  it  will  put 
forth  flourishing  firm-wood  behind  the  point  at  which 
you  have  twisted  it,  and  also,  when  it  is  bent  over,  it 
will  attract  less  strength  to  itself,  even  though  it  bears 
an  abundance  of  fruit.  A  shoot  which  has  been  bent 
over  ought  not  to  be  allowed  to  continue  so  for  more 
than  one  year. 

Another  kind  of  shoot  which  grows  from  a  young  35 
vine  and  hangs  down  tied  to  the  tender  part  of  the 
vine,  we  call  firm-wood ;  it  produces  a  good  crop  both 
of  fruit  and  of  new  sprouts,  and  if  two  rods  are  allowed 
to  grow  from  one  head,  both,  nevertheless,  are  called 
firm-wood ;  for  I  have  pointed  out  above  what 
strength  the  leaf-bearing  shoot  possesses.  The 
"  throat-shoot  "  "  is  that  which  grows  out  of  the 
middle  between  two  branches,  as  it  were  in  a  fork. 
This  I  have  found  to  be  the  worst  kind  of  shoot, 
because  it  does  not  bear  fruit  and  it  weakens  both  of 
the  branches  between  which  it  has  grown.  It  must, 
therefore,  be  removed. 

Most  people  have  believed  that  a  strong,  luxuriant  36 
vine  becomes  more  fertile,  if  it  is  loaded  with  many 
shoots  which  are   allowed  to  grow,   but   they   are 


VOL.  II.  D 


oneretur.  Nam  ex  pluribus  virgis  plures  pampinos 
creat,  et  cum  se  multa  fronde  cooperit,  peius  defloret, 
nebulasque  et  rores  ^  diutius  continet,  omnemque 
uvam  perdit.  Validam  ergo  vitem  in  ramos  diducere 
censeo,  et  traducibus  dispergere  atque  disrarare,^ 
certosque  vinearios  coles  praecipitare,  et  si  minus  ^ 
luxuriabitur,  solutas  materias  relinquere ;  ea  ratio 
vitem  feraciorem  faciet.^ 
37  Sed  ut  densum  arbustum  commendabile  ^  fructu  et 
decore  est,  sic  ubi  vetustate  rarescit,  pariter  inutile 
et  invenustum  est.  Quod  ne  fiat,  diligentis  patris- 
familias  est,  primam  quamque  arborem  senio  de- 
fectam  tollex*e,  et  in  eius  locum  novellam  restituere,* 
nee  eam  viviradice  frequentare,''  ea  etsi  ^  sit  facultas, 
sed,^  quod  est  longe  melius,  ex  proximo  propagare. 
Cuius  utriusque  ratio  consimilis  est  ei  ^^  quam  tradi- 
dimus.  Atque  haec  de  Italico  arbusto  satis  prae- 

VII.  Est  et  alterum  genus  arbusti  Gallici,  quod 
vocatur  rumpotinum.  Id  desiderat  arborem  hu- 
milem  nee  frondosam.     Cui  rei  maxime  videtur  esse 

^  et  rores  ac  :  errores  SA. 

2  dirrare  SA  :   diradare  a  :   durare  c. 

'  nimis  SAac. 

*  faceret  SAac. 

*  commendabili  SAac. 

*  post  restituere  add.  vitem  SAac  :   om.  Pontedera. 

'  nee  tam  viviradice  frequentare  Gesner  :  que  aut  enectam 
viviradici  frequenter  S  :  quae  aut  nectam  viviradici  frequenter 
A  :   queat  ut  nectam  viviradici  frequenter  ac. 

*  ut  si  SAac. 

*  sed  om.  SAac. 
1"  ei  om.  SAac. 

"  The  text  here  is  quite  doubtful. 

BOOK  V.  VI.  36-vii.  I 

wrong;  for  it  produces  more  leaf-bearing  shoots 
from  its  more  numerous  rods  and,  when  it  has 
covered  itself  with  abundant  foliage,  it  flowers  less 
well  and  holds  the  fog  and  dew  too  long  and  loses  all 
its  clusters  of  grapes.  I  am,  therefore,  in  favour  of 
distributing  a  strong  vine  over  the  boughs  of  the 
supporting  tree  and  spreading  it  in  the  form  of 
cross-branches  and  thinning  it  out  and  bending 
over  a  certain  number  of  grape-bearing  shoots,  and, 
if  it  is  not  luxuriant  enough,  leaving  the  firm- 
wood  loose.  This  method  will  make  the  vine  more 

Just  as  a  dense  plantation  is  commendable  from  37 
the  point  of  view  of  the  fruit  and  for  its  fine  appear- 
ance, so  when  it  becomes  thin  through  lapse  of  time 
it  is  equally  unprofitable  and  ugly  to  look  upon.  To 
prevent  this,  it  is  the  duty  of  a  careful  owner  of 
property  to  remove  every  tree  as  soon  as  it  becomes 
enfeebled  by  age  and  to  plant  a  young  tree  in  its  place 
and  not  to  crowd  it  round  with  quick-sets  "■ — ^although 
there  may  be  facilities  for  doing  so — but,  what  is  far 
better,  to  set  layers  from  near  at  hand.  In  both  cases 
the  method  is  very  similar  to  that  which  we  have 
already  set  forth.  We  have  now  given  enough  in- 
struction about  Italian  plantations.  ^itntations 

VII.ThereisanotherkindofplantationfoundinGaul,  of  trees  for 
whichiscalledthatofdwarftrees.*  It  requires  a  low  and  vmes!'^"* 
not  very  leafy  tree,  and  the  guelder-rose  tree  "  seems 

*  This  is  derived  from  rumpvs  (Varro,  R.R.  I.  8.  4)  meaning 
a  "  vine-branch  "  or  "  runner  " — apparently  the  same  as 
tradux — and  teneo. 

"  Viburnum  opulus  is  called  the  cranberry-tree  or  high 
cranberry,  also  white  dogwood,  marsh-  or  water-elder,  or 



idonea  opulus  ^  :  ea  est  arbor  corno  ^  similis.  Quin 
etiam  cornus  et  carpinus  et  ornus  non  nunquam  et 
salix  a  plerisque  in  hoc  ipsum  disponitur.  Sed  salix 
nisi  aquosis  locis,  ubi  aliae  arbores  difficiliter 
comprehendunt,  ponenda  non  est,  quia  vini  saporem 
infestat.  Potest  etiam  ulmus  sic  disponi,  ut  adhuc  ^ 
tenera  decacuminetur,  ne  altitudinem  qutndecim 
pedum  excedat.  Nam  fere  ita  constitutum  rumpo- 
tinetum  animadverti,  ut  ad  octo  pedes  locis  siccis  et 
clivosis,  ad  duodecim  locis  planis  et  uliginosis  tabu- 
lata  disponantur.  Plerumque  autem  ea  arbor  in  tres 
ramos  dividitur,  quibus  singulis  ab  utraque  parte  com- 
plura  bracchia  submittuntur,  tum  omnes  pene  virgae, 
ne  umbrent,  eo  tempore  quo  vitis  putatur,  abraduntur. 
Arboribus  rumpotinis,  si  *  frumentum  non  inseritur, 
in  utramque  partem  viginti  pedum  spatia  inter- 
veniunt ;  at  si  segetibus  indulgetur,  in  altera  parte 
quadraginta  pedes,  in  altera  viginti  relinquuntur. 
Cetera  simili  ratione  atque  in  arbusto  Italico  admi- 
nistrantur,  ut  vites  longis  scrobibus  deponantur,  ut 
eadem  diligentia  curentur,  atque  in  ramos  didu- 
cantur,^  ut  novi  ^  traduces  omnibus  annis  inter  se  ex 
arboribus  proximis  committantur  ^  et  veteres  deci- 
dantur.  Si  tradux  traducem  ®  non  contingit,  media 
virga  inter  eas  deligetur.  Cum  '  deinde  fructus 
pondere  urgebit,  subiectis  adminiculis  sustineatur. 
Hoc  autem  genus  arbusti  ceteraeque  omnes  arbores 

^  opulus  edd  :    populus  SAac. 

"  aceme  S  :  cemae  A  :  ceme  ac. 

^  hue  SAac.  *  Si  om.  SAac. 

*  deducatur  SAac.        *  non  novi  Aac  :   non  vita  S. 
'  committantur  SAa  :   commutantur  c. 

*  ducem  Aac  :   dulcem  S. 

'  For  dwarf  planting,  not  for  wet. 

BOOK  V.  VII.  1-4 

to  be  the  most  suitable  for  this  purpose,  a  tree  which 
closely  resembles  the  cornel-tree.  Indeed  the 
cornel-tree,  the  horn-beam  and  sometimes  the 
mountain-ash  and  the  willow  are  planted  by  most 
people  to  this  very  end ;  but  willows  should  not  be 
planted  except  in  watery  places,  where  other  trees 
take  root  with  difficulty,  because  it  spoils  the 
flavour  of  the  wine.  The  elm  also  can  be  adapted 
to  this  purpose  "  by  having  its  top  cut  off  while  it  is 
still  young,  so  that  it  does  not  exceed  the  height  of 
fifteen  feet ;  for  I  have  noticed  that  the  plantation 
of  dwarf  trees  is  usually  so  ordered  that  the  "  stories  " 
are  arranged  at  the  height  of  eight  feet  in  dry,  sloping 
places,  and  twelve  feet  on  flat,  marshy  ground.  But 
usually  this  tree  is  divided  up  into  three  branches, 
upon  each  of  which  several  arms  are  allowed  to 
grow  on  both  sides ;  then  almost  all  the  rods  are 
pared  off"  at  the  time  when  the  vines  are  pruned,  so 
that  they  may  not  cause  a  shade. 

If  no  cereal  is  sown  amongst  the  dwarf  trees,  spaces 
of  twenty  feet  are  left  on  either  side ;  but  if  one 
indulges  in  crops,  forty  feet  are  left  on  one  side  and 
twenty  on  the  other.  In  all  other  respects  operations 
are  carried  out  on  the  same  principle  as  in  an  Italian 
plantation,  namely,  that  the  vines  are  planted  in 
long  holes,  that  they  may  be  looked  after  with 
the  same  care,  and  trained  along  the  boughs  of  the 
trees,  and  the  young  cross-branches  joined  together 
every  year  from  the  nearest  trees  and  the  old  ones  cut 
off".  If  one  cross-branch  does  not  reach  to  another,  it 
should  be  connected  by  a  rod  running  between 
them.  When  later  the  fruit  bows  the  vine  down  with 
its  weight,  it  should  be  supported  by  props  put 
underneath  it.     This  kind  of  plantation,  just  like  all 



quanto  altius  arantur  et  circiimfodiuntur,  maiore 
fructu  exuberant ;  quod  an  expediat  patrifamilias 
facere,  reditus  docet. 

VIII,  Omnis  tamen  arboris  cultus  simplicior  quam 
vinearum  est,  longeque  ex  omnibus  stirpibus  mi- 
norem  impensam  desiderat  olea,  quae  prima  omnium 
arborum  est.  Nam  quamvis  non  continuis  annis,  sed 
fere  altero  quoque  ^  fructum  afFerat,  eximia  tamen 
eius  ratio  est,  quod  levi  cultu  sustinetur,  et  cum  se 
non  induit,  vix  ullam  impensam  poscit.  Sed  et  si 
quam  recipit,  subinde  fructus  multiplicat :  neglecta 
compluribus  annis  non  ut  vinea  deficit,  eoque  ipso 
tempore  aliquid  etiam  interim  patrifamilias  praestat, 
et  cum  adhibita  cultura  est,  uno  anno  emendatur. 
Quare  etiam  nos  in  hoc  genere  arboris  diligenter 
praecipere  censuimus. 

Olearum,  sicut  vitium,  plura  genera  esse  arbitror, 
sed  in  meam  notitiam  decem  omnino  pervenerunt : 
Posia,2  Licinia,^  Sergia,*  Nevia,^  Culminia,^  Orchis,' 

1  quodque  SAac.  *  posita  SAac. 

^  licia  SAac.  *  Sergia  SAac. 

*  nevira  8  :   nevi  Aac. 

*  culminia  <S^  :   culmina  ac. 
'  orces  SAa  :  orches  c. 

"  The  MSS.  readings  of  the  names  which  follow  have  to  be 
emended  from  the  lists  of  olive-trees  given  by  other  authors, 
particularly  Palladius  (III.  18),  who  is  obviously  copying 
Columella.  Whereas  Columella  says  that  he  is  going  to  give 
the  names  of  ten  kinds,  nine  only  are  named.  To  complete  the 
number  Schneider  inserts  Algiana  as  the  second  name,  but  he 
gives  no  indication  of  the  source  from  which  he  derived  this 
name.  The  meaningless  culi,  which  in  the  MSS.  precedes  the 
last  name,  is  possibly  a  corruption  of  the  missing  tenth 


BOOK  V.  VII.  4-viii.  3 

kinds  of  other  trees,  produces  a  greater  abundance 
of  fruit  the  deeper  the  ground  is  ploughed  and  dug 
round  it ;  whether  it  pays  the  owner  of  the  property 
to  make  it  is  shown  by  the  profit  which  it  returns. 

VIII.  The  cultivation  of  any  kind  of  tree  is  simpler  The  various 
than  that  of  the  vine,  and  the  olive-tree,  the  queen  oiirc-trees. 
of  all  trees,  requires  the  least  expenditure  of  all. 
For,  although  it  does  not  bear  fruit  year  after  year    2 
but  generally  in  alternate  years,  it  is  held  in  very 
high  esteem  because  it  is  maintained  by  very  light 
cultivation  and,  when  it  is  not  covered  with  fruit,  it 
calls  for  scarcely  any  expenditure  ;    also,  if  anything 
is  expended  upon  it,  it  promptly  multiplies  its  crop 
of  fruit.     If  it  is  neglected  for  several  years,  it  does 
not  deteriorate  like  the  vine,  but  even  during  this 
period  it  nevertheless  yields  something  to  the  owner 
of  the  property  and,  when  cultivation  is  again  applied 
to  it,  it  recovers  in  a  single  year.     We  have,  there-    3 
fore,  besides  others  thought  it  well  to  give  careful 
instructions  about  this  kind  of  tree. 

I  fancy  that  there  are  as  many  kinds  of  olive-trees 
as  of  vines,  but  ten  in  all  have  come  under  my  notice  :  " 
the  Posia,*"  the  Licinian,  the  Sergian,  the  Nevian," 
the  Culminian,'*  the  Orchis,^  the  Royal,  the  Shuttle,/ 

*  Posia,  or  as  it  is  sometimes  spelt  Pavsia  is  called  by  Vergil 
{Georg.  II.  86)  anmra  pavsia  bacca  :  the  derivation  of  the  word 
is  unknown. 

"  The  Licinian,  Sergian  and  Nevian  olive-trees  were  called 
after  the  names  of  those  who  introduced  them  into  Italy. 

■*  The  origin  of  this  name  is  unknown  :  it  is  mentioned  by 
Varro,  BR..  I.  21.  1  and  Pliny,  N.H.  XV.  §  13. 

«  The  Greek  opx'S  =  Latin  testictilus,  and  indicates  the  shape 
of  the  fruit. 

^  Also  called  maiorina  from  its  great  size  (Pliny,  N.H.  XV.  § 
15).  Gesner  {Index,s.v.RADIOLV  S  and  Vol.  II.  p.  1223)  identi- 
fies Cercitisy/iih. Radius  (below).    Both  words  mean  "shuttle". 



Regia,^  Cercitis,  Murtea.^  Ex  quibus  bacca  iucun- 
dissima  est  Posiae,^  speciosissima  Regiae,*  sed  utra- 
que  potius  escae,  quam  oleo  est  idonea.  Posiae  ^ 
tamen  oleum  saporis  egregii,  dum  viride  est,  intra 
annum  corrumpitur.^  Orchis '  quoque  et  Radius 
melius  ad  escam  quam  in  liquorem  stringitur. 
Oleum  optimum  Licinia  dat,  plurimum  Sergia  : 
omnisque  olea  maior  fere  ad  escam,  minor  oleo  est 
aptior.  Nulla  ex  his  generibus,  aut  praefervidum, 
aut  gelidum  statum  caeli  patitur.  Itaque  aestuosis 
locis  septentrionali  coUe,  frigidis  meridiano  gaudet. 
Sed  neque  depressa  loca  neque  ardua,  magisque 
modicos  clivos  amat,  quales  in  Italia  Sabino- 
rum  vel  tota  provincia  Baetica  videmus.  Hanc 
arborem  plerique  existimant  ultra  milliarium  ^  cente- 
simum  ^  a  mari  aut  non  vivere  aut  non  esse  feracem. 
Sed  in  quibusdam  locis  recte  valet.  Optime  vapores 
sustinet  Posia,!**  frigus  Sergia. 

Aptissimum  genus  terrae  est  oleis,  cui  glarea 
subest,  si  superposita  creta  sabulo  admixta  est.  Non 
minus  probabile  est  solum,  ubi  pinguis  sabulo  est. 
Sed  et  densior  terra,  si  uvida  et  laeta  est,  commode 
recipit  hanc  arborem.  Creta  ex  toto  repudianda  est, 
magis  etiam  scaturiginosa,  et  in  qua  semper  uligo 
consistit.     Inimicus  est  etiam  ager  sabulo  macer,  et 

^  regiona  SAac. 

*  Cercitis  mystea  edd.  :  scrisis  culi  murtea  SA  :  scrisis 
culimurtea  a  :   scrisis  culmurtea  c. 

'  posiae  iS  :   positae  Aac. 

*  regies  SAc  :   reges  a. 

*  posita  SAac. 

"  intra  annum  corrumpitur  Codex  Goesianus :  inani  rumpitur 
S  :   imam  rumpitur  A  :   ima  rumpitur  a  :   una  in  rumpitur  c. 
'  orceis  SA  :  orces  ac. 

*  milliarium  om.  SAac. 


BOOK  V.  viii.  3-6 

the  Myrtle.  Of  these  the  berry  of  the  Posia  is  the 
most  agreeable,  that  of  the  Royal  the  showiest,  and 
both  are  more  suitable  for  eating  than  for  oil.  The 
oil  from  the  Posia  has  an  excellent  flavour  as  long  as 
it  is  green,  but  it  goes  bad  within  a  year.  The  Orchis 
also  and  the  Shuttle-olive  are  better  gathered  for 
eating  than  for  their  oil.  The  Licinian  pro'duces  the 
best  oil,  the  Sergian  the  most  abundant,  and, 
generally  speaking,  all  the  bigger  olives  are  more 
suitable  for  eating,  the  smaller  for  oil.  No  olive- 
trees  of  these  kinds  can  stand  a  very  warm  or  a  very 
cold  climate ;  and  so  in  very  hot  regions  the  olive- 
tree  rejoices  in  the  north  side  of  a  hill,  in  cool  districts 
in  the  south  side ;  but  it  does  not  like  either  low- 
lying  or  lofty  situations  but  prefers  moderate  slopes 
such  as  we  see  in  the  Sabine  territory  in  Italy  and  all 
over  the  province  of  Baetica."  Most  people  think 
that  this  tree  either  cannot  live  or  is  not  productive 
more  than  a  hundred  miles  from  the  sea,  but  in  some 
places  it  thrives  well.  The  Posia  stands  the  heat 
best,  the  Sergian  the  cold. 

The  most  suitable  kind  of  ground  for  olive-trees  is 
that  which  has  gravel  underneath,  if  chalk  mixed 
with  coarse  sand  forms  the  top-soil.  Not  less  highly 
esteemed  is  ground  where  there  is  rich  sand,  but 
denser  soil  also  is  well  adapted  to  receive  this  tree,  if  it 
is  moist  and  fertile.  Chalk  must  be  wholly  rejected, 
and  even  more  land  which  abounds  in  springs  and 
where  ooze  is  always  standing.  Land  which  is  lean 
because  of  sand  is  unfriendly  to  the  olive-tree  ;  so  is 
"  Columella's  native  province  in  S.W.  Spain. 

•  centesimum  S  :  censimum  A  :  sexagesimum  a:  lx  c. 
*'  postea  SA  :  posita  ac. 



nuda  glarea.  Nam  etsi  non  emoritur  in  eiusmodi 
solo,  nunquam  tamen  convalescit.  Potest  tamen  in 
agro  frumentario  seri,  vel  ubi  arbutus,  aut  ilex 
steterant.  Nam  quercus  etiam  excisa  radices  noxias 
oliveto  relinquit,  quarum  virus  enecat  oleam.  Haec 
in  universum  de  toto  genere  huius  arboris  habui 
dicere.     Nunc  per  partes  culturam  eius  exsequar. 

IX.  Seminarium  ^  oliveto  praeparetur  caelo  libero, 
terreno  ^  modice  valido  et  succoso,  neque  denso  neque 
soluto  solo,potius  tamen  resoluto  ;  id  genus  fere  terrae 
nigrae  est.  Quam  cum  in  tres  pedes  pastinaveris,  et 
alta  fossa  circumdederis,  ne  aditus  ^  pecoi*i  detur,* 
fermentari  sinito :  tum  ramos  ^  novellos  proceros  et 
nitidos,  quos  comprehensos  manus  possit  circum- 
venire,  hoc  est  manubrii  crassitudine,  feracissimis  ^ 
arboribus  adimito,  et  quam  recentissimas  ^  taleas 
recidito,  ita  ne  corticem  aut  ullam  aliam  partem, 
quam  qua  ^  serra  praeciderit,  laedas.  Hoc  autem 
facile  contingit,  si  prius  varam  feceris,  et  cam  partem, 
supra  quam  ramum  secaturus  es,  faeno  aut  stramentis 
texeris,  ut  molliter  sine  noxa  corticis  taleae  super- 
positae  secentur.  Taleae  ^  deinde  sesquipedales 
serra  ^^  praecidantur,  atque  earum  plagae  utraque 
parte  falce  leventur,  et  rubrica  ^^  notentur,  ut  sic 
quemadmodum  in  arbore  steterat  ramus,  ita  pars 
recte  et  cacumine  caelum  spectans  deponatur.     Nam 

^  seminario  SAac. 

*  raodo  SAac. 

'  aditus  a  :   traditus  SAc. 

*  ater  SAac  :  post  ater  add.  inferetur  SAa :  infrecturi  c. 

*  ramos  ac  :   ramus  SA. 

*  feracissimos  SAac. 

^  recentissimos  c  :   recentissimo  SAa. 
'  -que  SAac.  •  tali  SAac. 

^^  terra  SAac.  ^^  rubrica  c  :  lubrica  SAa. 


BOOK  V.  VIII.  6-ix.  3 

bare  gravel :  for,  although  it  does  not  die  in  this  kind  7 
of  soil,  yet  it  never  acquires  strength.  It  can,  how- 
ever, be  planted  on  corn-land  or  where  the  straw- 
berry-tree or  holm-oak  have  stood ;  for  the  ordinary 
oak,  even  if  it  has  been  cut  down,  leaves  behind  roots 
harmful  to  the  olive-grove,  the  poison  from  which 
kills  the  olive.  So  much  for  general  remarks  on  this 
type  of  tree  as  a  whole  ;  I  will  now  describe  its  cultiva- 
tion in  detail. 

IX.  A  nursery  for  your  olive-grove  should  be  pre-  Nurseries 

J  *»  "  -*■     _      for  olivG" 

pared  under  the  open  sky  on  land  which  is  moderately  trees. 
strong  and  juicy  with  soil  which  is  neither  dense  nor 
loose  but  rather  broken  up.  This  kind  of  soil  generally 
consists  of  black  earth.  When  you  have  trenched  it  to 
the  depth  of  three  feet  and  surrounded  it  with  a  deep 
ditch,  so  that  the  cattle  may  have  no  access  to  it, 
allow  the  ground  to  loosen  up.  Then  take  from 
the  most  fruitful  trees  tall  and  flourishing  young 
branches,  such  as  the  hand  can  grasp  when  it  takes  2 
hold  of  them — that  is  to  say  of  the  thickness  of  a 
handle — and  cut  off  from  these  the  freshest  slips  in 
such  a  way  as  not  to  injure  the  bark  or  any  other  part 
except  where  the  saw  has  made  its  cut.  This  is  quite 
easy  if  you  have  first  made  a  forked  support  and 
protect  with  hay  or  straw  the  part  above  which  you 
are  going  to  cut  the  branch,  so  that  the  slips  which 
are  placed  in  the  fork  may  be  severed  gently  without 
any  damage  to  their  bark.  The  slips  then  should  be  3 
cut  to  the  length  of  a  foot  and  a  half  with  the  saw, 
and  their  wounds  at  each  end  smoothed  with  a 
pruning-knife  and  marked  with  ruddle,  in  order  that 
the  portion  of  the  branch  may  be  properly  placed 
in  the  position  which  the  branch  had  occupied  on  the 
tree,  and  with  its  top  towards  the  sky ;    for,  if  it  is 



si  inversa  mergatur,  difficulter  comprehendet,  et 
cum  validius  ^  convaluerit,  sterilis  in  perpetuum  erit.^ 
Sed  oportebit  talearum  ^  capita  et  imas  partes  mixto 
fimo  cum  cinere  oblinire,*  et  ita  totas  eas  immergere,^ 
ut  putris  terra  digitis  quattuor  alte  superveniat.  Sed 
binis  indicibus  ex  utraque  parte  muniantur :  hi  sunt 
de  qualibet  arbore  ^  brevi '  spatio  iuxta  eas  positi, 
et  inter  se  vinculo  connexi,  ne  facile  singuli  deici- 
antur.  Hoc  facere  utile  est  propter  fossorum 
ignorantiam,  ut  cumi  bidentibus  aut  sarculis  semina- 
rium  colere  institueris,  depositae  ^  taleae  ^  non 

Quidam  melius  existimant  oculis  excolere,  et 
chorda  ^^  simili  ratione  disponere :  sed  utrumque 
debet  post  vernum  aequinoctium  seri,  et  quam  fre- 
quentissime  seminarium  primo  anno  sarriri  ;  postero 
et  sequentibus,  cum  iam  radiculae  seminum  con- 
valuerint,  rastris  excoli.  Sed  biennio  a  putatione 
abstineri,  tertio  anno  singulis  ^^  seminibus  binos 
ramulos  relinqui,  et  frequenter  sarriri  seminarium 
convenit.  Quarto  anno  ex  duobus  ^^  ramis  infirmior 
amputandus  est.  Sic  excultae  quinquennio  arbus- 
culae   habiles  ^^  translationi   sunt.     Plantae    autem 

^  validis  SAac. 

*  ease  SAac. 

*  palorum  SAac. 

*  oblinire  ac  :   oblinere  SA. 

*  immergere  scripsi :  inmediri  SAc :  inmederi  a :  immergerei 

*  arbore  a  :  arbores  SAc. 
'  brevi  ac  :    breve  8 A. 

*  deposita  SAac. 

*  et  alere  Sac  :  et  alaerit  A . 

'"  et  chorda  scripsi  :   cordo  SAac. 

"  singuli  SAac. 

12  duabus  SAa :  duobus  c.  i'  stabiles  SAac. 


BOOK  V.  IX.  3-6 

sunk  into  the  ground  in  an  inverted  position,  it  will 
take  root  with  difficulty  and,  when  it  has  gained 
more  strength,  it  will  be  barren  for  ever.  You  will 
have  to  smear  the  tops  and  lower  ends  of  the  slips 
with  a  mixture  of  dung  and  ashes  and  plunge  them 
completely  underground  in  such  a  way  that  there 
may  be  four  inches  of  loose  earth  above  them.  But  the 
slips  should  be  provided  mth  two  marking-pegs,  one 
on  each  side  ;  these  are  of  any  kind  of  wood  and  are 
placed  a  little  distance  away  from  the  slips  and  are 
tied  together  with  a  band,  so  that  they  may  not 
easily  be  knocked  over  separately.  It  is  expedient 
to  do  this  because  of  the  unobservance  of  the  diggers, 
so  that,  when  you  start  tilling  your  nursery  with 
mattocks  or  hoes,  the  slips  which  you  have  planted 
may  not  be  injured. 

Some  people  think  it  better  to  cultivate  olive-trees 
by  means  of  buds  and  to  arrange  them  by  means  of 
a  cord  on  a  similar  principle ;  *  but  in  either  case  the 
planting  ought  to  take  place  after  the  spring 
equinox,  and  during  the  first  year  the  nursery  ought 
to  be  hoed  over  as  often  as  possible.  In  the  follow- 
ing and  subsequent  years,  when  the  rootlets  of  the 
plants  have  gained  strength,  they  should  be  cul- 
tivated with  rakes ;  but  for  the  first  two  years  it  is 
best  to  abstain  from  pruning,  and  in  the  third  year 
two  little  branches  should  be  left  on  each  plant,  and 
the  nursery  should  be  frequently  hoed.  In  the 
fourth  year  the  weaker  of  the  two  branches  should 
be  cut  away.  Thus  cultivated  the  small  trees  are 
fit  for  transplantation  in  five  years.     In  dry  soil  and 

"  The  text  here  is  apparently  corrupt  beyond  emendation  : 
the  above  is  a  translation  of  the  reading  of  the  MSS.  with  one 
slight  change. 



in  oliveto  disponuntur  optime  siccis  minimeque 
uliginosis  agris  per  autumnum,  laetis  et  humidis 
verno  tempore,  paulo  antequam  germinent.  Atque 
ipsis  scrobes  quarternum  pedum  praeparantur  anno 
ante,  vel  si  tempus  non  largitur,  priusquam  de- 
ponantur  arbores,^  stramentis  ^  atque  virgis  iniectis  ' 
incendantur  scrobes,  ut  eos  ignis  putres  faeiat,  quos 
sol  et  pruina  *  facere  debuerat.  Spatium  inter- 
medium esse  debet  ^  pingui  et  frumentario  solo 
sexagenum  pedum  in  alteram  partem,  atque  in 
alteram  quadragenum  :  macro  nee  idoneo  segetibus, 
quinum  ^  et  vicenum ''  pedum.  Sed  in  Favonium 
dirigi  ordines  convenit,  ut  aestivo  perflatu  refrige- 

Ipsae  autem  arbusculae  hoc  modo  possunt  trans- 
ferri :  antequam  explantes  arbusculam  solo,^  rubrica 
notato  partem  eius,  quae  meridiem  spectat,  ut  eodem 
modo,  quo  in  seminario  erat,^  deponatur.  Deinde  ^^ 
arbusculae  spatium  pedale  in  circuitu  relinquatur, 
atque  ita  cum  suo  caespite  planta  eruatur.  Qui 
caespes  in  eximendo  ne  resolvatur  ,i  ^  modicos  surculos  ^^ 
virgarum  inter  se  connexos  facere  oportet,  eosque 
pilae,^^  quae  eximitur,^*  applicare,  et  viminibus  ita 

^  deponantur  arbores  a  :   deponatur  arbore  SAc. 

*  stramentio  Poniedera  :  sistam  rectis  c  :  sustain  rectiua 
A  :   si  tam  rectis  a. 

*  atque  virgis  insectis  S  :   om  Aac. 

*  pruina  a  :   ruina  SAc. 

*  spatium  intermedium  esse  debet  pingui  Poniedera : 
spatia  ut  vitis  me  deberit  pingui  S :  spatium  ut  as  me  deberit 
pingui  A  :  spatium  minime  debebit  pingiu  a  :  spatia  vitis  erit 
pungui  c. 

*  quidam  5.4  a :  -em  c. 

'  vicenum  Ursinus  :   vicesimum  SA  :   vigesimura  ac. 

*  plantam  pars  arbuscula  sole  SAac, 

*  et  id  SAac. 


BOOK  V.  IX.  6-8 

where  there  is  very  little  moisture  the  plants  are  best 
put  out  in  the  olive-grove  during  the  autumn,  but, 
where  the  soil  is  I'ich  and  damp,  in  the  spring  just 
before  they  come  into  bud.  Four-foot  plant-holes 
are  prepared  for  them  a  year  earlier,  or,  if  there  is 
not  an  abundance  of  time  before  the  trees  are 
planted,  let  straw  and  twigs  be  thrown  in  and  the 
plant-holes  burnt,  so  that  the  fire  may  make  them 
friable,  as  the  sun  and  frost  ought  to  have  done.  On 
ground  which  is  rich  and  fit  for  growing  corn  the  space 
between  the  rows  ought  to  be  sixty  feet  in  one 
direction  and  forty  in  the  other :  if  the  soil  is  poor 
and  not  suitable  for  crops,  twenty-five  feet.  But  it 
is  proper  that  the  rows  should  be  aligned  towards  the 
west,  that  they  may  be  cooled  by  the  summer-breeze 
blowing  through  them. 

The  small  trees  themselves  may  be  transplanted 
in  the  following  manner.  Before  you  pull  up  a  little 
tree  from  the  soil,"  mark  on  it  with  ruddle  the  side 
of  it  which  faces  south,  so  that  it  may  be  planted  in 
the  same  manner  as  in  the  nursery.  Next  let  a 
space  of  one  foot  be  left  round  the  little  tree  in  a  circle 
and  then  let  the  plant  be  pulled  up  with  its  own  turf, 
and  that  this  turf  may  not  be  broken  up  in  the  process 
of  removal,  you  must  weave  together  moderate-sized 
twigs  taken  from  rods  and  apply  them  to  the  lump  of 
earth  which  is  being  removed  and  so  bind  it  with 

"  The  text  here  is  quite  uncertain,  but  the  sense  is  obvious. 

^°  post  deinde  add.  ut  SAa  :  aut  c. 

^1  solvatur  SAac. 

1^  modico  surculos  SAac. 

1^  pilae  quae  scripsi  :  pila  qua  S  :  pila  quae  Aac. 

^*  eximitur  c  :   eximuntur  SAa. 



innectere,  ut  constricta  terra  ^  velut  inclusa  teneatur. 

9  Turn  subruta  parte  ima  leviter  pilam  ^  commovere,  et 
suppositis  virgis  alligare,  atque  plantam  transferre. 
Quae  antequam  deponatur,^  oportebit  solum  scrobis 
confodere  *  bidentibus  :  deinde  terram  aratro  subac- 
tam,  si  tamen  pinguior  erit  summa  humus,  immittere,^ 
et  ita  seminibus  substernere,  et  si  ^  consistet '  in 
scrobibus  aqua,  ea  omnis  haurienda  est,  antequam  ^ 
demittantur  arbores.  Deinde  ingerendi  minuti  la- 
pides  vel  glarea  mixta  pingui  solo,  depositisque 
seminibus   latera   scrobis   circumcidenda,   et   aliquid 

10  stercoris  interponendum.  Quod  si  cum  sua  terra 
plantam  ^  transferre  ^^  non  convenit,  tum  optimum  est 
omni  fronde  privare  truncum,  atque  levatis  plagis 
caenoque  ^^  et  cinere  oblitis,^^  in  ^^  scrobem  vel  sulcum 
deponere.  Truncus  autem  aptior  translationi  est,^* 
qui  bracchii  crassitudinem  habet.  Poterit  etiam  longe 
maioris  incrementi  et  robustioris  transferri.  Quern 
ita  convenit  poni,  ut,  si  non  periculum  a  pecore  habeat, 
exiguus  admodum  supra  scrobem  emineat :  laetius 
enim  frondet.  Si  tamen  incurs-us  pecoris  aliter  vitari 
non    poterit,   celsior^^   truncus    constituetur,   ut    sit 

^  constrictae  terrae  SAac  *  pilam  SAac. 

^  deponantur  SAac. 

*  confodere  scripsi :   copia  fodere  SAac. 
^  mittere  SAac. 

*  si  a  :   sic  SAc. 
'  constet  SAac. 

*  nusquam  SAa  :  nunquam  c. 

*  plantam  SAac. 

I*'  transferre  om.  SAac. 
"  caenoqne  S  :   cinoque  A  :    acinoque  ac. 
^^  obrutis  SAac.  ^'  in  om.  SAac. 

1*  truncus  autem  aptior  translationi  est  Oeaner  :     truncos 
gratus  autem  maturis  SAac. 
**  depressior  codex  Ooeaianua. 


BOOK  V.  IX.  8-10 

osiers  that  the  soil,  being  pressed  together,  may  be 
held  as  it  were  enclosed.  Then  having  dug  up  the  9 
lowest  part,  you  must  gently  move  the  lump  of  earth 
and  bind  it  to  the  rods  put  under  it  and  transfer  the 
plant.  Before  it  is  placed  in  the  ground,  you  will 
have  to  dig  up  the  soil  in  the  plant-hole  with  hoes ; 
then  you  should  put  in  soil  which  has  been  broken  up 
with  the  plough,  provided  that  the  top-soil  shall  be 
rather  rich,  and  strew  it  with  seeds  underneath ;  <* 
and,  if  there  is  any  water  standing  in  the  plant-holes, 
it  should  all  be  drained  away  before  the  trees  are  put 
in.  Next  minute  stones  or  gravel  mixed  with  rich 
soil  must  be  thrown  in  and,  after  seeds  have  been  put 
in,  the  sides  of  the  plant-hole  must  be  pared  away 
all  round  and  some  manure  put  in  among  them. 
If,  however,  it  is  not  convenient  to  remove  the  plant  10 
with  its  own  earth,  it  is  best  to  strip  the  stem  of  all 
its  leaves  and,  after  smoothing  its  wounds  and  daubing 
them  with  mud  and  ashes,  place  it  in  the  plant-hole 
or  furrow.  A  stem  is  quite  ready  for  moving ''  which 
is  as  thick  as  a  man's  arm ;  one  of  much  greater 
and  stronger  growth  can  also  be  transplanted,  but  it 
must  be  so  placed  if  it  is  not  in  any  danger  from 
cattle,  that  only  a  little  of  it  projects  above  the 
plant-hole ;  it  then  produces  more  luxuriant  foliage. 
If,  however,  the  attacks  of  cattle  cannot  be  avoided 
in  any  other  way,  the  stem  will  be  planted  so  as  to 
project   further  from   the   ground,   so   that   it   may 

"  Schneider,  by  a  quotation  from  Palladius  III.  18,  who  is 
there  copying  Columella,  shows  that  it  was  customary  to  strew 
barley-seeds  in  the  bottom  of  the  hole  in  which  a  tree  was  about 
to  be  planted  in  order  to  cause  fermentation;  compare  also 
(Aristotle)  Problems,  XX.  8,  where  it  is  said  that  barley-husks 
were  sprinkled  in  the  holes  in  which  celery  was  to  be  planted. 

''  The  reading  here  is  uncertain. 



11  innoxius  ab  iniuria  pecorum.  Atque  etiam  rigandae 
sunt  plantae,  cum  siccitates  incesserunt,  nee  nisi  post 
biennium  ferro  tangendae.^  Ae  primo  surculari 
debent,  ita  ut  simplex  stilus  altitudinem  maximi 
bovis  2  excedat ;  deinde  arando  ne  ^  coxam  bos, 
aliamve  partem  corporis  ofFendat,  optimum  est  etiam 
constitutas  plantas  circummunire  ^  caveis. 

Deinde  constitutum  iam  et  maturum  olivetum  in 
duas  partes  dividere,  quae  alternis  annis  fructu  in- 
duantur.     Neque  enim  olea  continuo  biennio  uberat.^ 

12  Cum  subiectus  ager  consitus  non  est,  arbor  ^  co- 
liculum  agit :  cum  seminibus  repletur,  fructum  affert ; 
ita  sic  divisum  olivetum  omnibus  annis  aequalem 
reditum  adfert.'  Sed  id  minime  bis  anno  arari 
debet :  et  bidentibus  alte  circumfodiri.  Nam  post 
solstitium  cum  terra  aestibus  hiat,  curandum  est,  ne 

13  per  rimas  sol  ad  radices  arborum  ^  penetret.  Post 
aequinoctium  autumnale  ita  sunt  arbores  ablaque- 
andae,  ut  a  superiore  parte,  si  olea  in  clivo  ^  sit, 
incilia  ^°  excitentur,  quae  ad  codicem  deducant 
aquam.  Omnis  deinde  soboles,  quae  ex  imo  stirpe 
nata  est,  quotannis  extirpanda  est,  ac  tertio  quoque 
fimo  pabulandae  sunt  oleae.  Atque  eadem  ratione 
stercorabitur  olivetum,  quam  in  secundo  libro  pro- 

^  tangeri  de  SA  :  tangi  debeat  a  :  tangi  de  hac  c. 

*  bovis  Oesner  :  scrobis  SAac. 
^  ne  post  arando  om.  SAac. 

*  circumvenire  SAac. 

*  eberat  S  :   deberat  Aa  :   debeat  c. 

*  arbori  SAac. 

'  ita  sic — adfert  om.  Sa. 

*  arborem  SA:  arborum  ac. 

*  clivoso  SAa. 

1"  incilia  S  :  inciUcia  Aac. 


BOOK  V.  IX.  10-13 

be  free  from  such  injury  by  cattle.  The  plants  must  11 
also  be  watered,  when  droughts  occur,  and  they  must 
not  be  touched  with  the  knife  unless  two  years  have 
passed;  and,  firstly,  they  ought  to  be  trimmed  so 
that  there  is  only  a  single  stem  which  exceeds  the 
height  of  the  tallest  ox ;  and,  secondly,  lest  in 
ploughing  an  ox  should  hit  it  with  his  haunch  or  any 
other  part  of  his  body,  it  is  best  to  protect  the  plants 
with  fences,  even  plants  that  are  established. 

When  the  olive  grove  is  established  and  has 
reached  maturity,  you  must  divide  it  into  two  parts, 
so  that  they  may  be  clothed  with  fruit  in  alternate 
years ;  for  the  olive-tree  does  not  produce  an 
abundance  two  years  in  succession.  When  the  12 
ground  underneath  has  not  been  sown  with  a  crop,  the 
tree  is  putting  forth  its  shoots  ;  when  the  ground  is  full 
of  sown  crop,  the  tree  is  bearing  fruit ;  the  olive-grove, 
therefore,  being  thus  divided,  gives  an  equal  return 
every  year.  But  it  ought  to  be  ploughed  at  least  twice 
a  year  and  dug  deep  all  round  the  trees  with  hoes  ;  for 
after  the  solstice,  when  the  ground  gapes  open  from 
the  heat,  care  must  be  taken  that  the  sun  does  not 
penetrate  to  the  roots  of  the  trees  through  the 
cracks.  After  the  autumn  equinox  the  trees  ought  13 
to  be  trenched  all  round,  so  that,  if  the  olive-grove  is 
on  a  slope,  ditches  may  be  formed  from  the  higher 
ground  to  convey  water  to  the  trunks  of  the  trees. 
Next  every  shoot  which  springs  from  the  lowest  part 
of  the  stem  must  be  removed  each  year,  and  every 
third  year  the  olive-trees  must  be  fed  with  dung. 
The  olive-grove  will  be  manured  by  the  same  method 
as  that  which  I  suggested  in  the  second  book,"  if, 

'  Book  II.  15.  1-3. 



14  posui,  si  1  tamen  segetibus  prospicietur.  At  si  ipsis 
tantummodo  arboribus,  satisfacient  ^  singulis  ster- 
coris  caprini  sex  librae,  vel^  stercoris  sicci  modii 
singuli,  vel  amurcae  insulsae  congius  *  sufficient, 
Stercus  autumno  debet  inici,  ut  permirtum  hieme 
radices  oleae  calefaciat.^  Amurca  minus  ^  valentibus 
infundenda  est.  Nam  "^  per  hiemem,  si  vermes  atque 
alia  suberunt  animalia,  hoc  medicamento  necantur. 

15  Plerumque  etiam  locis  siccis  et  humidis  arbores 
musco  infestantur.  Quem  nisi  ferramento  earn  * 
raseris,^  nee  fructum  nee  lactam  frondem  ^^  olea 
inducet.  Quin  etiam  compluribus  interpositis  annis 
olivetum  putandum  est :  nam  veteris  proverbii 
meminisse  convenit,  eum  qui  aret  olivetum,  rogare  ^^ 
fructum ;  qui  stercoret,  exorare  ;  qui  caedat,  cogere. 
Quod  tamen  satis  erit  octavo  anno  fecisse,  ne  fructu- 
arii  rami  subinde  amputentur. 

16  Solent  etiam  quamvis  laetae  arbores  fructum  non 
afFerre.  Eas  terebrari  gallica  terebra  convenit, 
atque  ita  in  foramen  ^^  viridem  taleam  ^^  oleastri  arete 
immitti.^*     Sic    velut    inita    arbor   fecundo    semine 

^  si  om.  SAac. 

*  satisfaciant  edd.  :    satis   servari   S  :   satis  servaveri   A : 
satis  servaveris  a  :  satis  servaverimus  c. 

^  vel  add.  Schneider. 

*  insulsae  congius  Schneider  :   in  singulis  condivis  SAc  :  in 
singulis  congiis  a. 

*  calefacit  SAac. 

*  minus  ex  Palladio  add.  Schneider. 
'  Post  nam  add.  eius  SAac. 

*  eam  scripsi :   ea  SAac. 

*  reseris  SA  :   resecaveris  ac. 
1"  laeta  fronde  SAac. 

'1  rigare  SAac. 


BOOK  V.  IX.  13-16 

that  is,  provision  is  going  to  be  made  for  a  crop  of 
corn."  If  you  are  providing  only  for  the  olive-trees  14 
themselves,  six  pounds  of  goat's  dung  or  a  single 
viodius  of  dry  dung  or  a  congius  of  unsalted  lees  of 
oil  will  suffice.  The  dung  ought  to  be  put  in  during  f 
the  autumn,  so  that,  being  thoroughly  mixed  in,  it  ' 
may  warm  the  roots  of  the  olive  in  the  winter.  The 
lees  of  oil  should  be  poured  upon  those  trees  which  are 
not  thriving  very  well ;  for  during  the  winter,  if  worms 
and  other  creatures  have  got  into  them,  they  are 
killed  by  this  treatment.  Generally  too  in  dry  as  well  15 
as  in  moist  places  the  trees  are  infested  with  moss, 
and  unless  you  scrape  it  off  with  an  iron  instrument, 
the  olive-tree  will  not  put  forth  fruit  or  an  abundance 
of  leaves.  Moreover,  the  olive-grove  must  be  pruned 
at  intervals  of  several  years;  for  it  is  well  to  re- 
member the  old  proverb  "  He  who  ploughs  the  olive- 
grove,  asks  it  for  fruit;  he  who  manures  it,  begs  for 
fruit ;  he  who  lops  it,  forces  it  to  yield  fruit."  How- 
ever, it  will  suffice  to  have  pruned  it  every  eighth 
year,  so  that  the  fruit-bearing  branches  may  not  be 
from  time  to  time  cut  off. 

It  happens  also  frequently  that,  though  the  trees  16 
are  thriving  well,  they  fail  to  bear  fruit.  It  is  a  good 
plan  to  bore  them  with  a  Gallic  auger  and  to  put 
tightly  into  the  hole  a  green  slip  taken  from  a  wild 
olive-tree ;  the  result  is  that  the  tree,  being  as  it  were 
impregnated  with  fruitful  offspring,  becomes  more  pro- 

"  I.e.  if  corn  is  being  sown  between  the  olive-trees. 

^*  formem  SAac. 

"  viridam  talem  SA  :  viridem  talem  ac. 

^*  partem  dimitti  Aac :  parte  dimitti  S. 



fertilior  extat.  Sed  ^  haec  ablaqueatione  adiuvanda 
est  amurcaque  insulsa  cum  suilla  vel  nostra  urina  ^ 
vetere,  cuius  utriusque  modus  servatur.^  Nam 
maximae  arbori,  ut  tantundem  aquae  misceatur,* 
urna  abunde  erit.     Solent  etiam  vitio  soli  ^  fructum 

17  oleae  negare.^  Cui  rei  sic  medebimur.  Altis  gyris 
ablaqueabimus  eas,  deinde  calcis  pro  magnitudine 
arboris  plus  minusve  circumdabimus  :  sed  minima 
arbor  modium  postulat.  Hoc  remedio  si  nihil  fuerit 
eflFectum,  ad  praesidium  insitionis  confugiendum  erit. 
Quemadmodum  autem  olea  inserenda  sit,  postmodo 
dicemus.  Non  nunquam  etiam  in  olea  unus  ramus 
ceteris  aliquanto  est  laetior.  Quem  nisi  recideris, 
tota  arbor  contristabitur. 

Ac  de  olivetis  hactenus  dixisse  satis  est.  Superest 
ratio '  pomiferarum  arborum,  cui  rei  deinceps 
praecepta  dabimus. 

X.  Modum  pomarii,  priusquam  semina  seras,  ^ 
circummunire  ^  maceriis  vel  saepe  vel  fossa  praecipio,^" 
nee  solum  pecori,  sed  et  homini  transitum  negare, 
quoniam  si  saepius  cacumina  manu  detracta  aut  a 
pecoribus  praerosa  sunt,  in  perpetuum  semina  in- 

2    crementum  capere  nequeunt.    Generatim  autem  dis- 

^  Post  sed  add.  si  SAac. 

^  nostra  urina  :    natura  SAac. 

'  servaturum  SAac. 

*  misceatur  ac  :   misatur  5.4. 

*  soli  a  :  sol  SAc. 

*  negare  S :  necare  Aac. 
^  ratio  om.  SAac. 


BOOK  V.  IX.  i6-x.  2 

ductive.  But  it  must  also  be  assisted  by  being  dug 
round  and  by  unsalted  lees  of  oil  mixed  with  pigs' 
urine  or  stale  human  urine,  a  fixed  quantity  of  each 
being  observed ;  for  a  very  large  tree  an  urn  will  be 
fully  enough,  if  the  same  quantity  of  water  is  mixed 
with  it.  Olive-trees  also  often  refuse  to  bear  fruit 
because  of  the  badness  of  the  soil.  This  we  shall  17 
remedy  in  the  following  manner.  We  shall  dig  deep 
trenches  in  circles  round  them  and  then  put  more  or 
less  lime  round  them  according  to  the  size  of  the  tree, 
though  the  smallest  tree  requires  a  modius.  If  there 
is  no  result  from  this  remedy,  we  shall  have  to  have 
recourse  to  the  assistance  of  grafting.  How  an  olive- 
tree  should  be  ingrafted  we  will  describe  hereafter. 
Sometimes  also  one  branch  of  an  olive-tree  flourishes 
somewhat  more  than  the  rest  and,  unless  you  cut  it 
back,  the  whole  tree  will  languish. 

This  must  suffice  for  our  description  of  olive-groves. 
It  remains  to  deal  with  the  treatment  of  fruit-bear- 
ing trees,  on  which  subject  we  will  give  instructions 

X.  <*  Before  you  set  the  plants  I  advise  you  to  protect  Pomiferous 
the  bounds  of  your  orchard  with  walls  or  a  fence  or  a 
ditch  and  to  deny  a  passage  not  only  to  cattle  but 
also  to  man,  for  if  their  tops  are  frequently  pulled 
off  by  the  hand  of  man  or  gnawed  away  by  cattle, 
the  plants  are  forever  unable  to  reach  their  full 
growth.     It  is  expedient  to  arrange  the  trees  accord-    2 

"  The  rest  of  this  book  is  slightly  longer  but  almost  identical 
with  de  Arhoribus,  Ch.  18  to  the  end. 

*  semina  seras  a  :   semiseras  SAc. 

*  circumvenire  SAac. 

^^  praecipio  S  :   praecipi  Ac  :   praecipiti  a. 



ponere  arbores  utile  est,  maxime  ne  ^  etiam  imbecilla 
a  valentiore  prematur,  quia  nee  viribus  nee  magnitu- 
dine  par  est,  imparique  spatio  temporis  adolescit. 
Terra,  quae  vitibus  apta  est,  etiam  arboribus  est 
utilis.  Ante  annum,  quam  seminare  voles,  scrobem 
fodies.2  Ita  sole  pluviisve  ^  macerabitur,  et  quod  * 
positum  est  cito  comprehendet.^  At  si  eodem  anno 
et  scrobem  facere  ^  et  arbores  serere  properabis,'' 
minime  autem  duos  menses  scrobes  ®  fodito,  postea 
stramentis  incensis  calefacito ;  quos  si  latiores 
patentioresque  feceris,*  laetiores  uberioresque  fructus 
percipies.  Sed  scrobis  clibano  similis  sit,  imus 
summo  ^^  patentior,  ut  laxius  radices  vagentur  ac 
minus  frigoris  hieme  ^^  minusque  aestate  vaporis  per 
angustum  os  penetret,^^  etiam  clivosis  locis  terra, 
quae  in  eum  congesta  est,  a  pluviis  non  abluatur. 

Arbores  raris  intervallis  serito,  ut,  cum  creverint, 
spatium  habeant,  quo  ramos  extend  ant.  Nam  si 
spisse  posueris,  nee  infra  serere  quid  poteris,  nee 
ipsae  fructuosae  erunt,  nisi  intervulseris :  itaque 
inter  ordines  quadragenos  pedes  minimumque  tri- 
cenos  relinquere  convenit.  Semina  lege  crassa  non 
minus     quam     manubrium     bidentis,     recta,     levia, 

^  ne  o  :   om.  SAc. 

*  fodies  SA  :    fodi  c  :    fodere  a  :   fodito  edd. 
'  phiviavc  a  :   pluviasve  c  :    pluviasne  SA. 

*  qua  c  :   qua  pedes  SAa. 

'  comprehendet  S  :   compedit  A  :   competet  ac. 
"  facere  om.  SAac. 

'  properabis  Brouckhusius  :  proibis  S  :  prohibis  A  :  pro- 
hibes  a  :   prohibe  c. 

*  autem  duos  menses  scrobes  add.  edd.  ex  libro  de  Arboribvs 
20,  1  :   om.  SAac. 

*  feceris  ac  :  seris  SA. 

^^  imus  summo  ex  libro  de  Arboribvs  I.e.  edd.  :  humus  sum- 
mum  S  :   humus  summus  a  :   umus  summum  Ac. 

BOOK  V.  X.  2-6 

ing  to  their  kinds,  chiefly  in  order  to  prevent  the 
weak  from  being  overwhelmed  by  the  stronger, 
because  the  former  is  not  equal  to  the  latter  either  in 
strength  or  in  size  and  reaches  maturity  in  a  different 
period  of  time.  Ground  which  is  suitable  for  vines 
is  also  advantageous  for  trees.  You  will  dig  the 
plant-hole  in  which  you  wish  to  put  a  plant  a  year 
beforehand,  for  then  it  will  be  softened  by  the  sun 
or  the  rain,  and  that  which  has  been  put  into  it  Avill 
take  root  quickly.  But  if  you  are  in  a  hurry  to  make 
the  plant-hole  and  to  set  the  plants  in  the  same 
year,  dig  the  plant-holes  at  least  two  months  before- 
hand and  afterwards  warm  the  holes  by  burning 
straw  in  them.  The  broader  and  wider  you  make 
them,  the  more  luxuriant  and  abundant  will  be  the 
fruit  which  you  will  gather.  Let  your  plant-hole  be 
like  an  oven,  wider  at  the  bottom  than  at  the  top, 
so  that  the  roots  may  spread  more  loosely,  and  less 
cold  in  winter  and  less  heat  in  summer  may  penetrate 
through  the  narrow  mouth,  and  also  that  on  sloping 
ground  the  earth  which  is  heaped  up  in  it  may  not  be 
washed  away  by  rains. 

Plant  the  trees  at  wide  intervals,  so  that,  when 
they  have  grown,  they  may  have  room  to  spread 
their  branches.  For  if  you  set  them  thickly,  neither 
will  you  be  able  to  plant  anything  underneath  them, 
nor  will  they  be  themselves  fruitful  unless  you  thin 
them  out ;  and  so  it  is  well  to  leave  forty  or  at  least 
thirty  feet  between  the  rows.  Choose  plants  at  least 
as  thick  as  the  handle  of  a  hoe  and  straight,  smooth, 

11  hieme  om.  SAac. 

1*  openetrum  SAc  :   penetrum  a. 



procera,  sine  ulceribus,  integro  libro.  Ea  bene  et 
celeriter  eomprehendent.  Si  ex  arboribus  ^  ramos  ^ 
sumes,^  de  iis  quae  quotannis  bonos  et  uberes  fructus 
afFerunt,  eligito  ab  humeris  *  qui  sunt  contra  solem 
orientem.  Si  cum  radice  plantam  posueris,  in- 
crementum  maius  futurum  quam  ceteris  senties. 
Arbor  insita  fructuosior  est  quam  quae  insita  non  est, 
id  est,  ^  quam  quae  ramis  ^  aut  plantis  ponetur.'' 
Sed  antequam  arbusculas  ^  transferas,^  nota  ventos 
quibus  ^^  antea  fuerant  constitutae,  postea  ^^  manus 
adhibeto  ^^  ut  de  clivo  et  sicco  in  ^^  humidum  agrum 
transferas.  Trifurcam  ^^  maxime  ponito.  Ea  extet  ^^ 
minime  tribus  pedibus.  Si  eodem  scrobe  duas  aut 
tres  arbusculas  voles  ^^  constituere,^'  curato  ne  inter  i® 
se  contingant,^^  nam  ita  vermibus  interibunt.^o  Cum 
semina  depones, ^^  dextra  sinistraque  usque  ^^  in  imum 
scrobem  fasciculos  ^3  sarmentorum  bracchii  crassitu- 
dinis  demittito,  ita  ut  supi-a  terram  paulum  extent, 

1  arboribus  Schneider  ex  libro  de  Arboribns  20,  1  :  veteribus 
Aac  :   veterius  S. 

^  ramis  SAc  :   rami  a. 

*  sumes  SA  :   summes  a  :  sumus  c. 

*  ab  humeris  Schneider  ex  libro  de  Arboribxis,  I.e.  :   ab  ilia 

*  orientem — id  est  add,  Schneider  ex  libro  de  Arboribus,  I.e. : 
om.  SAac. 

*  ramis  a  :   rimis  SAc. 

'   ocnentur/S:   conentur  ^ac. 

*  arbuscula  SAac. 

*  transferres  SAa  :   transferes  c. 

1**  ventos   quibus   scripsi :     viventis    quibus   Sa :     viveras 
quibus  A  :    vivenes(?)  quibus  c. 
11  ante  erunt  (runt  S)  constitui  possit  SAac. 
1*  adhibeto  S  :  adiuveto  Aac, 
'^  in  om.  SAac. 

1*  trifurcam  ac  :   trifurcamina  S  :   trifurcam  in  A. 
'5  extent  SAac, 


BOOK  V.  X.  6-8 

tall,  free  from  excrescences  and  with  sound  bark. 
Such  plants  will  take  root  well  and  quickly.  If  you 
take  branches  from  trees,  choose  them  from  those 
which  bear  good  and  abundant  fruit  every  year, 
taking  them  from  the  "  shoulders  "  which  face  the 
rising  sun.  If  you  have  set  a  plant  with  its  root  you 
will  perceive  that  the  growth  will  be  quicker  than  in 
the  other  plants.  A  tree  which  is  ingrafted  is  more 
fruitful  than  one  which  is  not,  that  is,  than  one 
which  is  planted  in  the  form  of  a  branch  or  of  a  small 
plant.  But,  before  you  transplant  small  trees,  note 
what  winds  they  had  formerly  faced,  and  afterwards 
get  to  work  and  transfer  them  from  a  sloping,  dry 
position  to  moist  soil.  Preferably  plant  a  tree  which 
has  three  prongs,  and  let  it  project  at  least  three 
feet  from  the  ground.  If  you  wish  to  put  two  or  three 
small  trees  in  the  same  trench,  take  care  that  they  do 
not  touch  one  another,  since  then  they  will  be  killed 
by  worms.  When  you  set  plants,  lower  right  into 
the  bottom  of  the  trench,  on  the  right  and  on  the  left 
hand  side,  bundles  of  twigs  of  the  thickness  of  the 
arm  in  such  a  way  that  they  project  a  little  above  the 
soil,  so  that  in  summer  you  may  with  little  trouble 

1*  voles  c  :   volens  SAa. 

I''  constituere  SAac. 

**  puter  SAac. 

1'  constringat  SAac. 

*°  nam  ita  vermibus  interibunt  scripsi  ex  libra  de  Arboribvs 
20,  2  :  aut  verbi  ut  interibunt  8  :  aut  verbi  aut  interibunt 

^^  cum  semina  depones  ex  libra  de  Arboribus  I.e.  Schneider  : 
depone  Aac  :   depones  iS. 

22  usque  ac  :   us  SA. 

23  fasciculas  SA. 



per  quos  aestate  parvo  labore  aquam  radicibus  sub- 
ministres.     Arbores  ac  semina  cum  radicibus  autum- 

9  no  serito,  hoc  est  circa  idus  Octob. ;  taleas  et  ramos  ^ 
prime  vere,2  antequam^  germinent*  arbores, deponito : 
ac  ne  tinea  molesta  sit  seminibus  ficulneis,  in  imum 
scrobem  lentisci  taleam  inverse  cacumine  demittito. 

P'icum  frigoribus  ne  serito.  Loca  aprica,  calculosa, 
glareosa,  interdum  et  saxeta  amat.  Eiusmodi  arbor 
cito  convalescit,  si  scrobes  amplos  patentesque  feceris. 

10  Ficorum  genera,^  etsi  sapore  atque  habitu  distant, 
uno  modo,  sed  pro  differentia  agri  seruntur.  Locis 
frigidis  et  autumni  temporibus  ^  aquosis  praecoques 
ponito  ut  ante  pluviam  fructum  deligas :  locis 
calidis  hibernas  serito.  At'  si  voles  ficum  quamvis 
non  natura  seram  facere,  tunc  grossulos,  prioremve 
fructum  decutito,^  ita  alterum  edet,^  quem  in  hie- 
mem^'^  difFeret.  Non  nunquam  etiam,  cum  frondere^^ 
coeperint  arbores,  cacumina  fici  ferro  summa  prodest 
amputare  :  sic  firmiores  arbores  et  feraciores  sunt ; 
ac  semper  conveniet,  simulatque  folia  agere  coeperit 
ficus,  rubricam   amurca  ^^  diluere,  et   cum   stercore 

11  humano  ad  radicem  infundere.  Ea  res  efficit 
uberiorem  fructum,  et  farctum  ^'  fici  pleniorem  ac 

^  taleas  et  ramos  addidi  ex  libro  de  Arboribvs,  20,  3. 

*  primo  vers  edd. :  removerere  S  :   removeret  Aac. 
'  antequam  edd. :   qua  S :  equam  A  :    aqiiam  ac. 

*  germinant  SAac. 

*  fico  genera ta  SAac. 

*  temporis  SAac. 
'  aut  SAac. 

*  decutit  SAac. 
»  det  SAac. 

'"  hieme  SAac. 

''  frondere  Aac  :   fronde  S. 

1*  amurgam  S. 


BOOK  V.  X.  8-1 1 

convey  water  through  them  to  the  roots.  Set  trees 
and  seedlings  with  roots  in  autumn,  that  is,  about 
October  15th,  but  plant  cuttings  and  branches  in  9 
the  early  spring  before  the  trees  begin  to  bud ;  and, 
in  order  that  the  moth  may  not  damage  fig-tree 
seedlings,  put  in  the  bottom  of  the  trench  a  slip  from 
a  mastic-tree  with  its  top  inverted. 

Do  not  plant  a  fig-tree  in  cold  weather.  It  likes 
sunny  positions,  where  there  are  pebbles  and  gravel, 
and  sometimes  also  rocky  places.  This  kind  of  tree 
quickly  gains  strength  if  you  make  your  trenches 
roomy  and  wide.  The  various  kinds  of  fig-tree,  al-  10 
though  they  differ  greatly  in  flavour  and  habit,  are 
planted  in  the  same  manner,  allowance  being  made  for 
the  difference  of  soil.  In  cold  places  and  where  the 
autumn  season  is  wet,  you  should  plant  those  whose 
fruits  ripen  early,  so  that  you  may  gather  the  fruit 
before  the  rain  comes  ;  but  plant  winter  figs  in  warm 
places.  If,  on  the  other  hand,  you  wish  to  make  a 
fig-tree  bear  late  fruit,  which  it  does  not  naturally 
do,  shake  down  the  unripe  or  early  fruit,  and  it  will 
then  produce  another  crop  which  it  will  defer  to  the 
winter.  Sometimes  too,  when  the  trees  begin  to  bear 
leaves,  it  is  beneficial  to  cut  off  the  extreme  tops  of 
the  fig-tree  with  a  knife ;  the  trees  are  then  sturdier 
and  more  prolific.  It  will  be  always  a  good  plan,  as 
soon  as  the  fig-tree  begins  to  put  forth  leaves,  to 
dissolve  ruddle  in  lees  of  olive-oil  and  pour  it  together 
with  human  ordure  over  the  roots.  This  makes  the  11 
fruit  more  abundant  and  the  inner  part  of  the  fig  fuller 

1'  farctum  add.  edd.  ex  libro  de  Arboribus  21,  2  :    partum 



meliorem.  Serendae  sunt  autem  praecipue  Livi- 
anae,^  Africanae,  Chalcidicae,  Fulcae,  Lydiae,  Calli- 
struthiae,^  Astropiae,^  Rhodiae  *  Libycae,  Tiburnae,^ 
omnes  etiam  biferae  et  triferae  flosculi. 

12  Nucem  Graecam  serito  circa  cal.  Febr,,  quia 
prima  gemmascit :  agrum  durum,  calidum,  siccum 
desiderat.  Nam  in  locis  diversis  nucem  si  depo- 
sueris,  plerumque  putrescit.  Antequam  nucem 
deponas,  in  aqua  mulsa  nee  nimis  dulci  macerato. 
Ita    iucundioris    saporis    fructum,    cum    adoleverit, 

13  praebebit,  et  interim  melius  atque  celerius  frondebit. 
Ternas  nuces  in  trigonum  statuito,  et  nux  a  nuce 
minime  palmo  absit,  et  apex  ^  ad  Favonium  spectet. 
Omnis  autem  nux  unam  radicem  mittit,  et  simplici 
stilo  prorepit.  Cum  ad  scrobis  solum  radix  pervenit, 
duritia  humi  coercita  recurvatur,  et  ex  se  in  modum 
ramorum  alias  radices  emittit. 

14  Nucem  Graecam  et  Avellanam  Tarentinam  facere 
hoc  modo  poteris.  In  quo  scrobe  destinaveris  nuces 
serere,'  in  eo  terram  minutam  in  modo^  semipedis 
ponito,  ibique  semen  ferulae  repangito.^  Cum  ferula 
fuerit  enata,  earn  findito,  et  in  medulla  eius  sine 

^  libianae  S. 

*  callistrustiae  S  :  callistrustiae  A  :  callistrusitae  c  :  calli- 
strusneae  a. 

*  astopiae  SA  :   asthopie  c  :   stopie  a. 

*  rhodie  ac  :  rohiae  SA. 

*  Tiburnae  scripsi  :  tybernae  Aa  :   tibeme  S  :  thibeme  c. 

*  apex  scripsi :   anceps  SAac. 

'  necesse  rere  SA  :  nee  esse  serere  a. 
'  in  modum  S  :  pro  modum  Aac. 

*  repangito  A  :  pangito  S  :  repaginate  c :  om.  a. 

"  Pliny,  N.H.  XV.  §  70.     It  is  said  to  have  been  called  after 
Livia,  the  wife  of  Augustus. 

*  Pliny,  N.H.  XIV.  §  69  :   called  after  Chalcis  in  Euboea. 


BOOK  V.  X.  11-14 

and  better.  You  should  chiefly  plant  the  Livian," 
African,  Chalcidian,^  Fulcan,''  Lydian,  Callistruthian,'* 
Astropian/ Rhodian,  Libyan  and  Tiburnian/ fig-trees, 
also  all  those  which  bear  a  floweret  twice  or  three 
times  a  year. 

You  should  plant  the  almond-tree,  since  it  is  the  12 
first  tree  to  put  out  buds,  about  February  1st.  It 
requires  hard,  warm,  dry  ground ;  for  if  you  plant  a 
nut  in  places  which  have  different  qualities  from 
these,  it  generally  rots.  Before  you  put  the  nut  in 
the  ground,  soak  it  in  honey-water,  which  should  not 
be  too  sweet ;  it  will  then,  when  it  comes  to  maturity, 
produce  fruit  of  a  pleasanter  flavour,  and  meanwhile 
its  foliage  will  grow  better  and  quicker.  Place  three  13 
nuts  so  as  to  form  a  ti'iangle  and  let  them  be  at  least 
a  hand's  breadth  away  from  one  another,  and  let  one 
apex  of  the  triangle  face  towards  the  West.  Every 
nut  sends  out  one  root  and  creeps  out  of  the  ground 
with  a  single  stem.  When  the  root  has  reached  the 
bottom  of  the  planting-hole,  it  is  checked  by  the 
hardness  of  the  soil  and  bent  back  and  puts  forth 
from  itself  other  roots  like  the  branches  of  a  tree. 

You  will  be  able  to  make  an  almond  and  a  filbert 
into  a  Tarentine  nut  in  the  following  manner.  In  14 
the  planting-hole  in  which  you  intend  to  sow  the 
nuts  place  fine  soil  to  a  depth  of  half  a  foot  and  set  in 
it  a  fennel-root.  When  the  fennel  has  grown  up, 
split  it  and  secrete  in  the  pith  of  it  an  almond  or  a 

'  This  kind  is  not  otherwise  mentioned  and  the  name  is 
perhaps  corrupt. 

^  Book  X.  line  416  :  so  called  because  sparrows  {arpovdol) 
were  fond  of  it.     It  was  also  called  passeraria. 

'  This  kind  is  not  otherwise  mentioned  and  the  name  is 
perhaps  corrupt. 

■^  From  Tibur  in  Latium,  the  modem  Tivoli. 



putamine  nucem  Graecam  aut  Avellanam  abscondito, 
et  ita  adobruito.  Hoc  ante  calend.  Martias  facito, 
vel  etiam  inter  nonas  et  idus  Mart.  Eodem  tempore 
iuglandem  et  pineam  et  castaneam  serere  oportet. 

15  Malum  Punicum  vere^  usque  in  cal.  Aprilis  recta 
seritur.  Quod  si  acidum  aut  minus  dulcem  fructum 
feret,  hoc  modo  emendabitur.  Stercore  suillo 
et  humano  urinaque  vetere  radices  rigato.  Ea  res 
et  fertilem  arborem  reddet,  et  primis  annis  fructum 
vinosum  ;  post  quinquennium  dulcem,  et  apyrenum  ^ 
facit.  Nos  exiguum  admodum  laseris  vino  diluimus, 
et  ita  cacumina  arboris  summa  oblevimus.     Ea  res 

16  emendavit  acorem  malorum.  Mala  Punica  ne  in 
arbore  hient,^  remedio  sunt  ■*  lapides  tres,  si,  cum 
seres  ^  arborem,  ad  radicem  ipsam  coUocaveris.^  At 
si  iam  arborem  satam  '  habueris,  scillam  secundum 
radicem  arboris  serito.  Alio  modo,  cum  iam  matura 
mala  fuerint,  antequam  rumpantur,  ramulos,  quibus 
dependent,  intorqueto.  Eodem  modo  servabuntur 
incorrupta  etiam  toto  anno. 

17  Pyrum  autumno  ante  brumam  serito,  ita  ut 
minime  dies  xxv  ad  brumam  ^  supersint.  Quae  ut 
sit  ferax,  cum  adoleverit,  alte  cam  ablaqueato,  et 
iuxta  ipsam  radicem  truncum  findito,  et  in  ^  fissuram 
cuneum  ^"  tedae  pineae  adicito,  et  ibi  relinquito : 
deinde  adobruta  ablaqueatione  cinerem  supra  terram 

18  inicito.     Curandum  est  autem,  ut  quam  generosis- 

*  vere  edd.  ex  libro  de  Arboribus  23,  1  :  habere  SAac. 
^  aprinum  SAac. 

'  hient  a  :  lent  SA  :   ventre  medio  c. 

*  erit  SAac. 

^  seres  Aa  :   res  Sc. 

*  collocaveris  S  :   colueris  Aac. 
'  sitam  SAac. 

*  ad  brumam  ac  :  a  brumam  A  :  abruma  S. 


BOOK  V.  X.  14-18 

filbert  without  its  shell,  and  then  cover  it  over  with 
earth.  Do  this  before  March  1st  or  between 
March  7th  and  15th.  You  should  at  the  same  time 
plant  the  walnut,  the  pinenut  and  the  chestnut. 

It  is  correct  to  plant  the  pomegranate  in  the  spring  15 
up  to  April  1st.  But  if  it  bears  fruit  which  is  bitter 
and  not  sweet,  this  will  be  remedied  by  the  follow- 
ing method :  moisten  the  roots  with  sow-dung  and 
human  ordure  and  stale  urine.  This  will  both  render 
the  tree  fertile  and  during  the  first  years  cause  the 
fruit  to  have  a  vinous  taste  ;  after  five  years  it  makes 
it  sweet  and  its  kernels  soft.  We  ourselves  have 
mixed  just  a  little  juice  of  alexanders  with  wine  and 
smeared  the  uppermost  tops  of  the  tree.  This  has 
remedied  the  tartness  of  the  fruit.  To  prevent  16 
pomegranates  from  bursting  on  the  tree,  the  remedy 
is  to  place  three  stones  at  the  very  root  of  the  tree 
when  you  plant  it;  if,  however,  you  have  already 
planted  it  sow  a  squill  near  the  root  of  the  tree. 
According  to  another  method,  when  the  fruit  is  al- 
ready ripe  and  before  it  bursts,  you  should  twist  the 
little  boughs  on  which  it  hangs.  By  the  same  method 
the  fruit  will  keep  without  decaying  for  a  whole  year. 

Plant  the  pear-tree  in  the  autumn  before  winter  17 
comes,  so  that  at  least  twenty-five  days  remain  before 
mid-winter.  In  order  that  the  tree  may  be  fruitful 
when  it  has  come  to  maturity,  trench  deeply  round 
it  and  split  the  trunk  close  to  the  very  root  and  into 
the  fissure  insert  a  wedge  of  pitch-pine  and  leave  it 
there ;  then,  when  the  loosened  soil  has  been  filled 
in,  throw  ashes  over  the  ground.  We  must  take  18 
care  to  plant  our  orchards  with  the  most  excellent 

»  in  om.  SAac.  i*"  cuneo  SAac. 


VOL.  IT.  E 


simis  pyris  pomaria  conseramus.  Ea  sunt  Crustu- 
mina,  regia,  Signina,  Tarentina,  quae  Syria  dicuntur, 
purpurea,  superba,  hordeacea,  Aniciana,  Naeviana, 
Favoniana,  Lateritana,  Dolabelliana,  Turraniana, 
volaema,  mulsa,i  praecocia,  venerea,  et  quaedam  alia, 

19  quorum  enumeratio  nunc  longa  est.  Praeterea 
malorum  genera  exquirenda  maxime  Scaudiana,^ 
Matiana,  orbiculata,  Cestina,  Pelusiana,^  Amerina, 
Syrica,  melimela,  Cydonia  :  quorum  genera  tria  sunt, 
struthia,*  chrysomelina,  mustea.  Quae  omnia  non 
solum  voluptatem,  sed  etiam  salubritatem  afFerunt. 
Sorbi  quoque  et  Armeniaci  atque  Persici  non  minima 
est     gratia.     Mala,     sorba,     pruna,     post     mediam 

20  hiemem  ^  usque  in  idus  Feb.  serito.  Mororum  ^  ab 
idib.  Feb.  usque  ad  aequinoctium  vernum  satio  est. 

^  mulsa  ac  :  mulsia  8 A. 

^  Scaudiana  scripsi :   Scaidianam  S  :   Gaudiana  Aac. 

*  pedusiana  SAac. 

*  struthia  Aac  :  struti  <S'. 

*  hiemem  edd.  ex  libro  de  Arboribus  25,   1  :    essem  SA  : 
messem  ac. 

*  mororum  edd.  ex  libro  de  Arboribus  I.e.  :   malorum  SA. 

"  From  Crustumium  in  Etruria. 

"  From  Signia  in  Latium. 

"  So  called,  according  to  Pliny  {N.H,  XV.  §  55)  because  they 
are  ripe  at  the  time  of  the  barley-harvest. 

**  So  called  from  the  person  who  introduced  it  (Pliny,  I.e. ; 
Cato,  li.R.,  VII.  3). 

«  Probably  called  after  a  member  of  the  gens  Naevia,  who 
perhaps  also  introduced  the  Naevian  olive  (Book  XII.  50.  1). 

■^  Called  after  M.  Favonius,  an  imitator  of  Cato  (Cicero,  Alt. 
I.  14.  5). 

'  From  Laterium  near  Arpinum,  where  Q.  Cicero  had  a  villa 
(Cicero,  AH.  XI,  1). 


BOOK  V.  X.  18-20 

pear-trees  that  we  can  find.  These  are  the  Crustu- 
minian,"  the  Royal,  the  Signine,*  the  Tarentine, 
which  are  called  Syrian,  the  Purple,  the  Superb, 
the  Barley-pear,"  the  Anician,**  the  Naevian,«  the 
Favonian,/  the  Lateritan,?  the  Dolabellian,''  the 
Turranian,'  the  Warden-pear,i  the  Honey-pear,  the 
Early-ripe,  the  Venus-pear  and  certain  others,  which 
it  is  a  long  task  to  enumerate  now.  Moreover,  the  19 
following  kinds  of  apple  should  be  especially  sought 
after,  the  Scaudian,*  the  Matian,^  the  Globe- 
apple,  the  Cestine,"*  the  Pelusian,"  the  Amerian," 
the  Syrian,  the  Honey-apple  and  the  CydonianP 
(of  which  there  are  three  kinds,  the  Sparrow- apple, 
the  Golden  apple  and  the  Must-apple  ?).  All  these 
cause  not  only  pleasure  but  also  good  health. 
Service-apples  also  and  apricots  and  peaches  have  no 
small  charm.  You  should  plant  apple-trees,  service- 
trees  and  plum  trees  after  the  middle  of  winter  and 
until  February  13th.  The  time  for  planting  mul-  20 
berries  is  from  February  13th  to  the  spring  equinox. 

*  Called  after  an  unknown  member  of  the  Dolabella 

'  Called  after  D.  Turranius  Niger,  the  friend  of  Varro 
(Varro,  R.R.  II.  Introd.  6). 

^  Vergil,  Oeorg.  88.  Servius  derives  the  name  from  vola 
and  says  it  means  "  hand-filler." 

*  Called  after  a  certain  Scaudius  (Pliny,  N.H.  XV.  §  49). 

'  Called  after  C.  Matius,  a  favourite  of  Augustus  (Book  XII. 
46.  1). 

"*  Called  after  a  certain  Cestius  (Pliny,  loc.  cit.). 

"  From  Pelusium  in  north  Egypt. 

"  From  Ameria,  a  town  of  Umbria. 

**  Malum  Cydonium  is  the  quince.  Cydonia  is  a  town  in 

«  So  called  according  to  Pliny  (N.H.  XV.  §  51)  because  it 
ripens  quickly. 



Siliquam  Graecam,  quam  quidam  Kepdriov  vocant,  et 
Persicum  ante  brumam  per  autumnum  serito. 
Amygdala,  si  parum  ferax  erit,  forata  arbore  lapidem 
adicito,  et  ita  librum  arboris  inolescere  sinito. 

21  Omnium  autem  generum  ramos  ^  circa  cal.  Martias 
in  hortis  subacta  ^  et  stercorata  terra  super  pulvinos 
arearum  disponere  convenit.  Danda  est  opera,  ut 
dum  teneros  ramulos  habent,  veluti  pampinentur,  et 
ad  unum  stilum  primo  anno  semina  redigantur.  Et 
cum  autumnus  incesserit,  ante  quam  frigus  cacumina 

22  adurat,  omnia  folia  decerpere  expedit,  et  ita  crassis 
arundinibus,  quae  ab  una  parte  nodos  integros  ha- 
beant,  velut  pileis  ^  induere,  atque  a  frigore  et 
gelicidiis  teneras  adhuc  *  virgas  tueri.  Post  viginti 
quattuor  deinde  menses  sive  transferre  et  disponere 
in  ordinem  voles,  sive  inserere,  satis  tuto  utrumque  ^ 
facere  poteris.' 

XI.  Sed  omnis  surculus  omni  arbori  inseri  potest, 
si  non  est  ei,  cui  inseritur,  cortice  dissimilis.  Si  vero 
etiam  similem  fructum  et  eodem  tempore  afFert,  sine 
scrupulo  egregie  inseritur.  Tria  genera  porro  in- 
sitionum  antiqui  tradiderunt.  Unum,  quo  resecta  et 
fissa  arbor  resectos  "^  surculos  accipit.     Alterum,  quo 

^  ramos  8  :  ramis  A  :  ramus  ac. 

^  subacta  edd.  ex  libro  de  Arboribus  I.e.  :  in  hostis  tritta 
SA  :  trita  a  :   truta  c. 

'  pileis  edd.  :  tiliae  sic  SAc  :  taliae  sic  a. 

*  adhuc  edd.  ex  libro  de  Arboribus  I.e.  :  adit  ut  SAc  :  adit  et 

*  utrumque  edd.  ex  libro  de  Arboribus  I.e.  :  utrius  SAa  : 
utriusque  c. 

*  poteris  om.  SAac. 

'  resectos  Ac  :  sextos  S  :  resoptos  a. 


BOOK  V.  X.  20-xi.  I 

The  carob-tree,  which  some  people  called  Ceration,"^  and 
the  peach-tree  you  should  plant  during  the  autumn 
before  winter  comes.  If  an  almond  is  not  productive 
enough,  make  a  hole  in  the  tree  and  drive  in  a  stone 
and  so  allow  the  bark  of  the  tree  to  grow  over. 

It  is  proper  to  plant  out  the  branches  of  all  kinds  of  21 
fruit  trees  about  March  1st  in  gardens  on  raised  beds 
after  the  soil  has  been  well  worked  and  manured. 
Care  must  be  taken  to  trim  them  while  the  little 
branches  are  young  and  tender  and  in  the  first  year 
the  seedlings  should  be  reduced  to  a  single  stem. 
When  autumn  has  come  on,  before  the  cold  nips  the 
tops,  it  is  well  to  strip  off  all  the  foliage  and  to  cover 
the  trees  with  caps,  as  it  were,  of  thick  reeds  which  22 
have  their  knots  intact  on  one  side,  and  thus  protect 
the  still  tender  rods  from  cold  and  frosts.  Then 
after  twenty-four  months  you  will  be  able  quite  safely 
to  do  whichever  you  wish  of  two  things — either  to 
transplant  and  arrange  them  in  rows  or  else  to  en- 
graft them. 

XI.  Any  kind  of  scion  can  be  grafted  on  any  tree,  The  graft- 
if  it  is  not  dissimilar  in  respect  of  bark  to  the  tree  in  t"fes. 
which  it  is  grafted ;  indeed  if  it  also  bears  similar 
fruit  and  at  the  same  season,  it  can  perfectly  well 
be  grafted  without  any  scruple.  Further,  the 
ancients  have  handed  down  to  us  three  kinds  of 
grafting ;  one  in  which  the  tree,  which  has  been  cut 
and  cleft,  receives  the  scions  which  have  been  cut; 
the  second,  in  which  the  tree  having  been  cut  admits 

"  Kepdriov,  which  is  found  in  the  same  sense  as  here  in  an  in- 
scription at  Abydos  {O.G.I. ,  5.  21. 27),  is  used  in  Luke  XV.  16  of 
the  "  husks  "  eaten  by  the  Prodigal  Son.  The  name  is  no  doubt 
due  to  the  shape  of  carob-nuts,  which  Pliny  {N.H.  XV.  §  95) 
describes  as  "  sometimes  curved  like  a  sickle." 



resecta  inter  librum  et  materiam  semina  admittit. 
Quae  utraque  genera  veris  temporis  sunt.  Tertium, 
quo  ipsas  gemmas  cum  exiguo  cortice  in  partem  sui 
delibratam  recipit,  quam  vocant  agricolae  emplastra- 
tionem  ;  vel,  ut  quidam,  inoculationem.  Hoc  genus 
insitionis  aestivo  tempore  optime  usurpatur.  Quarum 
insitionum  rationem  cum  tradiderimus,  a  nobis  re- 
pertam  quoque  docebimus. 

Omnes  arbores  simulatque  gemmas  agere  coe- 
perint,^  luna  crescente  inserito ;  olivam  autem  circa 
aequinoctium  vernum  usque  in  idus  Aprilis.  Ex  qua 
arbore  inserere  voles,  et  surculos  ad  insitionem  sumes, 
videto  ut  sit  tenera  et  ferax  nodisque  crebris :  et 
cum  primum  germina  tumebunt,^  de  ramulis  anni- 
culis,  qui  solis  ortum  spectabunt,  et  integri  erunt,  eos 
legito  crassitudine  digiti  minimi.  Surculi  sint  bi- 
furci  vel  trifurci.  Arborem,  quam  inserere  voles, 
serra  diligenter  exsecato  ^  ea  parte,  qua  maxima  nit- 
ida  et  sine  cicatrice  est :  *  dabisque  operam,  ne  librum 
laedas.  Cum  deinde  truncum  recideris,  acuto  ferra- 
mento  plagam  levato.  Deinde  quasi  cuneum  tenuera 
ferreum  vel  osseum  inter  corticem  et  materiam  ne 
minus  digitos  tres,  sed  considerate,  demittito,  ne 
laedas  aut  rumpas  corticem.  Postea  surculos  quos 
inserere   voles  falce    acuta   ex  ima  parte  deradito 

^  coeperit  SAa  :   coepit  c. 

"  tumibunt  SAac. 

'  excato  S :  exsecato  Aa ;  excecato  c. 

«   QtS. 

'  So  called  from  the  plaster  of  clay  or  wax  used  in  this 


BOOK  V.  XI.  1-4 

grafts  between  the  bark  and  the  hard  wood  (both 
these  methods  belong  to  the  season  of  spring) ;  and 
the  third,  when  the  tree  receives  actual  buds  with  a 
little  bark  into  a  part  of  it  which  has  been  stripped 
of  the  bark.  The  last  kind  the  husbandmen  call 
emplastration  *  or,  according  to  some,  inoculation.* 
This  type  of  grafting  is  best  employed  in  the  summer. 
When  we  have  imparted  the  method  of  these  graft- 
ings, we  will  also  set  forth  another  which  we  have 

You  should  engraft  all  other  trees  as  soon  as  they 
begin  to  put  forth  buds  and  when  the  moon  is 
waxing,  but  the  olive-tree  about  the  spring  equinox 
and  until  April  13th.  See  that  the  tree  from  which 
you  intend  to  graft  and  are  going  to  take  scions  for 
insertion  is  young  and  fruitful  and  has  frequent 
knots  and,  as  soon  as  the  buds  begin  to  swell,  choose 
from  among  the  small  branches  which  are  a  year  old 
those  which  face  the  sun's  rising  and  are  sound  and 
have  the  thickness  of  the  little  finger.  The  scions 
should  have  two  or  three  points.  You  should  cut 
the  tree  into  which  you  wish  to  insert  the  scion  care- 
fully with  a  saw  in  the  part  which  is  most  healthy 
and  free  from  scars,  and  you  will  take  care  not  to 
damage  the  bark.  Then,  when  you  have  cut  away 
part  of  the  trunk,  smooth  over  the  wound  with  a  sharp 
iron  instrument ;  then  put  a  kind  of  thin  wedge  of 
iron  or  bone  between  the  bark  and  the  firm-wood  to 
a  depth  of  not  less  than  three  inches,  but  do  so  care- 
fully so  as  not  to  damage  or  break  the  bark.  After- 
wards with  a  sharp  pruning-knife  pare  down  the 
scions  which  you  wish  to  insert,  at  their  bottom  end 

'  Because  an  "  eye  "  or  bud  is  taken  from  one  tree  and 
inserted  in  another. 



tantum,  quantum  cuneus  demissus  ^  spatii  dabit, 
atque  ita,  ne  medullam  ^  neve  alterius  partis  corticem 
laedas.  Ubi  sureulos  ^  paratos  habueris,*  cuneum 
vellito,  statimque  sureulos  dimittito  ^  in  ea  foramina,^ 
quae  cuneo  adacto  inter  corticem  et  materiam  feeeris. 
Ea  autem  fine,  qua  adrasei'is,  sureulos  sic  inserito,  ut 
semipede  '  vel  amplius  de  arbore  extent.  In  una 
arbore  duos,  vel  si  truncus  vastior  est,  plures  calamos 
recte  inseres,  dum  ne  minus  quattuor  digitorum  in- 
ter eos  sit  spatium.  Pro  arboris  magnitudine  et 
corticis  bonitate  haec  facito.  Cum  omnes  sureulos, 
quos  arbor  ea  patietur,  demiseris,  libro  ulmi  vel  iunco 
aut  vimine  arborem  constringito :  postea  paleato 
luto  bene  subacto  oblinito  totam  plagam,  et  spatium 
quod  est  inter  sureulos,  usque  eo  dum  *  minima 
quattuor  digitis  insita  extent.^  Supra  deinde  mu- 
seum ^'^  imponito,  et  ita  ligato,  ne  pluvia  dilabatur. 
Quosdam  tamen  magis  delectat  in  trunco  arboris 
locum  seminibus  serra  facere,  insectasque  partes 
tenui  scalpello  levare,  atque  ita  sureulos  aptare.  Si 
pusillam  arborem  inserere  ^^  voles,  imam  abscindito, 
ita  ut  sesquipede  e  terra  ^^  extet.  Cum  deinde  praeci- 
deris,  plagam  diligenter  levato :  et  medium  truncum 
acuto  scalpello  modice  findito,  ita  ut  fissura  digitorum 

^  demissis  c  :   dimissus  SAa. 

*  medullis  SAac. 

'  post  sureulos  add.  Aac  dimittito. 

*  straveris  SAac. 

*  dimittito  addidi  ex  libro  de  Arborihus  I.e. 

*  foramina  edd.  ex  libro  de  Arboribus  I.e.  :  forma  SAac. 
'  semipedem  SAac. 

*  usque  ad  eodem  S. 

*  in  una — §  6,  insita  extent  S :   om.  Aac. 

10  museum  edd.  ex  libro  de  Arboribus  26,  6  :  ramuscula  Sac: 
ramieula(?)  A, 


BOOK  V.  XI.  4-7 

to  such  a  size  as  will  fill  the  space  given  by  a  wedge 
which  has  been  thrust  in,  in  such  a  way  as  not  to 
damage  the  cambium  or  the  bark  on  the  other  side. 
When  you  have  got  the  scions  ready,  pull  out  the  5 
wedge  and  immediately  push  down  the  scions  into 
the  holes  which  you  made  by  driving  in  the  wedge 
between  the  bark  and  the  firm-wood.  Put  in  the 
scions  by  inserting  the  end  where  you  have  pared 
them  down  in  such  a  way  that  they  stand  out  half-a- 
foot or  more  from  the  tree.  You  will  be  correct  in 
inserting  two  grafts  in  one  tree,  or  more  if  the  trunk 
is  larger,  provided  that  the  space  between  them  is 
not  less  than  four  inches.  In  doing  so  take  into 
account  the  size  of  the  tree  and  the  quality  of  the 
bark.  When  you  have  put  in  all  the  scions  that  the  6 
tree  will  stand,  bind  the  tree  with  elm-bark  or  reeds 
or  osiers ;  next  with  well-worked  clay  mixed  with 
straw  daub  the  whole  of  the  wound  and  the  space 
between  the  grafts  to  the  point  at  which  the  scions 
still  project  at  least  four  inches.  Then  put  moss 
over  the  clay  and  bind  it  on  so  that  the  rain  may  not 
seep  through.  Some  people,  however,  prefer  to  make 
a  place  for  the  slips  in  the  trunk  of  the  tree  with  a 
saw  and  then  smooth  the  parts  in  which  cuts  have 
been  made  with  a  thin  surgical-knife  and  then  fit  in 
the  grafts.  If  the  tree  which  you  wish  to  engraft  is  7 
small,  cut  it  off  low  down  so  that  it  projects  a  foot 
and  a  half  from  the  ground ;  then,  after  cutting  it 
down,  carefully  smooth  the  wound  and  split  the 
stock  in  the  middle  a  little  way  with  a  sharp  knife, 

^^  serere  SAac. 

^*  sesquipedam  e  terra  A  :  sequipedamen  terra  S :  sexquipe- 
dam  e  terra  o  :  sexquipedem  e  terra  c. 



trium  sit  in  ea.  Deinde  cuneum,  quo  ^  diducatur, 
inserito,  et  surculos  ex  utraque  parte  derasos  de- 
mittitOj  sic  ut  librum  seminis  libro  arboris  aequalem 

8  facias.  Cum  surculos  diligenter  aptaveris,  cuneum 
eximito,  et  arborem,  ut  supra  dixi,  alligato :  deinde 
terram  circa  arborem  adaggerato  usque  ad  ipsum 
insitum.     Ea  res  a  vento  et  calore  maxime  tuebitur. 

Nos  tertium  genus  insitionis  invenimus,  quod  ^ 
cum  sit  subtilissimum,  non  omni  generi  arborum ' 
idoneum  est,  sed  fere  recipiunt  talem  insitionem, 
quae  humidum  succosumque  et  validum  librum  ha- 

9  bent,  sicut  ficus.  Nam  et  lactis  plurimum  mittit,  et 
corticem  robustum  habet,  Optime  itaque  *  inseritur 
tali  ratione.^  Ex  arbore,  de  qua  inserere  voles, 
novellos  et  nitidos  ramos  eligito,  in  iisdemque  quae- 
rito  ^  gemmam,  quae  bene  apparebit,  certamque  ' 
spem  germinis  habebit :  earn  duobus  digitis  quadratis 
circumsignato,  ut  gemma  media  sit :  et  ita  acuto 
scalpello    circumcisam    diligenter,    ne    earn    laedas, 

10  delibrato.  Item  alterius  arboris,  quam  emplastra- 
turus  es,  nitidissimum  ramum  eligito,  et  eiusdem 
spatii  corticem  circumcidito,  et  materiam  delibrato. 
Deinde  in  eam  partem,  quam  nudaveris,  praepara- 

^  quo  Aac  :   quod(?)  S. 

*  invenimus  quod  add.  edd.  :  om.  SAac. 

*  generi  arboris  a  :  generi  arborum  c :  generiem  arbori  A  : 
geriem  arbori  S. 

*  ea  add.  S. 

*  tali  ratione  scripsi  ex  libro  de  Arboribus  26,  7  :  carifici 
ratione  S  :   caprifici  raneus  Ac  :   caprifici  ramos  a. 

*  querito  SA  :   serito  ac, 


BOOK  V.  XI.  7-IO 

so  that  there  is  a  cleft  of  three  inches  in  it.  Then 
insert  a  wedge  by  which  the  cleft  may  be  kept  open, 
and  thrust  down  into  it  scions  which  have  been  pared 
away  on  both  sides,  in  such  a  way  as  to  make  the  bark 
of  the  scion  exactly  meet  the  bark  of  the  tree.  When  8 
you  have  carefully  fitted  in  the  scions,  pull  out  the 
wedge  and  bind  the  tree  in  the  manner  desci'ibed 
above ;  then  heap  the  earth  round  the  tree  right  up 
to  the  graft.  This  will  give  the  best  protection  from 
wind  and  heat. 

A  third  kind  of  grafting  is  our  own  invention ; 
being  a  very  delicate  operation,  it  is  not  suited  to 
every  kind  of  tree.  Generally  speaking  those  trees 
admit  of  this  kind  of  grafting  which  have  moist,  juicy 
and  strong  bark,  like  the  fig-tree  ;  for  this  both  yields  9 
a  great  abundance  of  milk  and  has  a  stout  bark,  and 
so  a  graft  can  be  very  successfully  inserted  by  the 
following  method.  On  the  tree  from  which  you  wish 
to  take  your  grafts,  you  should  seek  out  young  and 
healthy  branches,  and  you  should  look  out  on  them 
for  a  bud  which  has  a  good  appearance  and  gives 
sure  promise  of  producing  a  sprout.  Make  a  mark 
round  it  enclosing  two  square  inches,  so  that  the 
bud  is  in  the  middle,  and  then  make  an  incision  all 
round  it  with  a  sharp  knife  and  remove  the  bark 
carefully  so  as  not  to  damage  the  bud.  Also  choose  10 
the  healthiest  branch  of  the  other  tree,  which  you  are 
going  to  inoculate,  and  cut  out  a  part  of  the 
bark  of  the  same  dimensions  as  before  and  strip  the 
bark  off  the  firm-wood.  Then  fit  the  scutcheon  which 
you   have   prepared   to   the   part  which  you  have 

'  certamque  edd,  ex  libro  de  Arboribm  26,  8  ;    certaminis 



turn  emplastrum  aptato,i  ita  ut  alterius  ^  delibratae 

11  parti  conveniat.  Ubi  ita  haec  feceris,  circa  gemmam 
bene  alligato,  cavetoque  ne  laedas  ipsum  germen. 
Deinde  commissuras  et  vincula  luto  oblinito,  spatio 
relicto,  ut  gemma  libera  vinculo  non  urgeatur.  Ar- 
boris  autem  insitae  sobolem  et  ramos  superiores 
praecidito,  ne  quid  sit,  quo  ^  possit  succus  *  avocari,^ 
aut  ne  cui  ^  magis  quam  insito  serviat.  Post  xxi 
diem  solvito  emplastrum.  Et  hoc  genere  optima 
etiam  olea  inseritur. 

12  Quartum  illud  genus  insitionis  iam  docuimus,  cum 
de  vitibus  disputavimus.  Itaque  supervacuum  est 
hoc  loco  repetere  traditam  rationem  terebrationis. 

Sed  cum  antiqui  negaverint  posse  omne  genus 
surculorum  in  omnem  arborem  inseri,  et  ex  ilia  quasi 
finitione,  qua  nos  ante  paulo  usi  sumus,  veluti  quan- 
dam '  legem  sanxerint,  eos  tantum  ^  surculos  posse 
coalescere,  qui  sint  cortice  ac  libro  et  fructu  consi- 
miles  iis  arboribus,  quibus  inseruntur,  existimavimus 
errorem  huius  opinionis  discutiendum,  tradendam- 
que  posteris,  rationem,  qua  possit  omne  genus  surculi 

13  omni  generi  ^  arboris  inseri.  Quo  ne  longiore 
exordio  legentem  fatigemus,  unum  quasi  exemplum 
subiciemus,  -quo  possit  omne  genus  surculi  dissimi- 
libus  1"  arboribus  inseri. 

1  aptato  Sc  :    apto  Aa. 

^  alterius  scripsi  :   altere  Aac  :   alte  S. 

*  quo  edd.  ex  libro  de  Arboribus  26,  9  :   quod  SAac. 

*  succus  add.  edd.  ex  libro  de  Arboribus  I.e.  :  om.  SAac. 

*  avocari  S  :  vocari  Aac. 

*  ne  cui  edd.  ex  libro  de  Arboribus  I.e.  :  necuim  SA  :  nee 
hurai  a  :   ne  vim  c. 

'  veluti  quandam  edd.  ex  libro  de  Arboribus  I.e.  :  vel 
antequam  SAa  :   ut  antiquum  c. 

*  tantum  c  :  tantos  SAa. 


BOOK  V.  XI.  10-13 

bared,  so  that  it  exactly  corresponds  to  the  area  on 
the  other  tree  from  which  the  bark  has  been  stripped. 
Having  done  this,  bind  the  bud  well  all  round  and  be  11 
careful  not  to  damage  the  sprout  itself.  Then  daub 
the  joints  of  the  wound  and  the  ties  round  them  with 
mud,  leaving  a  space,  so  that  the  bud  may  be  free  and 
not  be  constricted  by  the  binding.  Cut  away  the  shoot 
and  upper  branches  of  the  tree  into  which  you  have  in- 
serted the  graft,  so  that  there  may  be  nothing  to 
which  the  sap  can  be  drawn  off  or  benefit  from  the  sap 
to  another  part  rather  than  the  graft.  After  the 
twenty-first  day  unbind  the  scutcheon.  This  kind  of 
grafting  is  very  successful  with  the  olive  also. 

The  fourth  method  of  grafting  we  have  already  12 
explained  when  we  treated  of  vines ;   so  it  is  super- 
fluous to  repeat  here  the  method  of  "  terebration  " 
already  described.* 

But  since  the  ancients  denied  that  any  kind  of  scion 
could  be  grafted  on  any  kind  of  tree  and,  according 
to  the  limitation  which  we  made  use  of  just  now,** 
established  as  a  hard  and  fast  rule  that  only  those 
scions  can  unite  which  resemble  the  trees  in  which 
they  are  inserted  in  bark  and  rind  and  fruit,  we  have 
thought  it  advisable  to  destroy  this  erroneous 
opinion  and  to  hand  down  to  posterity  a  method  by 
which  any  kind  of  scion  can  be  grafted  upon  any  kind 
of  tree.  That  we  may  not  weary  the  reader  with  13 
too  long  a  discourse,  we  will  submit  a  single  example 
by  following  which  any  kind  of  scion  can  be  grafted 
upon  a  different  kind  of  tree. 

«  IV.  29,  13 :  V.  9.  16.  ^  §  1  of  this  chapter. 

•  omni  generi  c  :   omni  genere  A  :   omne  genere  8  :   om.  a. 
^^  dissimilibus  scripsi :   dissimilis  8  :   dimissis  Aac. 



Scrobem  ^  quoquoversus  pedum  ^  quattuor  ab 
arbore  olivae  tam  longe  fodito,  ut  extremi  rami  oleae 
possint  eam  contingere.^  In  ^  scrobem  deinde  fici 
arbusculam   deponito,    diligentiamque    adhibeto,   ut 

14  robusta  et  nitida  fiat.  Post  biennium,  cum  iam  satis 
amplum  incrementum  ceperit,  ramum  olivae,  qui 
videtur  nitidissimus,  deflecte,  et  ad  crus  arboris 
ficulneae  religa :  atque  ita  amputatis  ceteris  ramis, 
ea  tantum  cacumina,^  quae  inserere  voles,®  relinque ; 
turn  arborem  fici  detrunca,  plagamque  leva,  et  me- 

15  diam  cuneo  finde.  Cacumina  deinde  olivae,  sicuti 
matri  cohaerent,  ex  utraque  parte  adrade,  et  ita 
fissurae  fici  insere,  cuneumque  exime,  diligenterque 
ramulos  colliga,  ne  qua  vi  revellantur.'  Sic  inter- 
posito  triennio  coalescet  ficus  cum  olea,  et  turn  de- 
mum  quarto  anno,  cum  bene  ®  coierint,^  velut  pro- 
pagines,  ramulos  olivae  a  matre  resecabis.  Hoe 
modo  omne  genus  in  omnem  arborem  inseres.  At 
prius  quam  finem  ^^  libri  faciamus,  quoniam  fere 
species  ^^  surculorum  omnes  persequimur  prioribus  ^^ 
libris,  de  cytiso  praecipere  ^^  nunc  parvum  i*  ac 
tempestivum  est.^^>  ^^ 

^  aerobe  SAac. 
^  pedes  SAac. 

*  possit  ea  contingere  8  :  positae  contingere  ac  :  positae 
tangere  A. 

*  in  om.  SAac. 

'  cacumine  ac  :   cacumineris  SA. 

*  quae  inserere  voles  add.  edd.  ex  libro  de  Arboribus  27.  3: 
om.  SAac. 

'  revellantur  ac  :   revellatur  SA. 

*  bene  edd.  ex  libro  de  Arboribus  27.  4  :  ene  S  :  eno  Ac: 
eo  a. 

*  coierit  SAac. 

^^  finem  Aac  :  fine  S. 

11  species  a  :  specimus  S  :  spes  c. 


BOOK  V.  xr.  13-15 

Dig  a  trench  measuring  four  feet  each  way  at  such 
a  distance  from  an  olive-tree  that  the  ends  of  the 
branches  can  reach  it.  Then  plant  a  small  fig-tree 
in  the  trench,  and  be  careful  that  it  grows  strong  and 
healthy.  After  two  years,  when  it  has  made  enough  14 
growth,  bend  down  the  branch  of  the  olive-tree 
which  seems  to  be  the  healthiest  and  bind  it  to  the 
stock  of  the  fig-tree.  Then  lop  off  the  rest  of  the 
branches  and  leave  only  the  tops  which  you  wish  to 
engraft ;  then  cut  through  the  trunk  of  the  fig-tree 
and  smooth  off  the  wound  and  split  it  in  the  middle 
with  a  wedge.  Then  pare  the  tops  of  the  olive-tree,  15 
still  adhering  to  the  mother-tree,  on  both  sides,  and 
then  insert «  them  in  the  cleft  in  the  fig-tree,  and 
take  away  the  wedge  and  carefully  tie  the  little 
branches  so  that  no  force  may  tear  them  away. 
Then  after  an  interval  of  three  years  the  fig-tree  will 
coalesce  with  the  olive-tree,  and  finally,  in  the  fourth 
year,  when  they  have  become  properly  united,  you 
will  cut  off  the  little  olive  branches  from  the  mother- 
tree,  just  as  if  they  were  layers.  This  is  the  way 
in  which  you  will  graft  any  kind  of  scion  on  any  kind 
of  tree.  But  before  we  make  an  end  of  this  book, 
since  in  the  earlier  books  we  treat  of  almost  every 
kind  of  small  tree,  I  regard  it  as  a  brief  and  opportune 
task  to  give  instructions  about  the  shrub-trefoil.* 

»  By  bending  them  over,  not  cutting  them  off. 
*  The  text  here  is  doubtful :    one  MS.  seems  to  contain 
two  sets  of  words  expressing  the  same  thing. 

1*  prioribus  a  :   priores  SAc.       1*  incipere  SAac. 
1*  parvum  Aac  :    pravum  S.       i^  p^to  A  :   fuit  Sa  :   om.  c. 
^*  post  puto  add.  nunc  (hunc  c)  arboris  praecipientes  oppor- 
tune eius  meminerimus  SAac. 



XII.  Cytisum  in  agro  esse  quam  plurimum  maxime 
refert,  quod  gallinis,  apibus,  ovibus,  capris,  bubus 
quoque  et  omni  genei'i  pecudum  utilissimus  est ; 
quod  ex  eo  cito  pinguescit,  et  lactis  plurimum  praebet 
ovibus, 1  tum^  etiam  ^  octo  mensibus  viridi  eo  pabulo 
uti  et  postea  arido  possis.  Praeterea  in  quolibet 
agro  quamvis  macerrimo  celeriter  comprehendit : 
omnem  iniuriam  sine  noxa  patitur.  Mulieres  quidem 
si  lactis  inopia  premuntur,  cytisum  aridum  in  aqua 
macerare  oportet,  et  cum  tota  nocte  permaduerit, 
postero  die  expressi  succi  ternas  heminas  permiscere 
modico  vino,  atque  ita  potandum  dare  :  sic  et  ipsae  * 
valebunt,  et  pueri  abundantia  lactis  confirmabuptur. 
Satio  autem  cytisi  vel  autumno  circa  idus  Octobris, 
vel  vere  fieri  potest. 

Cum  terram  bene  subegeris,  areolas  facito,  ibique 
velut  ocimi  semen  cytisi  autumno  serito.  Plantas 
deinde  vere  disponito,  ita  ut  inter  se  quoquoversus 
quattuor  pedum  spatio  distent.  Si  semen  non  ha- 
bueris,  cacumina  cytisorum  vere  deponito,  et  ster- 
coratam  terram  circumaggerato.  Si  pluvia  non  in- 
cesserit,  rigato  quindecim  proximis  diebus :  simulat- 
que  novam  frondem  agere  coeperit,  sarrito,  et  post 
triennium  deinde  caedito,  et  pecori  praebeto.  Equo  ^ 
abunde  est  viridis  pondo  xv,  bubus  pondo  vicena, 
ceterisque  pecoribus  pro  portione  virium.^     Potest  ^ 

^  ovibus  add.  edd.  ex  libro  de  Arboribus  28,  1  :   om.  SAac. 

*  cum  SAc  :  turn  a. 

'  ovis  post  etiam  add.  SAc  :    iovis  quod  a. 

*  ipsa  SAa  :   ipse  c. 

'  equo  edd.  :   aeque  SA  :  eque  ac. 

*  virium  Aac  :   virura  S.  '  potest  Ac  :  potes  S  :  om.  a. 

'  Presumably  at  one  feeding. 

BOOK  V.  XII.  1-4 

XII.  It  is  very  important  to  have  as  much  shrub-  Of  the 
trefoil  as  possible  on  your  land,  because  it  is  most  use-  shrui>  ""^ 
ful  for  chickens,  bees,  sheep,  goats,  oxen  and  cattle  Trefoil. 
of  every  kind,  which  quickly  grow  fat  upon  it  and  it 
makes   ewes   yield   a  very  large   quantity  of  milk ; 
moreover  you  could  also  use  it  for  eight  months  of  the 
year  as  green  fodder  and  afterwards  as  dry.     Further- 
more, on  any  ground  whatsoever,  even  if  it  be  very 
lean,   it   quickly   takes   root,   and   it   bears   any   ill- 
treatment  without  taking  harm.     Indeed  if  women    2 
suffer  from  lack  of  milk,  dry  shrub-trefoil  ought  to 
be  steeped  in  water  and,  after  it  has  soaked  for  a 
whole  night,  on  the  following  day  three  heminae  of 
the  juice  squeezed  out  of  it  should  be  mixed  with 
a  little  wine  and  given  them  to  drink ;    in  this  way 
they   themselves   will   enjoy   good   health,   and   the 
children  will  grow  strong  on  the  abundance  of  milk 
provided  for  them.     Shrub-trefoil  can  be  sown  either 
in  the  autumn  about  October  15th  or  in  the  spring. 

When  you  have  worked  the  soil  thoroughly,  make  3 
little  beds  and  in  the  autumn  sow  there  the  seed  of  the 
shrub-trefoil  as  you  would  that  of  basil.  Then  in 
the  spring  set  out  the  plants  so  that  they  are  dis- 
tant four  feet  each  way  from  one  another.  If  you 
have  no  seed,  plant  out  tops  of  shrub-trefoil  in  the 
spring  and  heap  well-manured  soil  round  them.  If  4 
rain  has  not  come  on,  water  them  on  the  fifteen 
following  days.  As  soon  as  a  plant  begins  to  put 
forth  young  foliage,  hoe  the  ground.  Then  after 
three  years  cut  down  the  plants  and  give  them  to  the 
cattle.  Fifteen  pounds  of  shrub-trefoil  when  it  is 
green  is  quite  enough  "  for  a  horse,  and  twenty  pounds 
for  an  ox,  and  it  should  be  given  to  the  other  animals 
according  to  their  strength.     Shrub-trefoil  can  also 



etiam  circa  sepem  agri  satis  commode  ramis  cytisus 
seri,  quoniam  facile  comprehendit  et  iniuriam  susti- 
net.  Aridum  si  dabis,  parcius  praebeto,  quoniam 
vires  maiores  habet,  priusque  aqua  macerato,  et 
exemptum  paleis  permisceto.  Cytisum  cum  aridum 
facere  voles,  circa  mensem  Septembrem,  ubi  semen 
eius  grandescere  incipiet,  caedito,  paucisque  horis, 
dum  flaccescat,  in  sole  habeto :  deinde  in  umbra  ex- 
siccato,  et  ita  condito. 

Hactenus  de  arboribus  praecepisse  abunde  est, 
reddituro  pecoris  curam  et  remedia  sequenti  volu- 


BOOK  V.  XII.  4-5 

be  quite  conveniently  propagated  by  planting 
boughs  round  the  fence  of  a  field,  since  it  easily  takes 
root  and  stands  up  to  rough  usage.  If  you  give  it 
dry,  give  it  rather  sparingly,  since  it  has  more 
strength,  and  soak  it  first  in  water  and  after  taking 
it  out  of  the  water,  mix  it  with  chaff.  When  you  wish 
to  dry  it,  cut  shrub-trefoil  about  the  month  of 
September,  when  its  seed  begins  to  grow  large, 
and  keep  it  in  the  sun  for  a  few  hours  until  it 
withers ;   then  dry  it  in  the  shade  and  store  it. 

In  what  has  gone  before  I  have  given  ample  instruc- 
tion about  trees ;  in  the  next  book  I  intend  to  deal 
with  the  care  of  cattle  and  the  remedies  for  their 





Scio  quosdam,  Publi  Silvine,  prudentes  agricolas 
pecoris  abnuisse  curam,  gregariorumque  pastorum 
velut  inimicam  suae  professionis  disciplinam  con- 
stantissime  repudiasse.     Neque  infitior  id  eos  aliqua 

1  ratione  fecisse,  quasi  ^  sit  agricolae  contrarium  pastoris 
propositum :  cum  ille  quam  maxime  subacto  et  puro 
solo  gaudeat,  hie  novali  graminosoque ;  ille  fructum 
e  terra  speret,  hie  e  pecore ;  ideoque  arator  abomi- 
netur,  at  contra  pastor  optet  herbarum  proventum. 

2  Sed  in  his  tarn  ^  discordantibus  votis  est  tamen  quae- 
dam  societas  atque  coniunctio :  quoniam  et  pabulum 
e  ^  fundo  plerumque  domesticis  pecudibus  magis 
quam  alienis  depascere  ex  usu  est,  et  *  copiosa 
stercoratione,  quae  contingit  e  gregibus,  terrestres 

3  fructus  exuberant.  Nee  tamen  ulla  regie  est,  in 
qua  modo  frumenta  gignantur,  quae  non  ut  hominum  ^ 
ita  armentorum  adiutorio  colatur.®  Unde  etiam 
iumenta  et  armenta  nomina  a  re  '  traxere,  quod 

1  qua  SA^.  *  in  his  tam  R  :   in  ista  SA^. 

^  ex  Lundstrom  :  et  SA^ :  e  A^  :  est  c. 

*  ex  usu  est  et  Schneider  :  exueste  S  :  exuestet  AR. 

*  hominum  8  :   omnium  AR. 

*  adiutorio  colatur  Schneider :  adiuratorio  colatur  S  adiu- 
rator  inculator  A  :  adiurator  inculatur  A'. 

">  nomina  a  re  Lundstrom  :  nominare  8  :  nom  are  A. 




I  am  well  aware,  Publius  Silvinus,  that  there  are 
some  intelligent  farmers  who  have  refused  to  keep 
cattle  and  have  consistently  rejected  the  pursuit 
of  the  master  of  a  flock  as  harmful  to  their  profession. 
I  do  not  deny  that  they  have  some  reason  for  so 
doing  on  the  ground  that  the  aim  of  the  farmer  is 
contrary  to  that  of  the  shepherd,  since  the  former 
rejoices  in  land  which  is  tilled  and  cleared  to  the 
greatest  possible  extent,  while  the  latter  takes 
pleasure  in  ground  which  is  fallow  and  grassy ;  the 
one  hopes  for  the  fruits  of  the  earth,  the  other  for 
the  produce  of  his  cattle,  and  so  the  cultivator  detests 
while  on  the  other  hand  the  grazier  longs  for  a  rich 
yield  of  grass.  But,  in  spite  of  these  irreconcilable  2 
desires,  there  exists  a  sort  of  alliance  and  union 
between  them,  because,  firstly,  it  is  generally  better 
to  use  the  food  provided  by  one's  own  farm  in  feeding 
one's  own  cattle  rather  than  those  of  other  people, 
and,  secondly,  because  it  is  owing  to  the  plentiful 
use  of  manure,  which  is  derived  from  flocks,  that  the 
fruits  of  the  earth  abound.  Nor  indeed  is  there  any  3 
region  in  which  nothing  but  cereals  is  grown  and 
which  is  not  cultivated  quite  as  much  by  the  aid 
of  cattle  as  of  men.  Hence  also  draught-animals 
(iumentd)  and  animals  which  draw  the  plough  (armentd) 



nostrum  laborem,  vel  onera  subvectando  ^  vel  arando 

Itaque   sicut  veteres   Romani   praeceperunt,   ipse 
quoque  censeo  tarn  pecorum  quam  agrorum  cultum 

4  pernoscere.  Nam  in  rusticatione  vel  antiquissima 
est  ratio  pascendi  eademque  ^  quaestuosissima,  prop- 
ter quod  nomina  quoque  pecuniae  et  peculii  tracta 
videntur  a  pecore :  quoniam  et  solum  id  ^  veteres 
possederunt,  et  adhuc  apud  quasdam  gentes  unum 
hoc  usurpatur  divitiarum  genus :  sed  *  ne  apud 
nostros  quidem  colonos  alia  res  uberior."  Ut  etiam 
M.  Cato  prodidit,^  qui  consulenti,  quam  partem  rei 
rusticae  exercendo  celeriter  locupletari  posset  '  re- 
spondit :  Si  bene  is  pasceret ;  ^  rursusque  interro- 
ganti,  quid  deinde  faciendo  satis  uberes  fructus  per- 
cepturus  esset,  affirmavit :    Si  mediocriter  pasceret. 

5  Ceterum  de  tarn  sapiente  viro  piget  dicere,  quod  eum 
quidam  auctores  memorant  eidem  quaerenti,  quid- 
nam  ^  tertium  in  agricolatione  quaestuosum  esset, 
asseverasse,  si  quis  vel  male  pasceret ;  cum  prae- 
sertim  mains  dispendium  sequatur  inertem  et  ins- 
cium  I''  pastorem,  quam  prudentem  ^^  diligentemque 
compendium. ^2    De  secundo  tamen  responso  dubium 

^  subvectando  R  :   subiectando  S  :   subtectando  A. 

*  eandemque  SA.  *  id  Lundstrom  :   in  SA. 

*  sed  S  :  et  AR.  ^  re  superior  SAR. 

*  prodidit  S  :   reddidit  AR. 
''  posset  S  :   possit  AR. 

*  is  pasceret  Lundstrom  :   ipsasciret  S  :  ipsas  geret  A. 
'  quidam  8 A. 

J«  scium  SAR. 

"  prudenti  SAR. 

"  conpendium  S^  :   conprendium  S^A. 

"  The  author  here  derived  iumentum  from  iuvare,  to  aid, 
and  armentum  from  arare,  to  plough.  In  the  latter  case  the 


derive  their  names  from  the  fact  that  they  aid  our 
labour  either  by  carrying  burdens  or  by  ploughing." 

Therefore,  as  the  ancient  Romans  taught,  I  myself 
am  also  of  the  opinion  that  we  should  thoroughly 
understand  the  management  of  cattle  as  well  as  the 
cultivation  of  the  fields.  For  in  the  history  of  farm-  4 
ing  the  system  of  grazing  is  certainly  very  ancient 
and  at  the  same  time  very  profitable,  and  it  is  on  this 
account  also  that  the  names  for  money  (pecunia)  and 
private  property  (peculium)  seem  to  have  been  derived 
from  the  word  for  cattle  (pecus),  because  this  was  the 
only  possession  which  the  men  of  old  time  had,  and, 
even  at  the  present  day,  amongst  some  peoples,  this 
is  the  only  kind  of  wealth  in  general  use,  and  even 
among  our  farmers  there  is  nothing  which  yields  a 
richer  increase.  This  was  the  opinion  of  Marcus  Cato 
amongothers,  who,  when  someone  seeking  advice  asked 
him  what  department  of  agriculture  he  should  practise 
in  order  to  get  rich  quickly,  replied  that  he  would  get 
rich  if  he  were  a  competent  grazier.  When  the  same 
person  went  on  to  ask  him  what  is  the  second  best 
thing  to  do  in  order  to  obtain  a  sufl!iciently  rich  return, 
Cato  insisted  that  he  could  achieve  this  by  being  a 
moderately  good  grazier.  I  feel  some  hesitation  in  5 
relating  about  so  wise  a  man  the  reply,  which  some 
authors  attribute  to  him,  when  the  same  person 
enquired  what  was  the  third  most  lucrative  practice 
in  agriculture,  namely,  for  a  man  to  be  even  a  bad 
grazier;  since  certainly  the  losses  which  attend  a 
lazy  and  ignorant  grazier  are  greater  than  the  profits 
which  attend  one  who  is  prudent  and  careful.  As 
for  Cato's  second  answer,  there  is  no  doubt  that  the 

derivation  is  correct,  but  iumentum  is  derived  from  iugum,  a 



non  est,  quin  mediocrem  negligentiam  domini  fructus 
pecoris  exsuperet. 

6  Quam  ob  causam  nos  hanc  quoque  partem  rei 
rusticae,  Silvine,  quanta  valuimus  industria,  mai- 
orum  secuti  ^  praeeepta  posteritati  mandavimus. 
Igitur  cum  sint  duo  genera  quadrupedum,  quorum 
alterum  paramus  in  consortium  operum,  sicut  bovem, 
mulam,  equum,  asinum ;  alterum  voluptatis  ac  re- 
ditus  et  custodiae  causa,  ut  ovem,  capellam,  suem, 
canem :  ^  de  eo  genere  primum  dicemus,  cuius  usus  ^ 

7  nostri  laboris  est  particeps.  Nee  dubium,  quin,  ut 
ait  Varro,  ceteras  pecudes  bos  honore  superare 
debeat,  praesertim  in  Italia,  quae  ab  hoc  nuncupa- 
tionem  traxisse  creditur,  quod  olim  Graeci  tauros 
italos  vocabant,*  et  in  ea  urbe,  cuius  moenibus  con- 
dendis  mas  ^  et  femina  boves  aratro  terminum 
signaverunt,  vel,  ut  antiquiora  repetam,^  quod  item 
Atticis  '  Athenis  Cereris  et  Triptolemi  fertur 
minister :  quod  inter  fulgentissima  sidera  particeps 
caeli  sit  :  ^  quod  deinde  laboriosissimus  adhuc  hominis 
socius  in  agricultura :  cuius  tanta  fuit  apud  antiques  ^ 
veneratio,  ut  tarn  capitale  esset  ^^  bovem  necuisse, 
quam  civem.  Ab  hoc  igitur  promissi  operis  capiamus 

^  secuti  S  :   sicuti  AR. 
^  tamen  8AR. 
'  usum  BAR. 

*  vocant  SAR. 

*  condendis  mas  S  :    condendissimas  A. 

*  vel,  ut  antiquiora  repetam  Liindslrom  ex  cit.  Mulomedi- 
cina  Chironis  {Ed.  Oder)  :   petam  SA. 

'  atticus  SAR. 

*  caelis  SA  :  cell  R. 

*  aputanti   quis  S^ :    apud  antiquis  A^ :    apud  antiquos 

^"  capitales  set  S  :  capitales  et  AR. 


profit  from  cattle  more  than  makes  up  for  a 
moderate  amount  of  carelessness  on  the  part  of  their 

It  is  on  this  account,  Silvinus,  that,  following  the  6 
precepts  of  our  forefathers,  we  have  taken  all  the 
pains  which  we  can  to  hand  on  to  posterity  an  account 
of  this  department  of  agriculture  also.  There  are, 
then,  two  classes  of  fourfooted  animals,  one  of  which 
we  procure  to  share  our  labours,  such  as  the  ox,  the 
mule,  the  horse  and  the  ass,  and  the  other  which  we 
keep  for  our  pleasure  and  the  profit  which  they  bring 
us  or  for  keeping  watch,  such  as  the  sheep,  the  goat, 
the  pig  and  the  dog.  We  will  deal  first  with  the  class 
which  we  employ  to  take  part  in  our  work.  There  is  7 
no  doubt,  as  Varro  says,  that  the  ox  ought  to  be 
ranked  above  all  other  cattle,  especially  in  Italy, 
which  is  believed  to  have  derived  its  name  from  this 
animal,  which  the  Greeks  formerly  called  italos," 
and  in  that  city  "  at  the  founding  of  whose  walls  an 
ox  and  a  cow  drew  the  plough  which  marked  its 
boundaries  ;  also  because,  to  go  still  further  back, 
at  Athens  in  Attica  the  ox  too  is  said  to  have  been 
the  attendant  of  Ceres  (D  emeter)  and  Triptolemus ,  and 
because  it  has  its  place  in  the  heavens,  among  the 
most  brilliant  constellations,  and,  lastly,  because  it 
is  still  man's  most  hardworking  associate  in  agri- 
culture, and  so  great  was  the  respect  in  which  it  was 
held  among  the  ancients  that  it  was  equally  a  capital 
crime  to  have  killed  an  ox  and  to  have  killed  a  fellow- 
citizen.  Let  us,  therefore,  begin  the  task  before  us 
with  the  ox. 

"  Cicero,  de  Off.  II,  §  89,  gives  a  fourth  way  of  getting  rich, 
by  tilling  the  soil. 
*  Or,  more  usually,  vitulus,  calf.  *  I.e.  Rome. 



I.  Quae  in  emendis  bubus  sequenda  quaeque 
vitanda  sint,  non  ex  facili  dixerim  ;  quoniam  pecudes 
pro  regionis  caelique  statu  et  habitum  ^  corporis  at 
ingenium  animi  et  pili  colorem  gerant.  Aliae  formae 
sunt  Asiaticis,  aliae  Gallicis,  Epiroticis  aliae.  Nee 
tantum  diversitas  provinciarum,  sed  ipsa  quoque 
Italia  partibus  suis  discrepat.  Campania  plerum- 
que  boves  progenerat  albos  et  exiles,  labori  tarn  en 

2  et  culturae  patrii  soli  non  inhabiles.  Umbria  vastos 
et  albos ;  eademque  rubios ;  ^  nee  minus  probabiles 
animis  quam  corporibus.  Etruria  et  Latium  com- 
pactos,  sed  ad  opera  fortes.  Apenninus  durissimos 
omnemque  difficultatem  tolerantes,  nee  ab  aspectu 
decoros.  Quae  cum  tarn  varia  et  diversa  ^  sint,  tamen 
quaedam  quasi  communia  et  certa  praecepta  in 
emendis  iuvencis  arator  sequi  debet ;  eaque  Mago 
Carthaginiensis  ita  prodidit,  ut  nos  deinceps  memo- 

3  rabimus.  Parandi  sunt  boves  novelli,  quadrati, 
grandibus  ^  membris,  cornibus  proceris  ac  nigrantibus 
et  robxistis,  fronte  lata  et  crispa,  hirtis  auribus,  oculis 
et  labris  nigris,  naribus  resimis  patulisque,  cervice 
longa  et  torosa,  palearibus  amplis  et  pene  ad  genua 
promissis,  pectore  magno,  armis  vastis,^  capaci  et 
tanquam  implente  utero,  lateribus  ^  porrectis,  lumbis 
latis,   dorso   recto   planoque   vel   etiam   subsidente,' 

1  habitum  S  :   habitu  A  R. 

*  rubios  A  :  rabios  S^  :  robios  S^ :  rubeos  a. 

*  diversa  a  :   versa  SAR. 

*  grandis  SA.  ^  vasti  SAR. 
«  lateribus  S^R  :   latibus  S'^A. 

'  susidente  S^ :  subidente  S^AR. 

"  His  work  on  agriculture  was  translated  into  Latin  by  order 
of  the  senate  (I.  1.  13  ;  Varro  R.R.  I.  1.  10  :  Cicero,  Or.  I.  68, 


BOOK  VI.  I.  1-3 

I.  I  should  find  it  far  from  easy  to  say  what  are  Points  to 
the  points  to  be  looked  for  and  what  to  be  avoided  for  in  oxen, 
in  the  purchase  of  oxen ;  for  cattle  show  variation 
in  bodily  form  and  disposition  and  the  colour  of 
their  hair  according  to  the  nature  of  the  district  and 
climate  in  which  they  live.  Those  of  Asia  and  of 
Gaul  and  of  Epirus  are  different  in  form,  and  not 
only  are  there  diversities  in  the  various  provinces, 
but  Italy  itself  shows  varieties  in  its  different  parts, 
Campania  generally  produces  small,  white  oxen, 
which  are,  however,  well  suited  for  their  work  and  for 
the  cultivation  of  their  native  soil.  Umbria  breeds  2 
huge  white  oxen,  but  it  also  produces  red  oxen, 
esteemed  not  less  for  their  spirit  than  for  their  bodily 
strength.  Etruria  and  Latium  breed  oxen  which 
are  thick-set  but  powerful  as  workers.  The  oxen 
bred  in  the  Apennines  are  very  tough  and  able  to 
endure  every  kind  of  hardship  but  not  comely  to 
look  upon.  Though  there  is  so  much  variety  and 
diversity,  yet  there  are  certain  as  it  were  universal 
and  fixed  principles  which  the  farmer  of  arable  land 
ought  to  follow  in  buying  bullocks.  Mago"  the 
Carthaginian  has  laid  down  these  principles  in  the 
form  which  we  will  now  detail.  The  bullocks  which  3 
should  be  purchased  are  those  which  are  young, 
squarely  built,  with  large  limbs  and  horns  which  are 
long  and  blackish  and  strong ;  the  forehead  should 
be  wide  and  covered  with  curly  hair,  the  ears  shaggy, 
the  eyes  and  lips  dark  in  colour,  the  nostrils  bent 
back  and  wide  spreading,  the  neck  long  and  muscular, 
the  dewlap  ample  and  falling  almost  to  the  knees, 
the  chest  broad,  the  shoulders  huge  ;  the  belly  should 
be  capacious  and  have  the  appearance  of  pregnancy, 
the  flanks  extended,  the  loins  wide,  the  back  straight 



clunibus  rotundis,  cruribus  compactis  ac  rectis,  sed 
brevioribus  potius  quam  longis,  nee  genibus  impro- 
bis,  ungulis  ^  magnis,  eaudis  longissimis  et  setosis, 
pilo  totius  2  corporis  denso  brevique,  coloris  rubii 
vel  fusci,  tactu  corporis  mollissimo. 

II.  Talis  notae  vitulos  oportet,  cum  adhuc  teneri 
sunt,  eonsuescere  manu  tractari,  ad  praesepia  religari, 
ut  exiguus  in  domitura  labor  eorum  et  minus  sit 
periculi.  Verum  nee  ante  tertium  neque  post  quin- 
tum  annum  iuvencos  domari  placet,  quoniam  ilia  aetas 
adhuc  tenera  est,  haec  iam  praedura.  Eos  autem, 
qui  de  grege  feri  comprehenduntur,  sic  subigi  con- 

2  venit.  Primum  omnium  spatiosum  stabulum  prae- 
paretur,  ubi  domitor  facile  versari,  et  unde  egredi 
sine  periculo  possit.  Ante  stabulum  nullae  angustiae 
sint,  sed  aut  campus  aut  via  late  patens,  ut  cum 
producentur  ^  iuvenci,  liberum  habeant  excursum ; 
ne  pavidi  aut  arboribus  aut  obiacenti  cuilibet  rei  se 

3  implicent  *  noxamque  capiant.  In  stabulo  sint 
ampla  praesepia,  superque  transversi  asseres  in 
modum  iugorum  a  terra  septem  pedibus  elati  con- 
figantur,  ad  quos  religari  possint  iuvenci.  Diem 
deinde,  quo  domituram  auspiceris,  bonum  a  tempesta- 
tibus    et    a    religionibus  matutinum   eligito,  canna- 

4  binisque  funibus  cornua  iuvencorum  ligato.  Sed 
laquei,  quibus  capulantur,  lanatis  pellibus  involuti 
sint,    ne    tenerae    frontes  ^    sub    cornua    laedantur. 

^  ungulis  S  :   vinculis  Aa. 

*  pilo  totius  Pontedera  ex  cit.  Palladii :   pilosius  SA. 

*  producentur  SA'a  :   producerentur  A^Jt. 

*  implicent  Sa  :  impluent  c  :  inplicent  AS' :  inplicet  <S'. 
'  tenere  frontet  S^A^ :  frontes  S' :  tenera  fronte  R. 


BOOK  VI.  I.  3-II.  4 

and  flat  or  even  sinking  slightly,  the  buttocks  round, 
the  legs  compact  and  straight  but  short  rather  than 
long  and  the  knees  not  ill-shaped,  the  hoofs  large, 
the  tail  very  long  and  bristly,  the  hair  all  over  the 
body  thick  and  short  and  of  a  red  or  brindle  colour 
and  the  body  very  soft  to  the  touch. 

II.  Calves  of  such  a  strain,  you  must  accustom,  How  to 
while  they  are  still  young,  to  allow  themselves  *™°  °^*°' 
to  be  handled  and  fastened  to  their  mangers, 
so  that  there  may  be  little  trouble  and  less 
danger  in  breaking  them  in.  The  general  opinion 
is  that  bullocks  should  not  be  broken  in  before  their 
third  or  after  their  fifth  year,  since  the  former  age  is 
as  yet  too  tender  and  the  latter  too  hard.  Those 
which  are  taken  wild  from  the  herd  ought  to  be 
tamed  in  the  following  manner.  First  of  all  a  2 
spacious  shed  should  be  got  ready,  where  the  trainer 
may  be  able  to  move  about  easily  and  from  which  he 
can  withdraw  without  danger.  There  should  be  no 
narrow  spaces  in  front  of  the  shed  but  either  open 
country  or  a  wide  road,  so  that,  when  the  bullocks 
are  driven  forth,  they  may  have  room  to  escape  and 
that  they  may  not,  in  their  alarm,  become  entangled 
in  trees  or  anything  else  which  gets  in  their  way  and 
hurt  themselves.  In  the  shed  there  should  be  3 
roomy  stalls,  and  overhead  horizontal  beams  should 
be  fixed  shaped  like  yokes,  raised  seven  feet  above 
the  ground  to  which  the  bullocks  can  be  tied.  Then, 
to  inaugurate  the  training,  choose  the  morning  of  a 
day  which  is  free  from  storms  and  not  the  occasion 
of  any  religious  ceremony  and  fasten  the  horns  of 
the  bullocks  with  hempen  cords.  The  nooses  with  4 
which  they  are  cqiught  should  be  wrapped  round  with 
woolly  skins,  so  that  the  tender  part  of  the  forehead 



Cum  deinde  buculos  comprehenderis,  perducito  ad 
stabulum,  et  ad  stipites  religato  ita,  ut  exiguum 
laxamenti  habeant,  distentque  inter  se  aliquanto 
spatio,  ne  in  colluctatione  alter  alteri  noceat.  Si 
nimis  asperi  erunt,  patere  unum  diem  noctemque 
desaeviant.  Simulatque  iras  contuderint,^  mane 
producantur,  ita  ut  et  a  tergo  complures,  qui  se- 
quuntur,  retinaculis  eos  contineant,  et  unus  cum 
clava  salignea  procedens  modicis  ictibus  subinde 
impetus  eorum  coerceat. 

6  Sin  autem  placidi  et  quieti  boves  erunt,  vel  eodem 
die,  quo  alligaveris,  ante  vesperum  licebit  producere, 
et  docere  per  mille  passus  composite  ^  ac  sine  pavore 
ambulare :  cum  domum  reduxeris,^  arete  ad  stipites 
religato,  ita  ne  capite  moveri  possint.  Tum  demum 
ad  alligatos  boves  neque  a  posteriore  parte  neque  a 
atere,  sed  adversus,  placide  et  cum  quadam  vocis 
adulatione  venito,  ut  accedentem  consuescant  aspi- 
cere,     Deinde  nares  perfricato,  ut  hominem  discant 

6  odorari.  Mox  etiam  convenit  tota  tergora  et  tractare 
et  respergere  mero,  quo  familiariores  bubulco  fiant : 
uteris  quoque  et  sub  femina  manum  subicere,  ne  ad 
eius  modi  tactum  postmodum  pavescant,  et  ut  ricini  * 

^  contulerint  SA. 

*  composite  R  :   conposita  SA. 
'  preduxeris  S^ :  pro-  AR. 

*  riclini  SA. 


BOOK  VI.  n.  4-6 

below  the  horns  may  not  be  injured.  Then  when  you 
have  captured  the  steers,  you  should  lead  them  to 
the  shed  and  attach  them  to  the  posts  in  such  a  way 
that  their  ropes  give  very  little  play  and  that  they 
are  a  little  distance  apart  from  one  another,  so  that 
they  may  not  hurt  each  other  in  their  struggles.  If 
they  are  too  savage,  allow  them  a  day  and  a  night 
to  expend  their  fury,  and  as  soon  as  the  edge  of  their 
anger  is  blunted,  they  should  be  driven  forth  early 
in  the  morning,  care  being  taken  that  several  persons 
follow  them  behind  also  and  hold  them  back  by  their 
tethers  while  one  man,  going  in  front  of  them  with 
a  club  of  willow  wood  in  his  hand,  from  time  to  time 
restrains  their  onrush  with  light  blows. 

If,  however,  the  cattle  are  placid  and  quiet,  it  will  5 
be  possible  for  you  to  drive  them  out  even  before  the 
evening  of  the  day  on  which  you  have  tied  them  up 
and  train  them  to  walk  for  a  thousand  paces  in  an 
orderly  manner  and  without  fear.  When  you  have 
conducted  them  home  again,  you  should  bind  them 
very  closely  to  the  posts,  so  that  they  cannot  move 
their  heads.  Then  is  the  time  to  approach  the  oxen, 
when  they  are  tied,  not  from  behind  or  from  the  side 
but  from  straight  in  front,  quietly  and  by  using  a 
soothing  tone  of  voice,  in  order  that  they  may  become 
accustomed  to  see  you  approaching  them,  and  next 
rub  their  noses  so  that  they  may  learn  to  know  a  man 
by  his  odour.  Soon  after  this  it  is  also  a  good  plan  6 
both  to  stroke  their  hides  all  over  and  to  sprinkle 
them  with  unmixed  wine,  so  that  they  may  become 
on  more  familiar  terms  with  their  oxherd ;  it  is  well 
also  to  put  the  hand  on  the  belly  and  under  the 
thighs,  so  that  they  may  not  be  alarmed  if  they  are 
touched  in  this  way  afterwards,   and  also  so  that 


VOL.  II.  F 


qui    plerumque     feminibus     inhaerent,     eximantur. 
Idque  cum  fit,  a  latere  domitor  stare  debet,  ne  calce 

7  contingi  possit.  Post  haec  diductis  malis  educito 
linguam,  totumque  os  et  ^  palatum  sale  defricato, 
libralesque  oiFas  in  praesulsae  adipis  liquamine  tinctas 
in  gulam^  demittito,  ac  vini  singulos  sextarios  per 
cornu  faucibus  infundito  :  nam  per  haec  blandimenta 
triduo  fere  mansuescunt,  iugumque  quarto  die 
accipiunt,  cui  ramus  illigatus  temonis  vice  traicitur : 
interdum  et  pondus  aliquod  iniungitur,  ut  maiore  nisu 

8  laboris  exploretur  patientia.  Post  eiusmodi  experi- 
menta  vacuo  plaustrum  subiungendi,  et  paulatim 
longius  cum  oneribus  producendi  sunt.  Sic  perdomiti 
mox  ad  aratrum  instituantur,  sed  in  subacto  agro,  ne 
statim  difficultatem  operis  reformident,  neve  adhuc 
tenera  colla  dura  proscissione  terrae  contundant.^ 
Quemadmodum  autem  bubulcus  in  arando  bovem 
instituat,  primo  praecepi  volumine.  Curandum  ^  ne 
in  domitura  bos  calce  aut  cornu  quemquam  contingat. 
Nam  nisi  haec  caventur,  nunquam  eiusmodi  vitia 
quamvis  subacto  ^  eximi  poterunt. 

9  Verum  ista  sic  agenda  praecipimus,  si  veteranum  ^ 
pecus  non  aderit ;  alioqui '  expeditior  tutiorque  ratio 

^  OS  et  Lundstrom  ex  cit.  Palladii  :  eo  sed  S  :  eo  sub  AE. 

*  gulam  Palladius  :  singula  8AR. 
'  contundunt  Aid.  :  condant  SAR. 

*  Curanda  SAa :  Curandum  c. 

*  subacta  SAR.  *  veranum  SA. 
''  alioqui  Lundstrom, :  adeoque  SAR. 

"  Which  it  must  become  used  to  later. 

*  These  instructions  occur  in  Book  II.  2.  22  ff. 


BOOK  VI.  II.  6-9 

ticks,  which  generally  fasten  on  the  thighs,  may  be 
removed.  In  doing  this  the  trainer  ought  to  stand 
at  the  side,  so  that  the  animal  may  not  reach  him 
with  its  hoof.  After  this  you  should  pull  the  jaws  7 
apart  and  draw  out  the  tongue  and  rub  the  whole 
mouth  and  palate  with  salt  and  put  down  the  animal's 
throat  cakes  of  a  pound's  weight  of  meal  moistened 
with  well-salted  drippings  of  fat,  and  pour  into  their 
jaws  a  sextarius  of  wine  at  a  time  by  means  of  a 
horn ;  for  by  blandishments  of  this  kind  they 
generally  become  tame  in  three  days  and  allow 
themselves  to  be  yoked  on  the  fourth  day.  This 
yoke  has  the  bough  of  a  tree  tied  to  it  instead  of 
a  pole  ;  "  sometimes  too  a  weight  is  attached,  so  that 
the  capacity  of  the  animal  for  enduring  toil  may  be 
tested  by  the  greater  effort  M^hich  is  involved. 
After  experiments  of  this  kind  the  bullocks  should  fi 
be  yoked  to  an  empty  wagon  and  gradually  be 
made  to  go  longer  journeys  with  loads.  Soon  after 
they  have  been  thus  broken  in,  they  should  be  set  to 
draw  the  plough,  but  over  land  already  tilled,  so  that 
they  may  not  be  frightened  at  first  by  the  difficulty 
of  their  task  and  that  their  still  tender  necks  may 
not  be  bruised  by  the  tough  first  breaking  of  the 
ground.  I  have  already  in  my  first  book  *  given 
instructions  how  the  ploughman  is  to  train  the  ox  in 
ploughing.  Care  must  be  taken  that  the  ox  does  not 
strike  anyone  with  his  hoof  or  his  horn  while  he  is  being 
trained  ;  for,  unless  precautions  are  taken  against  this, 
it  will  never  be  possible  to  get  rid  of  faults  of  this 
kind,  though  the  animal  has  been  broken  in. 

The  method  which  we  are  prescribing  should  be    9 
followed  only  if  no  ox  is  available  which  has  already 
done  service ;  otherwise  the  system  of  training  which 



domandi  est,  quam  nos  in  nostris  agris  sequimur. 
Nam  ubi  plaustro  aut  aratro  iuvencum  consuescimus, 
ex  domitis  bubus  valentissimum  eundemque  placidissi- 
mum  cum  indomito  iungimus.     Is  et  procurrentem 

10  retrahit,  et  cunctantem  produeit.  Si  vero  non  pigeat 
iugum  fabricare,  quo  tres  iungantur,  per  ^  hanc  ma- 
chinationem  consequemur,  ut  etiam  contumaces  boves 
gravissima  opera  non  recusent.  Nam  ubi  piger  iuven- 
cus  medius  inter  duos  veteranos  iungitur,  aratroque 
iniecto  terram  moliri  ^  cogitur,  nulla  est  imperium 
respuendi  facultas.  Sive  enim  efFeratus  prosilit, 
duorum  arbitrio  inhibetur :  seu  consistit,  duobus 
gradientibus  etiam  invitus  obsequitur :  seu  conatur 
decumbere,  a  valentioribus  sublevatus  trahitur : 
propter  quae  undique  necessitate  contumaciam  de- 
ponit,  et  ad  patientiam  laboris  paucissimis  verberibus 

11  Est  etiam  post  domituram  mollioris  generis  bos, 
qui  decumbit  in  sulco  :  eum  non  saevitia,  sed  ratione  ^ 
censeo  emendandum.  Nam  qui  stimulis  aut  ignibus 
aliisque  tormentis  id  vitium  eximi  melius  iudicant, 
verae  rationis  ignari  sunt :  quoniam  pervicax  con- 
tumacia  plerumque  saevientem  fatigat.  Propter 
quod  utilius  est  citra  *  corporis  vexationem  fame 
potius  et  siti  cubitorem  bovem  emendare.  Nam  eum 
vehementius    afficiunt    naturalia    desideria,    quam 

^  per  add.  Lundstrom. 

*  terra  molli  codd. 

'  rationem  SA  :  sed  ratione  ac. 

*  citra  S  :  circa  AR. 


BOOK  VI.  II.  9-II 

we  follow  on  our  own  farm  is  more  expeditious  and 
safer.  For  when  we  are  accustoming  the  young 
bullock  to  the  wagon  or  plough,  we  yoke  with  the  un- 
trained animal  the  strongest  and  at  the  same  time 
quietest  of  the  trained  oxen,  which  both  keeps  it 
back  if  it  rushes  forward  and  makes  it  advance  if  it 
lags  behind.  Indeed,  if  we  have  no  objection  to  10 
constructing  a  yoke  to  which  three  animals  can  be 
fastened,  we  shall  by  this  device  achieve  the  result 
that  even  obstinate  oxen  do  not  refuse  the  heaviest 
tasks.  For  when  an  idle  bullock  is  yoked  between 
two  veteran  oxen  and  forced  to  till  the  ground  with 
the  plough  which  is  put  upon  them,  he  has  no 
opportunity  of  refusing  to  obey  the  order  which  has 
been  given  him ;  for,  if  he  has  become  savage  and 
rushes  forward,  he  is  checked  by  the  controlling  power 
of  the  other  two  ;  or,  if  he  stands  still  when  the  other 
two  pace  along,  he  also  follows  even  against  his  will ; 
or,  if  he  tries  to  lie  down,  he  is  upheld  and  dragged 
along  by  his  more  powerful  companions.  Hence  he 
is  forced  from  all  sides  to  lay  aside  his  obstinacy,  and 
it  takes  very  few  blows  to  induce  him  to  submit  to 
hard  work. 

There  is  also  an  ox  of  a  softer  kind  after  it  has  been  11 
broken  in,  which  lies  down  in  the  furrow ;  in  my 
opinion  he  should  be  made  to  mend  his  ways  by 
reasoning  rather  than  by  cruelty.  Those  who  think 
that  the  vice  is  better  eradicated  by  means  of  goads, 
fire  or  other  forms  of  torture,  do  not  know  how  to 
reason  aright ;  for  the  animal's  stubborn  obstinacy 
usually  wears  out  the  angry  ploughman.  Hence  it 
is  more  expedient  to  cure  the  ox  which  has  the  habit 
of  lying  down  by  hunger  and  thirst  without  having 
recourse  to  doing  it  bodily  hurt ;  for  its  natural  desires 



12  plagae.  Itaque  si  bos  decubuit,  utilissimum  est 
pedes  eius  sic  cingulis  ^  obligari,  ne  aut  insistere  aut 
progredi  aut  pasci  possit.  Quo  facto  inedia  et  siti  ^ 
compulsus  deponit  ignaviam  ;  quae  tamen  rarissima  ^ 
est  in  pecore  vernaculo  :  longeque  omnis  bos  indigena 
melior  est  quam  peregrinus.  Nam  neque  aquae  nee 
pabuli  nee  caeli  mutatione  *  tentatur,  neque  infesta- 
tur  conditione  regionis,  sicut  ille,  qui  ex  planis  et 
campestribus  locis  in  montana  et  aspera  perductus 

13  est,  vel  ex  nnontanis  in  campestria.  .  Itaque  etiam, 
cum^  cogioiur  ex  longinquo  boves  arcessere,  curan- 
dum  est,  ut  in  similia  patriis  locis  traducantur.  Item 
custodiendum  est,  ne  in  comparatione  vel  statura  vel 
viribus  impar  cum  valentiore  iungatur.  Nam  utra- 
que  res  inferiori  celeriter  afFert  exitum. 

14  Mores  huius  pecudis  probabiles  habentur,  qui  sunt 
propiores  placidis  quam  concitatis,  sed  non  inertes : 
qui  sunt  verentes  plagarum  et  acclamationum,  sed 
fiducia  virium  nee  auditu  nee  visu  pavidi,  nee  ad  in- 
gredienda  flumina  aut  pontes  formidolosi,  multi  cibi 
edaces,  verum  in  eo  conficiendo  lenti.  Nam  hi  me- 
lius concoquunt,  ideoque  robora  corporum  citra 
maciem   conservant,    qui    ex   commodo,^   quam   qui 

15  festinanter  mandunt.  Sed  tam  vitium  est  bubulci 
pinguem  quam  exilem  bovem  reddere :  habilis  enim 
et  modica  corporatura  pecoris  operarii  debet  esse, 

^  singulis  SA^R. 

2  siti  B  :  sitis  SA. 

^  quam  et  amarissima  S  :   qua  et  amarissima  AR. 

*  mutationem  SA  :   mutatione  c. 
«  cui  8AR. 

*  commodo  S  :  commoda  AR. 

BOOK  VI.  II.  11-15 

affect  it  more  deeply  than  blows.  So,  if  an  ox  has  12 
lain  down,  the  best  plan  is  for  its  feet  to  be  fastened 
together  with  straps  in  such  a  way  that  it  can  neither 
stand  up  nor  walk  nor  feed.  As  a  result,  under  the 
compulsion  of  starvation  and  thirst,  it  lays  aside  its 
sloth,  which,  however,  is  very  rarely  found  amongst 
our  home-grown  cattle.  Indeed  a  native  ox  is  far 
superior  to  one  which  comes  from  elsewhere ;  for 
it  is  not  disturbed  by  change  of  water  or  food  or 
climate  and  is  not  troubled  by  the  local  conditions, 
as  an  ox  would  be  which  has  been  brought  from  flat 
plain-lands  to  a  rough  mountainous  countiy  or  vice 
versa.  When,  therefore,  we  are  obliged  to  bring  oxen  13 
from  a  distance,  care  must  be  taken  that  they  are 
transferred  to  country  which  resembles  that  in  which 
they  were  born.  You  must  also  be  on  your  guard 
when  pairing  oxen  together  not  to  yoke  one  which 
is  inferior  in  height  or  strength  with  one  which  is 
more  powerful ;  for  either  of  these  circumstances 
quickly  proves  fatal  to  the  weaker  of  the  two. 

Characteristics  which  are  esteemed  in  oxen  are  14 
possessed  by  those  which  are  placid  rather  than 
excitable  and  at  the  same  time  not  lazy,  and  which 
are  afraid  of  blows  or  shouts,  but,  being  confident  in 
their  own  strength,  are  not  alarmed  by  anything 
which  they  hear  or  see,  and  which  are  not  nervous  at 
having  to  cross  rivers  or  bridges,  and  which  can  eat 
plenty  of  food  but  are  slow  in  finishing  it ;  for  leisurely 
chewers  digest  better  and  therefore  preserve  their 
bodily  strength  without  becoming  thin  better  than 
those  which  eat  their  food  hurriedly.  But  it  is  quite  15 
as  much  a  fault  in  an  oxherd  to  make  his  oxen  fat  as 
to  make  them  thin  ;  for  the  bodily  form  of  a  working 
ox  ought  to  be  active  and  moderate  in  bulk,  with 



nervisque  et  musculis  robusta,  non  adipibus  obesa,  ut 
nee  sui  tergoris  mole  nee  labore  operis  degravetur. 
Sed  quoniam  quae  sequenda  sunt  in  emendis  do- 
mandisque  bubus  tradidimus,  tutelam  eorum  prae- 

III.  Boves  calore  sub  divo,^  frigoribus  intra  tectum, 
manere  oportet.  Itaque  hibernae  stabulationi  ^ 
eorum  praeparanda  sunt  stramenta,  quae  mense 
Augusto  intra  dies  triginta  sublatae  messis  ^  prae- 
cisa  ^  in  acervum  extrui  debent.  Horum  desectio 
cum  pecori  tum  agro  est  utilis :  liberantur  arva 
sentibus,  qui  aestivo  ^  tempore  per  Caniculae  ortum 
recisi  plerumque  radicitus  intereunt,  et  stramenta 
pecori  ^  subiecta  plurimum  stercoris  efficiunt. 

Haec  cum  ita  curaverimus,  tum  et  omne  genus 
pabuli  praeparabimus,  dabimusque  operam,  ne 
penuria  cibi  macrescat  pecus.  Boves  autem  recte 
pascendi  non  una  ratio  est.  Nam  si  ubertas  regionis 
viride  pabulum  subministrat  nemo  dubitat  quin  id 
genus  cibi  ceteris  praeponendum  sit :  quod  tamen 
nisi  riguis  aut  roscidis  locis  non  contingit,  Itaque 
in  iis  ipsis  vel  maximum  commodum  est,  quod  sufficit 
una  opera  duobus  iugis,  quae  eodem  die  alterna 
temporum  vice  vel  arant  vel  pascuntur.  Siccioribus 
agris  ad  praesepia  boves  alendi  sunt,  quibus  pro 
conditione  regionum  cibi  praebentur:  eosque  nemo 
dubitat,  quin  optimi  sint '  vicia  ^  in  fascem  ligata,  et 

1  divoi?:  dioSA":  dm  A^. 

2  stabulationi  Aid.  :   stabulati  S  :   stabulatio  AR. 

*  messis  a  :   mensis  8AR. 

*  precisas  SAR. 

*  quaestivo  A  :   qui  aestivo  A^ :  quostivo  S. 
'  stramenta  pecori  Ursinus  :  stramentis  pecoris  SAR. 

^  sunt  AR  :  sint  8. 
*  vitia  8A  :  vicia  c. 


BOOK  VI.  11.  15-111.  3 

strong  sinews  and  muscles  and  not  encumbered  by- 
fat,  so  that  it  may  not  be  wearied  either  by  the 
weight  of  its  own  body  or  by  the  exertion  necessary 
for  its  work.  But  since  we  have  now  set  down  the 
principles  which  must  be  followed  in  buying  oxen 
and  in  breaking  them  in,  we  will  next  give  directions 
for  the  care  of  them. 

III.  Oxen  should  remain  out  of  doors  when  it  is  The  care 
warm  and  under  cover  when  it  is  cold ;  therefore,  for  o?oxra^'"* 
their  winter  stabling,  straw  must  be  prepared,  which 
ought  to  be  cut  and  heaped  up  in  stacks  in  August  with- 
in thirty  days  of  the  gathering  of  the  harvest.  The 
cutting  of  the  straw  is  beneficial  both  to  the  cattle 
and  to  the  ground ;  for  the  fields  are  thus  freed  from 
briers,  which,  if  they  are  cut  back  in  the  summer  at 
the  time  of  the  rising  of  the  Dogstar,  usually  die  off 
at  the  roots,  and  also,  if  straw  is  put  down  as  litter 
for  the  cattle,  it  produces  a  very  large  quantity  of 

When  we  have  arranged  for  this,  we  shall  make 
provision  also  for  every  kind  of  fodder  and  ensure 
that  the  cattle  will  not  be  thin  for  want  of  food.  2 
There  is  more  than  one  system  of  feeding  cattle 
properly.  If  the  fertility  of  the  district  supplies 
green  fodder,  there  is  no  doubt  that  this  kind  of  food 
is  to  be  preferred  to  all  others ;  but  this  is  only  to  be 
found  in  well-watered  or  dewy  places.  In  these 
circumstances  there  is  the  very  great  advantage 
that  one  farm-labourer  is  enough  to  look  after  two 
yoke  of  oxen,  which  on  the  same  day  either  plough 
or  graze  alternately.  On  drier  farms  the  oxen  3 
must  be  fed  at  their  stalls,  the  fodder  provided 
varying  according  to  the  nature  of  the  district. 
There  can  be  no  doubt  that  the  best  foods  are  vetches 



cicercula  itemque  pratense  faenum.  Minus  com- 
mode tuemur  armenta  ^  paleis,  quae  ubique  et  qui- 
busdam  regionibus  solae  praesidio  sunt.  Eae  ^  pro- 
bantur  maxime  ex  milio,  tum  ex  hordeo,  mox  etiam  ex 
tritico.  Sed  iumentis  iusta  operum  reddentibus 
hordeum  praeter  has  praebetur. 

Bubus  autem  pro  temporibus  anni  pabula  dis- 
pensantur.  lanuario  mense  singulis  fresi  et  aqua 
macerati  ervi  quaternos  sextarios  mixtos  paleis  dare 
convenit,  vel  lupini  macerati  modios,  vel  cicerculae 
maceratae  semodios,  et  super  haec  afFatim  paleas.^ 
Licet  etiam,  si  est  leguminum  inopia,  et  eluta  et 
siccata  vinacia,  quae  de  lora  eximuntur,  cum  paleis 
miscere.  Nee  dubium  quin  ea  longe  melius  cum  suis 
foUiculis,  ante  quam  eluantur,  praeberi  possint. 
Nam  et  cibi  et  vini  vires  habent,  nitidumque  et  hilare 
et  corpulentum  pecus  faciunt.  Si  grano  abstinemus, 
frondis  aridae  corbis  pabulatorius  *  modiorum  viginti 
sufficit,  vel  faeni  pondo  triginta,  vel  sine  modo  viridis 
laurea  et  ilignea  frondes.  Et  his,  si  regionis  vis  ^  per- 
mittit,  glans  adicitur  :  quae  nisi  ad  satietatem  detur, 
scabiem  parit.  Potest  etiam  si  proventus  ^  vilita- 
tem'  facit,  semodius  fabae  fresae  praeberi.  Mense 
Februario  plerumque  eadem  sunt  cibaria.  Martio  et 
Aprili  debet  ad  faeni  pondus  adici,  qua  terra  pro- 
scinditur :  sat  autem  erit  pondo  quadragena  singulis 
dari.     Ab  idibus  tamen  mensis  Aprilis  usque  in  idus 

^  armenta  S  :  armento  AB. 

^  eae  S  :  ea  AR. 

^  paleas  S  :  paleis  AR. 

*  pabulatoribus  SAR. 

*  vis  om.  SAR. 

*  proventus  S  :   pro  ventu  A. 
'  vilitatem  R  :   vilitem  SA. 

BOOK  VI.  III.  3-6 

tied  up  in  bundles  and  chickpea  and  also  meadow- 
hay.  We  are  not  looking  after  our  cattle  so  well  if 
we  feed  them  on  chaff,  which  is  a  universal,  and  in 
some  districts  the  only,  resource.  The  chaff  which 
is  most  highly  esteemed  comes  from  millet,  the  next 
best  from  barley,  and  the  third  best  from  wheat ; 
beasts  of  burden  which  are  rendering  regular  terms 
of  labour  are  given  barley  as  well  as  chaff. 

The  diet  of  oxen  is  regulated  according  to  the  time 
of  year.  In  January  it  is  a  good  plan  to  give  them 
four  sextarii  each  of  bitter-vetch  crushed  and  soaked 
in  water  and  mixed  with  chaff,  or  a  modius  of  soaked 
lupines,  or  half  a.  modius  of  soaked  chickling-pea,  as  well 
as  chaff  in  abundance.  If  there  is  a  lack  of  pulse, 
it  is  allowable  to  mix  with  chaff  grape  skins  taken 
from  the  after-wine  which  have  been  washed  and 
dried,  but  there  is  no  doubt  that  it  is  far  better  to 
give  them  the  grapemash,  skins  and  all,  before  they 
have  been  washed,  for  they  contain  the  strength 
both  of  food  and  of  wine  and  make  the  cattle  sleek 
and  of  good  cheer  and  plump.  If  we  abstain  from 
giving  them  grain,  it  is  enough  to  supply  a  fodder- 
basket  holding  twenty  modii  of  dry  leaves  or  thirty 
pounds  of  hay,  or  green  bay-leaves  or  the  foliage  of 
the  holm-oak  in  unlimited  quantities.  To  these  mast 
is  added,  if  the  resources  of  the  district  permit,  but, 
unless  enough  is  provided  to  cause  satiety,  it  causes 
the  scab.  A  halt-modius  of  crushed  beans  may  also 
be  provided,  if  a  good  crop  makes  it  cheap  enough 
to  do  so.  In  February  the  food  is  usually  the  same. 
In  March  and  April  an  addition  should  be  made  to 
the  weight  of  hay  in  places  where  the  ground  is  being 
broken  up  for  the  first  time ;  forty  pounds,  however, 
will  be  enough  to  give  to  each  animal.     From  April 



lunias  viride  pabulum  recte  secatur :  potest  etiam  in 
calend.  lulias  frigidioribus  locis  idem  praestari :  a 
quo  tempore  in  calend.  Novemb.  tota  aestate  et 
deinde  autumno  satientur  fronde ;  quae  tamen  non 
ante  est  utilis,  quam  cum  maturaverit  ^  vel  imbribus 
vel  assiduis  roribus :  probaturque  maxime  ulmea, 
post  fraxinea,  et  ab  hac  populnea.  Ultimae  sunt 
ilignea  et  quernea  et  laurea :  sed  eae  post  aestatem 
necessariae  deficientibus  ceteris.  Possunt  etiam 
folia  ficulnea  probe  dari,  si  sit  ea  copia,  aut  stringere 
arbores  expediat.  Ilignea  tamen  vel  melior  est 
quernea,  sed  eius  generis,  quod  spinas  non  habet; 
nam  id  quoque,  ut  iuniperus,^  respuitur  a  pecore 
propter  aculeos.  Novembri  mense  ac  Decembi'i  per 
sementem  quantum  appetit  bos,  tantum  praebendum 
est :  plerumque  tamen  sufficiunt  singulis  modii 
glandis  et  paleae  ad  satietatem  datae,  vel  lupini 
macerati  modii,  vel  ervi  aqua  conspersi  sextarii  vii 
permixti  paleis,  vel  cicerculae  similiter  conspersae 
sextarii  xii  mixti  paleis,  vel  singuli  modii  vinaceorum, 
si  iis,  ut  supra  dixi,  large  paleae  adiciantur;  vel  si 
nihil  horum  est,  per  se  faeni  pondo  quadraginta. 

IV.  Sed  non  proderit  cibis  ^  satiari  pecora,  nisi 
omnis  adhibeatur  *  diligentia,  ut  salubri  sint  corpore, 
viresque  conservent :  quae  utraque  ^  custodiuntur 
large   dato  per  triduum  medicamento,  quod  com- 

^  maturuit  SAR. 

^  iunipenis  R  :   -erins  S  :   imperius  A. 

^  cibos  S  :   cibns  AR. 

*  adhibeatur  S^ :    adhibotur  S^  :    adiuvotur  AR. 

*  utroque  SAR. 


BOOK  VI.  HI.  6-iv.  I 

13th  to  June  15th  it  is  proper  to  cut  green  forage  for 
them ;  supply  of  it  can  even  be  continued  until  July 
1st  in  cooler  regions.  From  then  through  the  whole 
summer  and  the  following  autumn  up  to  November 
1st,  they  should  be  given  their  fill  of  leaves,  which, 
however,  are  not  fit  for  use  until  matured  either  by 
rain  or  by  continual  dew.  The  most  highly  es- 
teemed is  the  foliage  of  the  elm,  next  comes  that  of 
the  ash,  and,  thirdly,  that  of  the  poplar ;  the  least  7 
satisfactory  is  that  of  the  holm-oak,  the  oak  and  the 
bay-tree,  but  these  may  have  to  be  used  after  the 
summer,  if  all  other  kinds  fail.  It  is  also  proper  to 
give  them  fig-leaves,  if  there  is  abundance  of  them 
or  if  it  is  expedient  to  strip  the  trees.  Holm-oak- 
leaves  are  better  than  oak-leaves,  but  they  should 
not  be  of  the  kind  that  has  spines,  for  this  is  refused 
by  cattle  because  of  the  prickles,  as  also  are  juniper- 
leaves.  In  November  and  December,  during  the  8 
period  of  sowing,  an  ox  should  be  given  all  the  food 
which  it  wants ;  but  a  modius  of  mast  a  head  is 
generally  enough  and  as  much  chaff  as  they  can  eat, 
or  a  modius  of  soaked  lupines  or  seven  sextarii  of 
bitter-vetch  sprinkled  with  water  and  mixed  with 
chaff,  or  twelve  sextarii  of  chickpeas  similarly 
sprinkled  and  mixed  with  chaff,  or  a  modius  of  grape- 
skins  each,  provided  that,  as  I  have  said  above,  chaff 
is  generously  added  to  them  ;  if  none  of  these  foods 
is  available,  forty  pounds  of  hay  should  be  given  by 

IV.  It  will  be  no  use  to  give  cattle  a  satisfying  i?*"  diseases 
diet  unless  every  care  is  taken  that  they  are  healthy  their  rem- 
in  body  and  that  they  keep  up  their  strength.     Both  ®*^'**' 
these  objects  are  secured  by  administering  on  three 
consecutive  days  a  generous  dose  of  medicine  com- 



ponitur  pari  pondere  triti  lupini  ^  cupressique,  et 
cum  aqua  nocte  una  sub  divo  habetur ;  idque  quater 
anno  fieri  debet  ultimis  temporibus  veris,  aestatis, 
autumni,  hiemis.  Saepe  etiam  languor  et  nausea 
discutitur,  si  integrum  gallinaceum  crudum  ovum 
ieiuni  faucibus  inseras,  ac  postero  die  spicas  ulpici  vel 
alii  cum  vino  conteras,  et  in  naribus  infundas : 
neque  haec  tantum  remedia  salubritatem  faciunt. 
Multi  2  et  largo  sale  miscent  pabula ;  quidam  marru- 
bium  deterunt  ^  cum  oleo  et  vino ;  quidam  porri 
fibras,  alii  grana  thuris,  alii  sabinam  herbam  rutam- 
que  pinsitam  *  mero  diluunt,  eaque  medicamenta 
potanda  praebent.  Multi  caulibus  vitis  ^  albae  et 
valvulis  ervi  bubus  medentur :  nonnulli  pellem 
serpentis  obtritam  cum  vino  miscent.  Est  ^  etiam 
remedio  cum  dulci  vino  tritum  serpyllum,  et  concisa 
et  in  aqua  macerata  scilla.  Quae  omnes  praedictae 
potiones  trium  heminarum  singulis  diebus  per  tri- 
duum  datae  alvum  purgant,  depulsisque  vitiis  re- 
creant vires.  Maxime  tamen  habetur  salutaris 
amurca,  si  tantundem  aquae  misceas,  et  ea  pecus 
insuescas ;  quae  protinus  dari  non  potest,  sed  primo 
cibi  asperguntur ;  '  deinde  exigua  portione  medicatur 
aqua,  mox  pari  mensura  mixta  datur  ad  saturitatem. 

^  lupini  a :  om.  SAB. 

2  multo  SAR. 

'  deterunt  S  :  dederunt  AR. 

*  rutamque  pinsitam  Lundslrom  :   putaque  vinitam  SA. 

^  vitibus  <S^  :   vitia  ac. 

«  est  S  :  sed  AR. 

''  adspergunt  SA. 


BOOK  VI.  IV.  1-4 

pounded  of  equal  weights  of  the  crushed  leaves  of  the 
lupine  and  of  the  cypress,  which  is  mixed  with  water 
and  left  out  of  doors  for  a  night.  This  should  be 
done  four  times  a  year — at  the  end  of  the  spring,  of 
the  summer,  of  the  autumn  and  of  the  winter. 
Lassitude  and  nausea  also  can  often  be  dispelled  if 
you  force  a  whole  raw  hen's  egg  down  the  animal's 
throat  when  it  has  eaten  nothing ;  then  on  the 
following  day  you  should  crush  together  spikes  of 
leek  or  garlic  in  wine  and  pour  it  into  its  nostrils. 
Nor  are  these  the  only  remedies  which  make  for 
health.  Many  people  mix  also  a  generous  quantity 
of  salt  with  the  fodder ;  some  grate  white  hore- 
hound  in  oil  and  wine ;  some  infuse  fibres  of  leek, 
others  grains  of  frankincense,  others  savin  <*  and 
crushed  rue  in  unmixed  wine  and  give  them  these 
medicaments  to  drink.  Many  people  use  the  stalks 
of  white-vine  (bryony)  and  the  shells  of  bitter-vetch 
as  a  medicine  for  oxen ;  some  crush  a  snake's  skin 
and  mix  it  with  wine.  Thyme  crushed  in  sweet 
wine  and  squill  cut  up  and  soaked  in  water  are  also 
used  as  remedies.  All  the  above-mentioned  potions 
in  doses  of  three  heminae  given  daily  for  three  days 
purge  the  bowel  and  renew  the  animal's  strength 
by  driving  away  its  maladies.  But  lees  of  olive-oil 
are  regarded  as  particularly  salutary  if  you  mix 
them  with  an  equal  portion  of  water  and  accustom 
the  cattle  to  them ;  this  remedy  cannot  be  ad- 
ministered all  at  once,  but  at  first  is  sprinkled  on 
the  food,  next  a  small  portion  is  infused  in  the 
water,  and  then  the  animal  is  given  as  much  as 
it  can  take  mixed  in  equal  portions  of  both 

"  A  kind  of  juniper  which  yields  a  volatile  oil. 


V.  Nullo  autem  tempore  et  minime  aestate  utile 
est  boves  in  cursum  concitari :  nam  ea  res  aut  alvum 
movet,  aut  ^  frequenter  ^  febrem.  Cavendum  quoque 
est,  ne  ad  praesepia  sus  aut  gallina  perrepat.  Nam 
hoc  ^  quod  decidit  ^  immixtum  pabulo,  bubus  afFert 

Sus  aegra  pestilentiam  facere  ^  valet.  Quae  cum  in 
gregem  ^  incidit,  confestim  mutandus  '  est  caeli  status, 
et  in  plures  partes  distributo  pecore  longinquae 
regiones  petendae  sunt,  atque  ita  segregandi  a 
sanis  morbidi,  ne  quis  interveniat,  qui  contagione 
ceteros  labefaciat.  Itaque  cum  ablegabuntur,  in 
ea  loca  perducendi  sunt,  quibus  nullum  impascitur 
pecus,  ne  adventu  suo  etiam  illi  tabem  afferant. 
Evincendi  sunt  autem  quamvis  pestiferi  morbi,  et 
exquisitis  remediis  propulsandi.  Tunc  panacis  et 
eryngii  radices  faeniculi  seminibus  miscendae,  et 
cum  fricti  ^  ac  moliti  tritici  farina  candenti  aqua  con- 
spergendae,  eoque  medicamine  salivandum  aegrotum 
pecus.  Tunc  paribus  casiae  myrrhaeque  et  thuris 
ponderibus,  ac  tantundem  sanguinis  marinae  testu- 
dinis  miscetur  potio  cum  vini  veteris  sextariis  tribus, 
et  ita  per  nares  infunditur.  Sed  ipsum  medicamen- 
tum  ponderis  sescunciae  divisum  portione  aequa  per 
triduum  cum  vino  dedisse  sat  erit.  Praesens  etiam 
remedium  cognovimus  radiculae,  quam  pastores  con- 
siliginem  vocant.  Ea  in  Marsis  montibus  plurima 
nascitur,  omnique  pecori  maxime  est  salutaris.    Laeva 

^  meta  ut  SAR. 

*  frequenter  Lundslrom  :   frequen  {sequ.  vac.  sp.)  SAR. 
'  haec  S  :   hoc  A  :   hoc  c. 

*  desidit  SA  :  decidit  ac. 
»  facere  S^ :   face  S^AR. 

*  grege  SAR.  '  mutandus  jS  :   mutatus  .4i?. 

*  fricti  S  :  defruti  AR. 


BOOK  VI.  V.  1-3 

V.  At  no  season  of  the  year  and  least  of  all  in  the  Cftusw  and 
summer  is  it  beneficial  to  incite  oxen  to  run  ;  for  this  ^J^u*t'1n°' 
either  relaxes  the  bowels  or  else  often  gives  rise  to  o^en. 
fever.  Care  must  also  be  taken  that  no  pig  or  chicken 
slips  into  their  stalls,  for  the  excrement  which  falls 
from  them,  mixed  with  their  food,  is  fatal  to  oxen. 
A  diseased  sow  may  cause  plague.  If  this  falls  upon 
a  herd,  a  change  of  climate  must  immediately  be 
made,  and  the  cattle  must  be  divided  up,  in  a 
number  of  groups,  and  sent  to  distant  places  and 
those  which  are  infected  segregated  from  the 
healthy,  that  no  infected  animal  may  come  into 
contact  with  the  rest  and  destroy  them  with  the 
contagion.  When  they  are  thus  isolated,  they  2 
have  to  be  taken  to  places  where  no  herd  is  pastured, 
so  that  they  may  not  by  their  arrival  bring  the 
plague  there  also.  Diseases,  however  pestilential, 
must  be  overcome  and  expelled  by  carefully  sought- 
out  remedies.  Sometimes  roots  of  all-heal  and  sea- 
holly  should  be  mixed  with  fennel-seeds  and,  together 
with  flour  of  crushed  and  ground  wheat,  should  be 
sprinkled  with  boiling  water,  and  the  suffering  herd 
given  a  drench  with  this  medicament.  Sometimes  a  3 
potion  consisting  of  equal  weights  of  cinnamon,  myrrh 
and  frankincense  and  a  like  quantity  of  the  blood  of  a 
sea-tortoise  is  mixed  with  three  sextarii  of  old  wine  and 
poured  through  the  animal's  nostrils.  It  will  suffice 
to  have  given  the  medicine  itself  divided  into  equal 
doses  of  one  and  a  half  ounces  together  with  wine  for 
three  days.  We  have  also  found  a  sovereign  remedy 
in  the  root  which  the  shepherds  call  consiligo.'^  It 
grows  in  large  quantities  in  the  Marsian  mountains 
and  is  very  salutary  for  all  cattle ;   it  is  dug  up  with 

"  Pulmonaria  officinalis,  lungwort. 



manu  effoditur  ante  solis  ortum.  Sic  enim  lecta 
maiorem  vim  creditur  habere.  Usus  eius  traditur 
talis,  Aenea  fibula  pars  auriculae  latissima  circum- 
scribitur,  ita  ut  manante  sanguine  tanquam  O  literae 
ductus  ^  appareat.  Hoc  et  intrinsecus  et  ex  superiore 
parte  auriculae  cum  factum  est,  media  pars  descripti 
orbiculi  eadem  fibula  transuitur,  et  facto  foramini 
praedicta  radicula  inseritur ;  quam  cum  recens  plaga 
comprehendit,  ita  continet,  ut  elabi  ^  non  possit :  in 
eam  deinde  auriculam  omnis  vis  morbi  pestilensque 
virus  elicitur,^  donee  pars,  quae  fibula  circumscripta 
est,  demortua  excidit,  et  minimae  partis  iactura  caput 
conservatur.  Cornelius  Celsus  etiam  visci  folia  cum 
vino  trita  per  nares  infundere  iubet.  Haec  facienda, 
si-gregatim  pecora  laborant :  ilia  deinceps,  si  singula. 
VI.  Cruditatis  signa  sunt  crebri  ructus  ac  ventris 
sonitus,  fastidia  cibi,  nervorum  intentio,  hebetes  oculi. 
Propter  quae  bos  neque  ruminat  neque  lingua  se 
deterget.  Remedio  erunt  aquae  calidae  duo  congii, 
et  mox  triginta  brassicae  modicae  caules  cocti  et  ex 
aceto  dati.  Sed  uno  die  abstinendum  est  alio  cibo. 
Quidam  clausum  intra  tecta  continent,  ne  pasci 
possit.  Turn  lentisci  oleastrique  cacuminum  pondo 
IV,   et  libram  *  mellis   una  trita  permiscent   aquae 

^  littere  ductum  SA. 

"  ealabi  SAR. 

3  eligitur  S  :  efficitur  A^ :   elicit  c :   elicitur  A^a. 

*  libra  SAB. 

°  Anlus  Cornelius  Celsus,  a  contemporary  of  Columella, 
besides  his  book  on  medicine  which  has  survived,  also  wrote 
on  agriculture. 


BOOK  VI.  V.  3-vi.  2 

the  left  hand  before  sunrise,  for  it  is  believed  to  have 
greater  potency  if  it  is  picked  in  this  way.  The  4 
following  is  the  traditional  manner  of  using  it.  A 
line  is  drawn  round  the  widest  part  of  the  ear-lap  with 
brazen  pin  in  such  a  way  that  a  figure  resembling  the 
letter  O  appears  where  the  blood  flows.  When  this 
operation  has  been  performed  both  inside  and  on  the 
upper  part  of  the  ear,  the  middle  of  the  circle  which 
has  been  described  is  pierced  with  the  same  pin  and 
the  root  mentioned  above  is  inserted  in  the  hole  thus 
made,  and,  when  the  newly  made  wound  has  closed 
on  it,  it  holds  the  root  so  tightly  that  it  cannot  slip  out. 
Then  all  the  virulence  of  the  disease  and  the  poison 
of  the  plague  is  attracted  to  this  ear,  until  the  part 
round  which  the  line  was  described  by  the  pin  morti- 
fies and  comes  away.  Thus  the  head  is  saved  by  the 
sacrifice  of  a  very  small  portion  of  it.  Cornelius  5 
Celsus "  also  recommends  the  pouring  into  the 
nostrils  of  wine  in  which  the  leaves  of  mistletoe  have 
been  crushed.  The  latter  course  must  be  adopted  if 
the  cattle  are  suffering  as  a  herd,  the  former  if  in- 
dividual animals  are  affected. 

VI.  Signs  of  indigestion  are  frequent  eructations.  Remedies 
rumblings  of  the  belly,  distaste  for  food,  tension  of  tionln'^^^ 
the  sinews  and  dimness  of  the  sight,  with  the  result  cattle. 
that  the  ox  neither  ruminates  nor  cleanses  himself 
by  licking.     The   appropriate   remedy   will   be   two 
congii  of  hot  water,  followed   by   thirty  moderate- 
sized    stalks    of    cabbage    cooked    and    dipped    in 
vinegar ;    but  the  animal  must  abstain  from  other 
food  for  one   day.     Some  people  keep  the   animal    2 
shut  up  indoors,    so  that  it  cannot  graze ;   they  then 
mix  four  pounds  of  the  tops  of  mastic  and  wild  olive 
crushed  up  with  a  pound  of  honey  in  a  congius  of  water, 



congio,  quam  nocte  una  ^  sub  dio  habent,  atque  ita 
faucibus  infundunt.  Deinde  interposita  hora  ma- 
cerati  ervi  quattuor  libras  obiciunt,  aliaque  potione 
prohibent.  Hoc  per  triduum  fieri  debet,  ut  omnis 
causa  languoris  discutiatur.  Nam  si  neglecta  crudi- 
tas  est,  et  inflatio  ventris  et  intestinorum  maior  dolor 
insequitur,^  qui  nee  capere  cibos  sinit,  gemitus  ex- 
primit,  locoque  stare  non  patitur,  saepe  decumbere, 
et  agitare  caput,  caudamque  crebrius  agere  cogit. 
Manifestum  remedium  est  proximam  clunibus  partem 
caudae  vinculo  vehementer  obstringere,  vinique 
sextarium  cum  olei  hemina  faucibus  infundere  atque 
ita  citatum  per  mille  et  quingentos  passus  agere. 
Si  dolor  permanet,  ungulas  circumsecare,  et  uncta  ^ 
manu  per  anum  inserta  fimum  extrahere,  rursusque 
agere  currentem.  Si  nee  hoc  profuit,  tres  caprifici 
aridi  conteruntur,  et  cum  dodrante  aquae  calidae 
dantur.  Ubi  nee  haec  medicina  processit,  myrti 
silvestris  foliorum  duae  librae  laevigantur,  totidem- 
que  sextarii  calidae  aquae  mixti  per  vas  ligneum 
faucibus  infunduntur.  Atque  ita  sub  cauda  sanguis 
emittitur.  Qui  cum  satis  profluxit,  inhibetur  papyri 
ligamine.  Tum  concitate  agitur  pecus  eousque  dum 
anhelet.  Sunt  et  ante  detractionem  sanguinis  ilia 
remedia :  tribus  heminis  vini  triens  *  pinsiti  alii  ^ 
permiscetur,  et  post  eam  potionem  currere  cogitur, 
vel  salis  sextans  cum  cepis  decem  conteritur,  et  ad- 

^  nocte  unam  SA  :  noctem  unam  £. 

*  dolor  sequitur  (S^ :   dolori  eequitur  iS^^iZ. 
'  cuncta  SAE, 

*  triens  Svennung  :   tribus  SAR. 

*  pinsiti  alii  ed.  pr.  :  pinsitiali  SAB. 

BOOK  VI.  VI.  2-5 

which  they  keep  for  one  night  in  the  open  air,  and 
then  pour  it  down  the  animal's  throat.  Then  after 
an  interval  of  an  hour  they  put  before  it  four  pounds 
of  soaked  bitter-vetch  and  keep  it  away  from  any 
other  drink.  This  should  be  continued  for  three  days, 
so  that  every  cause  of  lassitude  is  dissipated.  If 
indigestion  is  neglected,  inflation  of  the  belly  and 
more  severe  pain  in  the  intestines  follow,  which  does 
not  allow  the  animal  to  take  its  food,  causes  it  to 
bellow,  does  not  suffer  it  to  remain  in  one  place,  and 
makes  it  lie  down  frequently,  toss  its  head  and  lash 
its  tail  continuall3^  An  obvious  remedy  is  to  bind 
down  tightly  the  part  of  the  tail  nearest  to  the 
haunches  and  to  pour  down  its  throat  a  sextarius  of 
wine  and  a  hemina  of  oil  and  then  drive  it  for  a  mile 
and  a  half  at  a  quick  pace.  If  the  pain  persists,  you 
should  cut  the  hoof  all  round,  draw  off  the  excrement 
by  greasing  the  hand  and  inserting  it  into  the  anus, 
and  again  drive  the  animal  at  a  running  pace.  If  this 
also  has  done  no  good,  three  dried  wild  figs  are  crushed 
and  administered  with  a  dodrans  of  hot  water.  If 
this  remedy  has  also  been  unsuccessful,  two  pounds 
of  the  leaves  of  wild  myrtle  are  pulverized  and 
mixed  with  the  same  number  of  sextarii  of  hot  water 
and  poured  down  the  throat  by  means  of  a  wooden 
vessel;  then  the  animal  is  bled  under  the  tail  and, 
when  enough  blood  has  flowed,  it  is  checked  by  a 
bandage  of  papyrus ;  then  the  animal  is  driven  at  a 
quick  speed  until  it  is  out  of  breath.  The  following 
remedies  are  applied  before  drawing  off  any  blood : 
a  triens  of  pounded  garlic  is  mixed  with  three  heminae 
of  wine,  and,  after  drinking  this,  the  animal  is  com- 
pelled to  run ;  or  else  a  sextans  of  salt  is  pounded  up 
with  ten  onions,  and  after  being  mixed  with  boiled- 



mixto  melle  dococto  collyria  immittuntur  alvo,^  atque 
ita  citatus  bos  agitur. 

VII.  Ventris  quoque  et  intestinorum  dolor  sedatur 
visu  nantium  et  maxime  anatis.  Quam  si  con- 
spexerit,  cui  intestinum  dolet,  celeriter  tormento 
liberatur.  Eadem  anas  maiore  profectu  mulos  ^  et 
equinum  genus  conspectu  suo  sanat.  Sed  interdum 
nulla  prodest  medicina.  Sequitur  torminum  ^  vi- 
tium,  quorum  signum  est  cruenta  et  mucosa  ventris 
proluvies.  Remedio  sunt  cupressini  quindecim  coni, 
totidemque  gallae,  et  utrorumque  ■*  ponderis  vetustis- 
simus  caseus.^  Quibus  in  unum  tunsis  admiscentur 
austeri  vini  quattuor  sextarii,  qui  pari  mensura  per 
quatriduum  dispensati  dantur :  nee  desint  lentisci 
myrtique  ^  et  oleastri  cacumina.  Viridis  alvus  '  corpus 
ac  vires  carpit,  operique  inutilem  reddit.  Quae  cum 
accident,  prohibendus  erit  bos  potione  per  triduum, 
primoque  die  cibo  abstinendus.  Sed  mox  cacumina 
oleastri  et  arundinis,  item  baccae  lentisci  myrtique  ^ 
dandae ;  nee  potestas  aquae  nisi  quam  parcissime 
facienda  est.  Sunt  qui  tenerorum  lauri  foliorum 
libram  ^  et  abrotonum  ceraticum,^"  pari  portione  de- 
terant  ^^  cum  aquae  calidae  duobus  sextariis,  atque  ita 
faucibus  infundant,  eademque  pabula,  ut  supra  dixi- 
mus,  obiciant.     Quidam  vinaceorum  duas  libras  torrc- 

1  albo  SAR. 

2  mulos  B  :  mulus  SA . 

^  terminum  S  :  minu  A  :  minus  B. 

*  utrorumque  S  :   vivorumque  AB. 
^  caseus  *S  :   caeses  A  :   ceses  B. 

*  myrtiq;  cd.  pr.:   murtisq ;  *S^a.  '  albos  5^J?. 

*  myrti  ed.  f>r.  :   multi  SAB. 

*  tenerorum  lauri  foliorum  libram  scrifsi :  teneram  laurum 
coloni  libram  SAR. 

^^  ceraticum  SAB  :  cepaticum  Lundstrom. 
^^  deterant  5  :  dederant^fl. 

BOOK  VI.  VI.  5-vn.  4 

down  honey  is  introduced  as  a  suppository  into  the 
bowel  and  the  ox  is  driven  at  a  quick  pace. 

VII.  Pain  in  the  belly  and  intestines  is  assuaged  Remedy  for 
by  the  sight  of  swimming  birds,  especially  a  duck.  p"ahS^ra 
If  an  ox  which  has  a  pain  in  its  intestines  sees  a  o^en. 
duck,  it  is  quickly  delivered  from  its  torment.  The 
sight  of  a  duck  is  also  even  more  successful  in  curing 
mules  and  the  race  of  horses.  Sometimes,  however, 
no  remedy  is  of  any  avail  and  colic  follows,  the  sign 
of  which  is  a  flux  of  blood  and  mucous  matter  from 
the  belly.  The  cure  for  this  consists  of  fifteen  2 
cypress-cones  and  the  same  number  of  oak-apples 
and  very  old  cheese  equal  in  weight  to  the  other  two 
ingredients.  When  these  have  been  pounded  up 
together,  four  sextarii  of  rough  wine  are  mixed  with 
them,  and  the  mixture  is  administered  in  equal  doses 
for  four  days ;  nor  should  tops  of  mastic  and  myrtle 
and  wild  olive  be  lacking.  Diarrhoea "  wastes  the 
body  and  the  strength  and  renders  an  animal  useless 
for  work.  When  this  happens,  the  ox  will  have  to  be 
kept  from  drinking  for  two  days  and  on  the  first  day 
must  be  kept  from  eating ;  but  soon  thereafter  tops  of  3 
wild  olive  and  of  reeds  must  be  given,  also  berries  of 
mastic  and  myrtle,  but  no  opportunity  of  drinking 
water  must  be  allowed  except  as  sparingly  as  possible. 
Some  people  crush  a  pound  of  tender  leaves  of  bay 
and  the  same  quantity  of  horned  southernwood  ^  in 
two  sextarii  of  hot  water  and  pour  it  down  the 
animal's  throat  and  put  before  it  the  same  food  as  I 
mentioned  above.     Some  people  heat  two  pounds  of    4 

<"  That  viridis  agrees  with  alvus  ( ' '  green  bowel ' ' )  and  does  not 
belong  to  the  previous  sentence  is  clear  from  Vegetius,  who 
writes,  si  venter  coeperit  flttere  viridis  (quoted  by  Schneider). 

'  Probably  Artemisia  ahrotonum. 



faciunt,  et  ita  conterunt  cum  totidem  sextariis  vini 
austeri,  potandumque  medicamentum  praebent, 
omni  alio  humore  subtracto,^  nee  minus  eacumina 
praedictarum  arborum  obieiunt.  Quod  si  neque 
ventris  restiterit  ^  citata  proluvies,  neque  intesti- 
norum  ac  ventris  dolor,  cibosque  respuet,  et  prae- 
gravato  capite  saepius  coniverit,^  lacrimaeque  ab 
oculis  et  pituita  a  naribus  profluent,  usque  ad  ossa 
frons  media  uratur,  auresque  ferro  descindantur.* 
Sed  vulnera  facta  igne  dum  ^  sanescunt,  defricare 
bubula  urina  convenit ;  at  ferro  rescissa  melius  pice 
et  oleo  curantur. 

VIII.  Solent  etiam  fastidia  ciborum  afFerre  vitiosa 
incrementa  linguae,  quas  ranas  veterinarii  vocant. 
Haec  ferro  reciduntur,  et  sale  cum  alio  pariter  trite 
vulnera  defricantur,  donee  lacessita  pituita  profluat.' 
Tum  vino  perluitur  os,  et  interposito  unius  horae 
spatio  virides  herbae  vel  frondes  dantur,  dum  facta 
ulcera  cicatrices  ducant.  Si  neque  ranae  fuerint, 
neque  alvus  citata,  et  nihilo  minus  cibos  non  appetet, 
proderit  alium  pinsitum  cum  oleo  per  nares  in- 
fundere,  vel  sale  et  cunila  defricare  fauces,  vel 
eandem  partem  alio  tunso  et  alecula  linire.  Sed 
haec  si  solum  fastidium  est. 

'  omni  alio  humore  subtracto  Svennung  ex  cit.  PaUadii : 
omnia  in  umores  supra  dixi  SA. 

*  restiterit  edd.  :   eriserit  S  :   crescerit  AR. 
'  coniverit  Svennung:   consuevit  SAB. 

*  decidantur  SA. 

*  indu  S  :  interdum  AR. 


BOOK  VI.  VII.  4-vin.  2 

grape-skins  and  crush  them  in  two  sextarii  of  rough 
wine  and  then  give  them  to  be  drunk  as  a  medicine, 
keeping  any  other  hquid  away  from  them,  but 
nevertheless  putting  before  them  the  tops  of  the 
trees  mentioned  above.  But  if  neither  the  violent 
flux  from  the  belly  nor  the  pain  in  the  intestine 
and  stomach  has  ceased  and  the  animal  refuses  his 
food,  and  its  head  is  very  heavy  and  it  frequently 
blinks  and  tears  flow  from  its  eyes  and  slime  from  its 
nostrils,  the  middle  of  its  forehead  should  be  burnt 
down  to  the  bone  and  its  ears  cleft  with  a  knife.  It 
is  in  fact  a  good  plan  to  rub  with  ox-urine  the  wounds 
caused  by  the  fire  while  they  are  healing ;  but  those 
which  are  due  to  cuts  with  the  knife  are  better  treated 
with  pitch  and  oil. 

VIII.  Aversion  to  food  is  often  caused  by  morbid  Treatment 
swellings  of  the  tongue  which  veterinary  surgeons  (on^eln" 
call  "  frogs."     They  are  cut  back  with  a  knife  and  the  o^en. 
wounds  rubbed  with  salt  and  garlic  crushed  together 
in  equal  quantities,  until  a  viscous  discharge  thus 
provoked  flows  forth.     The  mouth  is  then  washed 
out  with  wine  and  after  the  interval  of  one  hour  a 
diet  of  green  herbs  or  leaves  is  administered  until 
the  sores  which  had  formed  are  scarred  over.     If  no    2 
"  frogs  "    have   formed  and    the  bowel   is    not  dis- 
turbed but  nevertheless  the  animal  has  no  appetite 
for  its  food,  it  will  be  beneficial  to  pour  a  mixture  of 
pounded  garlic  and  oil  through  its  nostrils  or  to  rub 
the  throat  with  salt  and  marjoram,  or  to  smear  the 
same  part  with  crushed  garlic  and  fish-sauce.     But 
this  remedy  should  be  used  if  aversion  to  food  is  the 
only  symptom. 

*  proluat  S. 



IX.  Febricitanti  bovi  convenit  abstineri  cibo  uno 
die,  postero  deinde  exiguum  sanguinem  ieiuno  sub 
Cauda  emitti,  atque  interposita  hora  modicae  magni- 
tudinis  coctos  brassicae  coliculos  triginta  ex  oleo  et 
garo  ^  salivati  more  demitti,  eamque  escam  per 
quinque  dies  ieiuno  dari.  Praeterea  cacumina  lentisci 
aut  oleae,  vel  tenerrimam  quamque  frondem,  ac 
pampinos  vitis  obici ;  turn  etiam  spongia  labra  deter- 
geri,  et  aquam  frigidam  ter  die  praeberi  potandam. 
Quae  medicina  sub  tecto  fieri  debet,  nee  ante  sani- 
tatem  bos  emitti.  Signa  febricitantis  manantes 
lacrimae,  gravatum  caput,  oculi  compressi,  fluidum 
salivis  OS,  longior  et  cum  quodam  impedimento 
tractus  spiritus,  interdum  et  cum  gemitu. 

X.  Recens  tussis  optime  salivato  farinae  hordeaceae 
discutitur.  Interdum  magis  prosunt  gramina  con- 
cisa,  et  his  admixta  fresa  faba.  Lentis  quoque 
valvulis  exemptae  et  minute  molitae  miscentur  aquae 
calidae  sextarii  duo,  factaque  sorbitio  per  cornu 
infunditur.  Veterem  tussim  sanant  duae  librae 
hyssopi  macerati  sextariis  aquae  tribus.  Nam  id 
medicamentum  teritur,  et  cum  lentis  minute,  ut 
dixi,  molitae  sextariis  quattuor  more  salivati  datur,  ac 
postea    aqua   hyssopi    per   cornu    infunditur.     Porri 

^  garo  ed.  pr.  :   caro  SAR. 

BOOK  VI.  IX.  i-x.  2 

IX.  When  an  ox  suffers  from  fever,  it  is  a  good  plan  fever  in 
that  it  should  go  without  food  for  a  day,  and  that  on 

the  following  day  a  little  blood  should  be  drawn  off 
under  the  tail  before  it  eats  anything,  and  that  after 
an  interval  of  an  hour  it  should  be  made  to  swallow 
thirty  cooked  stalks  of  cabbage  of  moderate  size 
which  have  been  dipped  in  oil  and  pickled  fish  in 
the  manner  of  drench.  This  food  should  be 
given  for  five  days  on  an  empty  stomach.  Further- 
more, tops  of  mastic  or  olive  or  any  other  very 
tender  foliage  and  vine-shoots  should  be  placed  before 
it,  also  its  lips  should  be  wiped  with  a  sponge  and 
cold  water  given  it  to  drink  three  times  a  day.  This  2 
treatment  should  be  carried  out  under  cover  and  the 
animal  should  not  be  allowed  to  go  out  until  it  is 
cured.  The  symptoms  of  a  state  of  fever  are  running 
at  the  eyes,  a  heavy  head,  contracted  eyes,  a  flow 
of  saliva  from  the  mouth,  an  unusually  slow  and  a 
somehow  obstructed  respiration,  accompanied  also 
at  times  by  lowing. 

X.  A  cough,  if  treated  early,  is  best  dispelled  by  a  Coughs  of 
medicine  which  causes  salivation  made  of  barley-  °^^^' 
flour.  Sometimes  grass  cut  up  small  and  crushed 
beans  mixed  with  it  are  more  beneficial;  also  two 
sextarii  of  lentils  removed  from  their  pods  and 
ground  up  small  are  mixed  with  hot  water  and  the 
draught  thus  formed  is  poured  down  the  throat 
through  a  horn.     A  cough  of  long  standing  is  cured 

with  two  pounds  of  hyssop  infused  in  three  sextarii 
of  water.  Now  this  medicament  is  crushed  up  and 
administered  with  four  sextarii  of  lentils  ground  small, 
in  the  manner  I  have  described,  and  given  to  cause 
salivation,  and  the  hyssop-water  is  afterwards  poured 
in  through  a  horn.     The  juice  of  a  leek  together  with    2 



enim  succus  cum  ^  oleo,  vel  ipsa  fibra  cum  hordeacea 
farina  contrita  remedium  ^  est.  Eiusdem  radices 
diligenter  lotae,  et  cum  farre  triticeo  pinsitae  ^ 
ieiunoque  datae  vetustissimam  tussim  discutiunt. 
Facit  idena  pari  mensura  ervum  sine  valvulis  cum 
torrido  *  hordeo  molitum  et  salivati  more  in  fauces 

XI.  Suppuratio  melius  ferro  rescinditur  quam 
medicamento.  Expressa  deinde  sanie  sinus  ^  ipse, 
qui  cam  continebat,  calida  bubula  urina  eluitur, 
atque  ita  linamentis  pice  liquida  et  oleo  imbutis 
colligatur :  vel  si  coUigari  ea  pars  non  potest,  lamina 
candenti  sebum  caprinum  aut  bubulum  instillatur. 
Quidam,  cum  vitiosam  partem  inusserunt,  urina 
vetere  humana  eluunt,**  atque  ita  acquis  pon- 
deribus  incocta  pice  liquida  cum  vetere  axungia 

XII.  Sanguis  demissus  in  pedes  claudicationem 
afFert.  Quod  cum  accidit,  statim  ungulam  inspicito.'' 
Tactus  autem  fervorem  demonstrat :  nee  bos  vitia- 
tam  partem  vehementius  premi  patitur.  Sed  si 
sanguis  adhuc  supra  ungulas  in  cruribus  est,  frictione 
assidua  discutitur ;  vel,  cum  ea  nihil  profuit,  scarifica- 
tione  emittitur.^  At  si  iam  in  ungulis  est,  inter  duos 
ungues  cultello  leviter  aperies.^     Postea  linamenta 

^  auccus  cum  Lundslrom  :  sucum  SA. 

^  remedium  (S  :   remedia  ^^  :   remedio  ^^-K. 

^  pinsite  K  :  pinsita  8 A. 

*  torreo  SAR. 

*  sasinus  SAR. 

*  partem — eluunt  ex  cit.  Palladii  edl.  parteminus  seruiitur 
inhabeturo  hurane  luunt  S :  parte  minus  seruutur  inhaboturae 
rane  luunt  A. 

'  ungula  inspicit  SAR. 

*  homitur  SAR :  emititur  c. 

BOOK  VI.  X.  2-xn.  2 

oil,  or  the  fibre  itself  of  the  leeks  crushed  up  with 
barley-flour,  is  also  used  as  a  cure ;  the  roots  too  of 
the  same  plant  carefully  washed  and  pounded  up 
with  wheaten  flour,  given  to  the  animal  when  it  is 
fasting,  dispel  the  most  inveterate  cough.  The 
same  effect  is  produced  by  bitter-vetch  without 
its  husk  pounded  up  with  an  equal  portion  of 
toasted  barley  and  poured  down  the  throat  in  the 
manner  of  a  drench. 

XL  It  is  better  to  get  rid  of  suppuration  by  the  Remedies 
surgeon's  knife  than  with  medicine.    Then,  when  the  t?on!"^^"'^" 
pus  has  been  squeezed  out,  the  sinus  itself  which 
contained  it  is  washed  out  with  warm  ox-urine  and 
then  bound  up  with  hnen  bandages  soaked  in  liquid 
pitch  and  oil,  or,  if  the  part  aifected  cannot  be  bound 
up,  goat's  or  ox's  tallow  is  dripped  upon  it  by  means 
of  a  red  hot  plate  of  iron.     Some  people,  when  they    2 
have  cauterized  the  part  affected,  wash  it  with  stale 
human  urine  and  then  anoint  it  with  raw  liquid  pitch 
and  stale  axle-grease  in  equal  quantities. 

XII.  Down-flow  of  blood  into  the  animal's  feet  Remedy  for 
gives  rise  to  lameness.  When  this  happens,  the  first  in"olen? 
thing  that  you  should  do  is  to  inspect  the  hoof; 
merely  touching  it  proves  the  presence  of  inflamma- 
tion, and  the  animal  cannot  bear  any  at  all  violent 
pressure  on  the  affected  part.  But  if  the  blood  is  still 
in  the  legs  above  the  hoofs,  it  can  be  dissipated  by 
continual  friction,  or,  if  that  has  no  effect,  it  can  be 
removed  by  scarification.  Biit  if  it  has  already 
reached  the  hoofs,  you  will  make  a  slight  incision 
with  a  lancet  between  the  two  halves  of  the  hoof; 
then    bandages    dipped    in    salt    and    vinegar    are    2 

'  aperiet  SAR. 


sale  atque  aceto  imbuta^  applicantur,  ac  solea  spartea 
pes  induitur,^  maximeque  datur  opera,  ne  bos  in 
aquam  pedem  mittat  et  ut  sicce  stabuletur.  Hie 
idem  sanguis  nisi  emissus  fuerit,  famicem  creabit, 
qui  si  suppuraverit,  tarde  percurabitur :  primum 
ferro  circumcisus  et  expurgatus,  deinde  pannis  aceto 
et  sale  et  oleo  madentibus  inculcatis,  mox  axungia 
vetere  et  sebo  hircino  pari  pondere  decoctis,  ad 
sanitatem  perducitur.  Si  sanguis  in  inferiore  parte 
ungulae  est,  extrema  pars  ipsius  unguis  ad  vivum 
resecatur,  et  ita  emittitur,  ac  linamentis  pes  involutus 
spartea  munitur.  Mediam  ungulam  ab  inferiore 
parte  non  expedit  aperire,  nisi  eo  loco  iam  suppuratio 
facta  est.  Si  dolore  nervorum  claudicat,  oleo  et  sale 
genua  poplitesque  ^  et  crura  confricanda  sunt,  donee 

Si  genua  intumuerint,  calido  aceto  fovenda  sunt, 
et  lini  semen  aut  milium  detritum  conspersumque 
aqua  mulsa  imponendum :  spongiae  *  quoque  fer- 
venti  aqua  imbutae  ^  et  expressae  *  litaeque  '  melle 
recte  genibus  applicantur,  ac  fasciis  circumdantur. 
Quod  si  tumori  subest  aliquis  humor,  fermentum  vel 
farina  hordeacea  ex  passo  aut  aqua  mulsa  decocta 
imponitur :  et  cum  maturuit  suppuratio,  rescinditur 
ferro,  eaque  emissa,  ut  supra  docuimus,  linamentis 
curatur.     Possunt  etiam,  ut  Cornelius  Celsus  prae- 

^  imbuta  i?  :   inbuto  SA. 

*  inducitur  SAE. 

*  popliteque  SA  :   poplitesque  c. 

*  sphongia  S  :   spongia  E  :  phongio  A. 
^  inbuta  SA. 

*  expressa  SAS.  ''  litae  quae  A  :  lita  que  S. 

BOOK  VI.  XII.  2-5 

applied  and  the  foot  is  covered  with  a  "  slipper  "  of 
broom  and  the  greatest  care  is  taken  to  prevent  the 
ox  from  putting  his  foot  in  water  and  that  it  keep 
dry  in  its  stall.  This  same  blood,  unless  it  is  drawn 
off,  will  give  rise  to  a  bruise,  and,  if  this  suppurates, 
it  will  take  a  long  time  to  heal.  First  a  cut  must  be 
made  round  it  with  a  knife  and  it  must  be  cleaned, 
then  it  is  brought  to  a  healthy  condition  by  having 
rags  pressed  against  it  soaked  in  vinegar,  salt  and 
oil,  and  afterwards  by  treatment  with  stale  axle- 
grease  and  goat's  tallow  boiled  in  equal  quantity. 
If  the  blood  is  in  the  lower  part  of  the  hoof,  the 
extremity  of  the  hoof  itself  is  cut  to  the  quick  and 
the  blood  thus  discharged,  and  the  foot  is  wrapped 
in  bandages  and  protected  with  a  "  slipper  "  of 
broom.  It  is  not  advisable  to  open  the  middle  of 
the  hoof  from  below,  unless  suppuration  has  already 
taken  place  in  that  part.  If  the  lameness  is  due  to 
pain  in  the  sinews,  the  knees,  the  ham  and  the  legs 
should  be  rubbed  with  oil  and  salt  until  it  is  cured. 

If  the  knees  are  swollen,  they  must  be  fomented 
with  warm  vinegar  and  poulticed  with  linseed  or 
millet  which  has  been  ground  up  and  sprinkled  with 
honey-water;  also  sponges  soaked  in  boiling  water 
and  then  wrung  out  and  smeared  with  honey  are 
correctly  applied  to  the  knees  and  wrapped  round 
with  bandages.  But  if  there  is  any  liquid  matter 
under  the  swelling,  some  yeast  or  barley-flour  boiled 
in  raisin- wine  or  honey-water  is  placed  upon  it ;  and 
when  the  suppuration  has  come  to  a  head,  it  is  cut 
with  the  sui'geon's  knife,  and,  when  the  pus  has  been 
extracted,  it  is  treated  with  bandages  in  the  manner 
described  above.  Incisions  made  with  the  knife  can 
also  be  treated,  as  Cornelius  Celsus  taught,  by  means 



cipit,  lilii  radix  aut  scilla  cum  sale,  vel  sanguinalis 
herba,  quam  poligonum  Graeci  appellant,  vel  mar- 
rubium  ferro  reclusa  sanare.  Fere  autem  omnis 
dolor  corporis,  si  sine  vulnere  est,  recens  melius 
fomentis  discutitur ;  vetus  uritur,  et  supra  ustum 
butyrum  vel  caprina  instillatur  adeps. 

XIII.  Scabies  extenuatur  trito  alio  defricta ;  ^ 
eodemque  remedio  curatur  rabiosae  canis  vel  lupi 
morsus,  qui  tamen  et  ipse  imposito  vulneri  vetere 
salsamento  aeque  bene  sanatur.  Et  ad  scabiem 
praesentior  alia  medicina  est.  Cunila  bubula,^  et 
sulphur  conteruntur,  admixtaque  amurca  cum  oleo 
atque  ^  aceto  incoquuntur ;  deinde  tepefactis  scissum 
alumen  tritum  spargitur.  Id  medicamentum  can- 
dente  ^  sole  illitum  maxime  prodest.  Ulceribus 
gallae  tritae  remedio  sunt ;  nee  minus  succus  marrubii 
cumi  fuligine. 

Est  et  infesta  pestis  bubulo  pecori,  coriaginem 
rustici  appellant,  cum  pellis  ita  tergori  adhaeret,  ut 
apprehensa  manibus  diduci  a  costis  non  possit.  Ea 
res  non  aliter  accidit,^  quam  si  bos  aut  ex  languore 
aliquo  ad  maciem  perductus  est,  aut  sudans  in  opere 
faciendo  refrixit,  aut  si  sub  onere  pluvia  madefactus 
est.  Quae  quoniam  perniciosa  sunt,  custodiendum 
est,  ut  cum  ab  opere  boves  redierint  ^  adhuc  aestu- 
antes  anhelantesque,  vino  aspergantur,  et  offae  adi- 
pis  faucibus  eorum  inserantur.  Quod  si  praedictum 
vitium  inhaeserit,  proderit  '  decoquere  laurum,  et  ea 

^  defricta  S  :   defricto  AR. 

*  cunicula  bubula  S  :  cuniculabula  AR. 

*  aqua  SAR. 

*  cantendente  SAR. 

*  accedit  SA  R. 

*  rediderint  SA  :  redierint  ac. 

''  proderit  S-c  :   prodiderit  S^AR. 


BOOK  VI.  xii.  5-xiii.  3 

of  lily-roots  or  squills  mixed  with  salt,  or  the  staunch- 
ing plant  which  the  Greeks  call  polygonum,'^  or  hore- 
hound.  Almost  all  bodily  pains,  if  there  is  no  wound, 
can  in  their  early  stages  be  better  dissipated  by 
fomentation ;  in  the  advanced  stage  they  are  treated 
by  cauterizations  and  the  dropping  of  burnt  butter 
or  goat's  fat  upon  the  place. 

XIII.  The  scab  is  alleviated  if  it  is  rubbed  with  Bemedieg 
bruised  garlic,  and  the  same  remedy  is  used  for  the  fj'icera^ltc.^' 
bite  of  a  mad  dog  or  wolf,  which,  however,  is  also 
quite  as  easily  cured  by  placing  stale  pickled  fish 
upon  the  wound.     There  is  also  a  still  more  efficacious 
remedy  for  the  scab ;    ox-marjoram  and  sulphur  are 
pounded  up  together  and  cooked  in  lees  of  olives 
mixed  with  oil  and  vinegar  ;  then,  when  the  mixture  is 
hot,  split  alum  is  ground  up  and  sprinkled  upon  it. 
This  remedy  is  most  efficacious  if  it  is  smeared  on  when 
the  sun  is  hot.     Ground  oak-galls  are  a  cure  for  ulcers,    2 
likewise  the  juice  of  horehound  together  with  soot. 

There  is  also  a  dangerous  plague  which  affects 
cattle,  called  by  the  farmers  "  hide-binding,"  when 
the  skin  adheres  so  closely  to  the  back  that,  if  it  is 
taken  hold  of  with  the  hands,  it  cannot  be  drawn 
away  from  the  ribs.  It  occurs  only  when  the  ox  is 
either  reduced  to  a  lean  condition  as  the  result  of  some 
illness  or  has  become  chilled  when  sweating  in  the 
course  of  its  labours,  or  if  it  has  been  drenched  by 
rain  when  it  is  carrying  a  load.  Since  these  con-  3 
ditions  are  dangerous,  care  must  be  taken  that  the 
oxen,  when  they  have  returned  from  work  still  hot 
and  panting,  are  sprinkled  with  wine  and  that  balls 
of  fat  are  thrust  down  their  throats.  If,  however,  the 
above-mentioned  malady  has  already  taken  hold  of 

"  Knotgrass  {Polygonum^  aviculare). 


VOL.  II.  G 


calda  fovere  terga,  multoque  oleo  et  vino  confestim 
subigere,  ac  per  omnes  partes  apprehendere  et 
attrahere  pellem.^  Idque  optima  fit  sub  dio,  sole 
fervente.  Quidam  faeces  vino  et  adipe  commiscent, 
eoque  medicamento  post  fomenta  praedicta  utuntur. 

XIV.  Est  etiam  ilia  gravis  pernicies,  cum  pul- 
mones  exulcerantur.  Inde  tussis  et  macies,  et  ad 
ultimum  phthisis  invadit.  Quae  ne  mortem  aiFerant, 
radix  consiliginis  ita,  ut  supra  docuimus,  perforatae 
auriculae  inseritur,  tum  porri  succus  instar  heminae 
pari  olei  mensurae  miscetur,  et  cum  vini  sextario 
potandus  datur  diebus  compluribus.  Interdum  et 
tumor  palati  cibos  respuit,  crebrumque  suspirium 
facit,  et  banc  speciem  praebet,  ut  bos  in  latus  ^ 
pendere  videatur.  Ferro  palatum  prodest  ^  et 
sauciare,  ut  sanguis  profluat,  et  exemptum  valvulis 
ervum  maceratum,  viridemque  frondem,  vel  aliud 
molle  pabulum,  dum  sanetur,  praebere. 

Si  in  opere  collum  contuderit,^  praesentissimum  est 
remedium  sanguis  de  aure  emissus  :  aut  si  id  factum 
non  erit,  herba,  quae  vocatur  avia,^  cum  sale  trita  et 
imposita.  Si  cervix  mota  et  deiecta  est,  conside- 
rabimus  quam  in  partem  declinet,  et  ex  diversa 
auricula  sanguinem  detrahemus.  Ea  porro  vena, 
quae  in  aure  videtur  esse  amplissima,  sarmento  prius 

1  pelle  8AR. 

*  bos  in  latus  Lundstrom  :   bos  lotus  SAR. 
'  prodest  add.  Schneider  ex  Vegetio  iv.  14. 

*  contuderit  S  :   contunderit  AR. 
'  avia  Aldus  :   habia  SAR. 


BOOK  VI.  xiii.  3-xiv.  3 

them,  it  will  be  beneficial  to  make  a  concoction  of 
bay-leaves  and  foment  their  backs  with  it  while  they 
are  still  warm  and  immediately  after  to  massage  them 
with  a  large  quantity  of  oil  and  wine  and  to  take  hold 
of  the  hide  all  over  the  animal  and  draw  it  away. 
This  is  best  done  in  the  open  air  in  burning  sunshine. 
Some  people  mix  dregs  of  oil  with  wine  and  fat  and  use 
it  as  a  remedy  after  the  fomentations  mentioned  above. 

XIV.  It  is  also  a  serious  distemper  when  the  lungs  Remedies 
become    ulcerated ;     it    results    in    coughing    and  lungsTnd***^ 
emaciation  and  finally  in  phthisis.     To  prevent  these  swellings  of 
conditions  from  causing  death,  a  root  of  lungwort,  as  and^neck^of 
we  prescribed  above,  is  inserted  in  a  hole  made  in  the  *°  °^- 
ear  and  then  about  a  hemina  of  the  juice  of  leek  is 
mixed  with  a  like  quantity  of  oil  and  given  as  a  potion 
for  several  days  with   a  sextarius  of  wine.     Some-    2 
times  too  a  swelling  of  the  palate  causes  the  animal 
to  refuse  its  food  and  heave  frequent  sighs,  and  an 
impression  is  caused  that  it  is  hanging  over  towards 
one  side."     It  is  beneficial  also  to  make  a  wound  in  the 
palate  with  a  knife,  so  that  the  blood  may  flow,  and 
to    administer   bitter-vetch    without    its    husk    and 
soaked  and  green  leaves  or  some  other  soft  fodder, 
until  the  wound  heals. 

If  in  the  course  of  its  work  the  ox  has  his  neck  3 
bruised,  the  most  efficacious  remedy  is  to  draw  blood 
from  the  ear,  or,  if  that  is  not  done,  the  herb  called 
groundsel  is  crushed  up  with  salt  and  placed  on  the 
part  affected.  If  the  neck  is  moved  in  a  certain 
direction  and  hangs  down,  we  shall  examine  and  see 
to  which  side  it  declines  and  draw  blood  from  the  ear 
on  the  other  side ;  moreover,  what  appears  to  be  the 
largest  vein  in  the  ear  is  first  beaten  with  a  twig,  and 
'  The  text,  however,  seems  to  be  in  need  of  further  correction. 



verberatur.  Deinde  cum  ad  ictum  intumuit,  cultello 
solvitur ;  et  postero  die  iterum  ex  eodem  loco  sanguis 
emittitur,  ac  biduo  ab  opera  datur  vacatio.  Tertio 
deinde  die  levis  iniungitur  labor,  et  paulatim  ad  iusta 
perducitur.  Quod  si  cervix  in  neutram  partem  de- 
iecta  est,  mediaque  intumuit,  ex  utraque  auricula 
sanguis  emittitur.  Qui  cum  intra  triduum,  cum  bos 
vitium  cepit,  emissus  non  est,  intumescit  collum, 
nervique  tenduntur,  et  inde  nata  durities  iugum  non 
patitur.  Tali  vitio  comperimus  aptum  ^  esse  medi- 
camentum  ex  pice  liquida  et  bubula  medulla  et 
hircino  sebo  et  vetere  oleo  acquis  ponderibus  com- 
positum  atque  incoctum.  Hac  compositione  sic 
utendum  est.  Cum  disiungitur  ab  opere,  in  ea 
piscina,  ex  qua  bibit,  tumor  cervicis  aqua  madefactus 
subigitur,  praedictoque  medicamento  defricatur  et 
illinitur.  Si  ex  toto  propter  cervicis  tumorem  iugum 
recuset,  paucis  diebus  requies  ab  opere  danda  est. 
Tum  cervix  aqua  frigida  defricanda,  et  spuma  argenti 
illinenda  est.  Celsus  quidem  tumenti  cervici  her- 
bam,  quae  vocatur  avia,  ut  supra  dixi,  contundi  et 
imponi  iubet.  Clavorum,  qui  fere  cervicem  infestant, 
minor  molestia  est :  nam  facile  oleo  ^  per  ardentem 
lucernam  instillato  sanantur.  Potior  tamen  ratio 
est  custodiendi,  ne  nascantur,^  neve  colla  calvescant, 
quae  non  aliter  glabra  fiunt,  nisi  cum  sudore  aut 
pluvia  cervix  in  opere  madefacta  est.     Itaque  cum 

^  aptum  ex  Vegeiio  I.e.  :  autem  SAS. 
^  oleo  et  sanantur  om.  SAB. 
*  nascantur  S  :  nascatur  AB. 


BOOK  VI.  XIV.  3-7 

then  when  it  has  swollen  up  as  a  result  of  the  blows,  it  is 
opened  with  a  lancet,  and  on  the  following  day  blood 
is  again  drawn  from  the  same  spot  and  the  animal  is 
given  two  days'  rest  from  work.  Then  on  the  third 
day  a  light  task  is  enjoined  upon  it,  which  is  gradually 
increased  until  it  does  a  full  day's  work.  If,  how-  4 
ever,  the  neck  does  not  incline  to  either  side  but  is 
swollen  in  the  middle,  blood  is  let  from  both  ears.  If 
bleeding  is  not  performed  within  three  days  after  the 
ox  has  got  the  disease,  the  neck  swells  up  and  the 
sinews  become  taut  and  as  a  result  a  hard  lump  is 
formed  which  cannot  endure  the  pressure  of  the 
yoke.  For  this  kind  of  malady  we  have  discovered  5 
a  suitable  remedy  composed  of  liquid  pitch,  beef- 
marrow,  goat's  fat,  and  stale  oil  in  equal  quantities 
and  cooked  together.  This  compound  should  be 
used  in  the  following  manner :  when  the  ox  is  un- 
harnessed after  its  work,  the  swelling  on  its  neck 
is  moistened  with  water  in  the  trough  from  which  it 
drinks  and  then  massaged  and  rubbed  and  smeared 
with  the  medicament  described  above.  If  the  animal  6 
absolutely  refuses  the  yoke  because  of  the  swelling  on 
its  neck,  it  must  be  given  a  few  days'  rest  from  work ; 
then  the  neck  must  be  rubbed  with  cold  water  and 
anointed  with  litharge  of  silver.  Celsus  indeed  recom- 
mends that  to  a  swollen  neck  the  herb  called  ground- 
sel should,  as  I  have  already  said,  be  crushed  and 
apphed.  The  warts  which  generally  infest  the  neck 
constitute  only  a  minor  malady ;  for  they  can  easily 
be  cured  with  oil  dripped  on  them  from  a  burning 
lamp.  A  better  plan,  however,  is  to  take  care  that  7 
they  do  not  form  and  that  the  necks  of  the  oxen  do 
not  become  bald,  for  they  only  become  hairless  when 
the  neck  is  moistened  by  sweat  or  rain  during  work. 



id  accidit,  pulveri  ^  lateritio  trito  priusquam  disiungan- 
tur,  colla  conspergi  oportet :  deinde  cum  assiccu- 
erint,2  subinde  oleo  imbui. 

XV.  Si  talum  aut  ungulam  vomer  laeserit,  picem 
duram  et  axungiam  cum  sulfure  et  lana  succida  in- 
volvito^  candente  ferro  supra  vulnus  inurito.  Quod 
idem  remedium  optime  facit  exempta  stirpe,  si  forte 
surculum  calcaverit,  aut  acuta  testa  vel  lapide  ungu- 
lam pertuderit  * ;  quae  tamen  si  altius  vulnerata  est, 
latius  ferro  circumciditur,  et  ita  inuritur,  ut  supra  prae- 
cepi :  deinde  spartea  calceata  per  triduum  suffuso 
aceto  curatur.  Item  si  vomer  crus  sauciarit,  marina 
lactuca,  quam  Graeci  tithymallum  vocant,  admixto 
sale  imponitur.  Subtriti  pedes  eluuntur  calefacta 
bubula  urina :  deinde  fasce  ^  sarmentorum  incenso, 
cum  iam  ignis  in  favillam  recidit,  ferventi  cineri  ^  bos 
cogitur  insistere,  ac  pice  liquida  cum  oleo  vel  axungia 
cornua  eius  linuntur.  Minus  tamen  claudicabunt 
armenta,  si  opere  disiunctis  multa  frigida  laventur 
pedes;  et  deinde  sufFragines  coronaeque  ac  dis- 
crimen  ipsum,  quo  divisa  est  bovis  ungula,  vetere 
axungia  defricentur.' 

^  pulveri  (pulvere)  Richter  {Hermes  LXXX,  201) :  veteri 
prior,  edd. 

^  ad  siccum  erit  S  :  ad  siccum  erint  A. 

*  involvito  Svennung  :   involuta  SAR. 

*  pertulerit  SAR. 

5  fasce  R  :  fasces  SA. 

*  ferveti  cineribus  A :  ferventi  cineribus  8R. 
'  defricentur  S  :  defricetur  AR. 


BOOK  VI.  XIV.  7-xv.  2 

When  this  happens,  therefore,  their  necks  ought  to 
be  sprinkled  with  dust  made  by  grinding  brick-work 
before  they  are  unyoked ;  then,  when  their  necks  have 
dried,  they  ought  to  be  moistened  from  time  to  time 
with  oil. 

XV.  If  the  pastern  or  hoof  has  been  injured  by  Kemedies 
the  ploughshare,  wrap  round  it  hard  pitch  and  to'^p^t^^ 
axle-grease,  bind  it  with  sulphur  and  greasy  wool  ^^^  hoofs. 
and  make  a  burn  above  the  wound  with  a  piece  of 
red-hot  iron.  The  same  remedy  has  an  excellent 
eifect  after  the  removal  of  a  piece  of  wood  from  the 
hoof,  if  the  ox  has  by  chance  trodden  on  a  shoot  or 
pierced  its  hoof  with  a  sharp  tile  or  stone.  If,  how- 
ever, the  wound  is  rather  deep,  a  wider  cut  is  made 
round  it  with  a  knife  and  it  is  then  cauterized  accord- 
ing to  the  method  which  I  have  described  above ; 
next  the  hoof  is  covered  with  a  "  slipper  "  made  of 
broom  and  treated  for  three  days  with  a  suffusion  of 
vinegar.  Also  if  an  ox  has  damaged  its  leg  on  the  2 
ploughshare,  sea-spurge,"  which  the  Greeks  call 
iithymallus,  mixed  with  salt,  is  applied  to  the  wound. 
The  feet  are  rubbed  underneath  and  are  washed 
with  warmed  ox-urine ;  then  a  bundle  of  twigs  is 
burnt  and  when  now  the  fire  has  sunk  to  embers,  the 
animal  is  made  to  stand  on  the  glowing  ashes  and  the 
horny  parts  of  the  hoof  are  anointed  with  liquid  pitch 
mixed  with  oil  or  axle-grease.  Cattle,  however,  will 
be  less  likely  to  go  lame,  if  their  feet  are  washed 
in  plenty  of  cold  water  when  they  are  unyoked 
after  work,  and  if  their  hocks,  the  crowns  of  their 
hoofs  and  the  division  itself  between  the  two 
halves  of  the  hoofs  are  rubbed  with  stale  axle- 

*  Euphorbia  paralius. 



XVI.  Saepe  etiam  vel  gravitate  longioris  itineris/ 
vel  cum  in  proscindendo  aut  duriori  solo  aut  obviae 
radici  obluctatur,^  convellit  armos.  Quod  cum  accidit, 
e  prioribus  cruribus  sanguis  mittendus  est :  si 
dextrum  armum  laesit,  in  sinistro ;  si  laevum,  in 
dextro;  si  vehementius  utrumque  vitiavit,  item  in 
posterioribus  cruribus  venae  ^  solventur.     Praefractis 

2  cornibus  linteola  sale  atque  aceto  et  oleo  imbuta 
superponuntur,  ligatisque  per  triduum  eadem  in- 
funduntur.  Quarto  demum  axungia  pari  pondere 
cum  pice  liquida,  et  cortice  pineo  levigata  *  imponi- 
tur.  Et  ad  ultimum  cum  iam  cicatricem  ducunt, 
fuligo  infricatur. 

Solent  etiam  neglecta  ulcera  scatere  verminibus: 
qui  si  mane  perfunduntur  aqua  frigida,  rigore  con- 
tracti  decidunt.  Vel  si  hac  ratione  non  possunt 
eximi,  marrubium  aut  porrum  conteritur,  et  admixto 
sale  imponitur.     Id  celerrime  necat  praedicta  ani- 

3  malia.  Sed  expurgatis  ^  ulceribus  confestim  adhi- 
benda  sunt  linamenta  cum  pice  et  oleo  vetereque 
axungia,  et  extra  vulnera  eodem  medicamento 
circumlinenda,  ne  infestentur  a  muscis,  quae  ubi 
ulceribus  insederunt,  vermes  creant. 

XVII.  Est  etiam  mortiferus  serpentis  ictus,  est  et 
minorum  ^  animalium  noxium  virus.  Nam  et  vipera 
et  caecilia  saepe  cum  in  pascuo  bos  improvide  super- 

1  itineris  om.  SAB. 

*  obluctatur  S :  obluctatus  AR. 
^  vene  S  :  bene  AE. 

*  pineo  levigata  S  :  pineolo  vigata  A  :  pineolo  iugata  R. 

*  expurgatis  8  :   -i  AR. 

*  minorum  ex  Vegelio  :   magnorum  codd. 


BOOK  VI.  XVI.  i-xvii.  I 

XVI.  It  often  happens  that  an  ox  wrenches  its  Hemedies 
shoulders  either  owing  to  the  weight  of  its  load  on  a  ghouid^re^'* 
somewhat  prolonged  journey  or  when,  in  breaking  and  dam- 
up  the  ground,  it  has  to  struggle   against   an  un- 
usually hard  patch  or  a  root  which  gets  in  its  way. 

When  this  happens,  blood  must  be  drawn  from  its 
front  legs — from  the  left  leg  if  it  has  injured  its 
right  shoulder  and  from  the  right  leg  if  the  left 
shoulder  is  affected.  If  it  has  injured  both  shoulders 
rather  seriously,  veins  will  have  to  be  opened  in  the 
hind  legs  as  well.  If  the  horns  are  broken,  pieces  2 
of  linen  soaked  in  salt  and  vinegar  and  oil  are  put 
upon  them  and  the  same  things  poured  over  them 
for  three  days  after  they  have  been  bound  up ;  next 
on  the  fourth  day  axle-grease  and  Uquid  pitch  in 
equal  portions  and  pulverized  pine-bark  are  applied, 
and,  finally,  when  they  are  already  beginning  to 
scar  over,  they  are  rubbed  with  soot. 

Ulcers,  too,  if  they  are  neglected,  generally  swarm 
with  worms.  If  they  are  drenched  in  the  morning 
\vith  cold  water,  they  shrivel  up  with  the  cold  and 
die.  If  they  cannot  be  got  rid  of  by  this  method, 
horehound  or  leek  is  pounded  up  and  applied 
with  a  mixture  of  salt;  this  promptly  kills  these 
creatures.  After  the  ulcers  have  been  cleaned  3 
out,  linen  bandages  must  be  immediately  appUed 
with  pitch,  oil  and  stale  axle-grease,  and  the 
wounds  must  be  anointed  outside  with  the  same 
medicament,  so  that  they  may  not  become  infested 
by  flies  which,  when  they  settle  on  the  ulcers,  breed 

XVII.  The  bite  of  a  snake  is  also  fatal  to  oxen,  and  f^Xtefof 
the  poison  of  certain  lesser  animals  is  also  hurtful,  sn^'kes  and 
For  an  ox  while  grazing  often  lies  down  unawares  Limais  and 

for  diseaseg 
jog  of  the  eye. 


cubuit,  lacessita  onere  morsum  imprimit.  Musque 
araneus,  quern  ^  Graeci  fxvyaXijv  appellant,  quamvis 
exiguis  dentibus  non  exiguam  pestem  molitur. 
Venena  viperae  depellit  super  scarificationem  ferro 
factam  ^  herba,  quam  vocant  personatam,^  trita  et 

2  cum  sale  imposita.  Plus  etiam  eiusdem  radix  con- 
tusa  prodest,  vel  si  montanum  trifolium  invenitur, 
quod  confragosis  locis  efficacissimum  nascitur,  odoris 
gravis,  neque  absimilis  bitumini,  et  idcirco  Graeci 
earn  aa<^aXTeLov  appellant ;  nostri  autem  propter 
figuram  vocant  acutum  trifolium :  nam  ^  longis  et 
hirsutis    foliis    viret,    caulemque    robustiorem    facit, 

3  quam  pratense.  Huius  herbae  succus  vino  mixtus 
infunditur  faucibus,  atque  ipsa  folia  cum  sale  trita 
malagmatis  in  vicem  cedunt.^  Vel  si  hanc  herbam 
viridem  tempus  anni  negat,  semina  eius  collecta  et 
levigata  cum  vino  dantur  potanda,  radicesque  cum 
suo  caule  tritae  atque  hordeaceae  farinae  et  sali  com- 
mixtae  ex  aqua  mulsa  scarificationi  superponuntur, 

4  Est  etiam  praesens  remedium,  si  conteras  fraxini 
tenera  cacumina  quinque  librarum,  cum  totidem  vini 
et  duobus  sextariis  olei,  expressumque  ^  succum 
faucibus  infundas ;  itemque  cacumina  eiusdem  arboris 
cum  sale  trita  laesae  parti  superponas. 

Caeciliae '  morsus  tumorem  suppurationemque 
molitur.  Idem  facit  etiam  muris  aranei.  Sed  illius 
sanatur  noxa  subula  aenea,  si  locum  laesum  com- 

1  quein  R  :    quae  S  :    que  A. 

*  captam  SAR. 

'  personatam  (cf.  Pliny,  N.H.  XXV.  §  104) :  persona  SAac. 

*  non  SAR. 

*  in  vicem  cedunt  scripsi  :  vicedunt  SA  :  incendunt  R. 

*  expressus  quae  S  :  expressusque  A. 
'  celi  S  :   caeli  A. 


BOOK  VI.  XVII.  1-4 

upon  vipers  and  lizards,  which,  provoked  by  its 
weight,  inflict  a  bite  upon  it.  The  shrew-mouse, 
which  the  Greeks  call  mygale,  though  its  teeth  are 
small,  gives  rise  to  a  malady  which  is  far  from  being 
slight.  A  viper's  poison  can  be  expelled  by  scarify- 
ing with  a  knife  the  part  affected  and  applying  to 
it  the  herb  called  burdock,  pounded  up  and  mixed 
with  salt.  The  crushed  root  of  the  same  plant  is  2 
even  more  beneficial,  or  the  mountain  trefoil,  which 
grows  in  rugged  places  and  is  most  efficacious,  if  it  can 
be  found  ;  it  has  a  strong  odour  like  that  of  bitumen, 
whence  the  Greeks  call  it  asphalteion,  but  our  country- 
folk call  it  "  sharp  trefoil  "  from  its  shape,  for  it 
grows  long,  hairy  leaves  and  forms  a  stouter  stalk 
than  the  meadow  trefoil.  The  juice  of  this  herb  3 
mixed  with  wine  is  poured  down  the  throat,  and  the 
leaves  themselves  are  pounded  up  with  salt  to  form 
a  poultice.  If  the  season  of  the  year  makes  it  im- 
possible to  obtain  this  herb  in  a  green  state,  its  seeds 
are  collected  and  pulverized  and  given  with  wine  as 
a  potion,  while  the  roots  are  pounded  up  with  their 
stalks  and  mixed  with  barley-flour  and  salt  and, 
after  being  dipped  in  honey-water,  are  applied  to  the 
scarified  part.  A  sovereign  remedy  is  also  provided  4 
by  crushing  five  pounds  of  tender  tops  of  ash  with 
the  same  number  of  sextarii  of  wine  and  two  of  oil 
and  by  pouring  the  juice  which  you  have  squeezed 
out  down  the  animal's  throat.  You  should  also  apply 
the  tops  of  the  same  tree  pounded  up  with  salt  to  the 
part  affected. 

The  bite  of  a  lizard  causes  swelling  and  suppura- 
tion, as  also  does  that  of  a  shrew-mouse,  but  the 
injury  caused  by  the  former  is  cured  if  you  puncture 
the  part  affected  with  a  brazen  awl  and  anoint  it  with 



5  pungas,  cretaque  cimolia  ex  aceto  linas,  Mus 
perniciem,  quam  intulit,  suo  corpore  luit :  nam 
animal  ipsum  oleo  mersum  necatur,  et  cum  imputruit, 
conteritur,  eoque  medicamine  morsus  muris  aranei 
linitur.  Vel  si  id  non  adest,  tumorque  ^  ostendit 
iniuriam  dentium,  cuminum  conteritur,  eique  adici- 
tur  exiguum  picis  liquidae  et  axungiae,  ut  lentorem 

6  malagmatis  habeat.  Id  impositum  perniciem  com- 
movet.  Vel  si  antequam  tumor  discuteretur,  in 
suppurationem  convertitur,  optimum  est  ignea 
lamina  collectionem  ^  resecare,  et  quicquid  vitiosi 
est,  inurere,  atque  ita  liquida  pice  cum  oleo  linire. 
Solet  etiam  ipsum  animal  vivum  creta  figulari  cir- 
cumdari ;  quae  cum  siccata  est,  colic  boum  suspendi- 
tur.  Ea  res  innoxium  pecus  a  morsu  muris  aranei 

7  Oculorum  vitia  plerumque  melle  sanantur.  Nam 
sive  intumuerunt,  aqua  mulsa  ^  triticea  farina  con- 
spergitur  et  imponitur:  sive  album  in  oculo  est, 
montanus  sal  Hispanus  vel  Ammoniacus  vel  etiam 
Cappadocus,  minute  tritus  et  immixtus  melli  vitium 
extenuat.  Facit  idem  trita  sepiae  testa,  et  per 
fistulam  ter  die  oculo  inspirata.  Facit  et  radix, 
quam   Graeci  alXcfjiov  vocant,  vulgus   autem  nostra 

8  consuetudine  *  laserpitium  appellant.  Huius  quan- 
tocunque  ponderi  decem  partes  salis  ammoniaci 
adiciuntur,   eaque   pariter   trita   oculo   similiter  in- 

1  umorque  A  :  umorquae  S. 

*  collectionem  ex  Vegetio  :   convertionem  SA. 
'  mulsa  A^E  :   miilsae  8. 

*  consuetudinem  SA  :   consuetudine  ac. 

"  Fuller's  earth  from  Cimolus,  an  island  in  the  Cyclades. 
*  From  Ammon  in  the  Libyan  desert. 


BOOK  VI.  XVII.  4-8 

Cimolian  chalk  <*  dipped  in  vinegar.  The  shrew-  5 
mouse  atones  with  its  own  body  for  the  harm  which 
it  has  inflicted  ;  for  the  animal  itself  is  killed  by  being 
drowned  in  oil,  and,  when  it  has  putrefied,  it  is 
crushed  and  the  bite  inflicted  by  the  shrew-mouse  is 
anointed  with  it  as  a  remedy.  If  this  is  not  available 
and  the  swelling  shows  teeth-marks,  cumin  is  crushed 
up  and  a  little  liquid  pitch  and  axle-grease  is  added 
to  it,  so  that  it  may  have  the  soft  consistency  of  a 
poultice.  The  application  of  this  gets  rid  of  the  6 
mischief.  If  the  swelling  turns  into  a  suppuration 
before  it  is  dispersed,  it  is  best  to  cut  away  the  abscess 
with  a  hot  iron  plate  and  burn  away  any  harmful 
matter  and  then  anoint  the  place  with  liquid  pitch 
and  oil.  There  is  also  a  practice  of  encasing  the 
shrew-mouse  itself  while  still  alive  in  potter's  clay 
and,  when  the  clay  is  dry,  hanging  it  round  the  ox's 
neck.  This  renders  the  animal  immune  from  the 
bite  of  a  shrew-mouse. 

Maladies  of  the  eyes  are  generally  cured  with  7 
honey.  If  they  have  swollen  up,  wheaten  flour  is 
sprinkled  with  honey  water  and  applied  to  the  eyes ; 
or,  if  there  is  a  white  film  on  the  eye,  Spanish  or 
Ammoniac  ^  or  even  Cappadocian  rock-salt,  pounded 
small  and  mixed  with  honey,  lessens  the  malady. 
The  shell  of  a  cuttle-fish  ground  up  and  blown  into 
the  eye  three  times  a  day  through  a  pipe  has  the  same 
effect,  as  also  has  the  root  which  the  Greeks  call 
silphion  and  of  which  the  common  name  in  our  language 
is  laserpitium."  To  any  quantity  of  this  ten  parts  of  8 
Ammoniac  salt  are  added  ;  and  both  are  poured  simi- 
larly into  the  eye  after  being  ground  up  in  the  same 
manner,  or  else  the  root  of  the  same  plant  crushed  up  and 

-  ^  '  Laserwort,  Ferula  iingitana. 



funduntur,  vel  eadem  radix  tunsa^  et  cum  oleo 
lentisci  inuncta  vitium  expurgat.  Epiphoram  sup- 
primit  polenta  conspersa  mulsa  aqua,  et  in  supercilia 
genasque  imposita ;  pastinacae  quoque  agrestis 
semina,  et  succus  armoraceae,  cum  melle  conlevata 
9  oculorum  sedant  dolorem.  Sed  quotiensque  mel 
aliusve  succus  remediis  adhibetur,  circumlinendus  erit 
oculus  pice  liquida  cum  oleo,  ne  a  muscis  infestetur. 
Nam  et  ad  dulcedinem  et  odorem  ^  mellis  aliorumque 
medicamentorum  non  hae  solae,  sed  et  apes  advolant. 

XVIII.  Magnam  etiam  perniciem  saepe  affert 
hirudo  hausta  cum  aqua.  Ea  adhaerens  faucibus 
sanguinem  ducit,  et  incremento  suo  transitum  cibis 
praecludit.  Si  tam  difficili  loco  est,  ut  manu  trahi 
non  possit,  fistulam  vel  arundinem  inserito,  et  ita 
calidum  oleum  infundito :   nam  eo  contactum  animal 

2  confestim  decidit.  Potest  etiam  per  fistulam  deusti 
cimicis  nidor  immitti :  .  qui  ubi  superpositus  ^  igni 
fumum  emisit,  conceptum  nidorem  fistula  usque  ad 
hirudinem  perfert ;  isque  nidor  depellit  haerentem. 
Si  tamen  vel  stomachum  vel  intestinum  tenet,  calido 
aceto  per  cornu  infuso  necatur.  Has  medicinas 
quamvis  bubus  adhibendas  praeceperim,  posse 
tamen  ex  eis  *  plurima  etiam  omni  maiori  pecori 
convenire  nihil  dubium  est. 

XIX.  Sed  et  machina  fabricanda  est,  qua  clausa 
iumenta  bovesque  curentur,  ut  et  propior  ^  accessus 

^  tunsa  S  :  contunsa  A^. 

*  oculorum  SAB. 

'  superpositus  S  :   superponuntur  AB. 

*  iaS:  his  AB. 

*  proprior  SAB. 

BOOK  VI.  XVII.  8-xix.  I 

mixed  with  oil  of  mastic  is  used  to  anoint  the  eye  and 
purges  away  the  malady.  Running  at  the  eyes  is 
stopped  by  pearl-barley  sprinkled  with  honey-water 
and  applied  to  the  eyebrows  and  cheeks ;  wild  parsnip 
seeds  and  the  juice  of  the  horse-radish  diluted  with 
smooth  honey  assuage  pain  in  the  eyes.  But  when-  9 
ever  honey  or  any  other  juice  is  introduced  into  the 
remedies  employed,  the  eye  will  have  to  be  anointed 
all  round  with  liquid  pitch  and  oil  to  prevent  its  being 
infested  with  flies  ;  for  not  only  flies  but  also  bees  are 
a^^tracted  to  the  sweetness  and  odour  of  honey  and 
other  medicaments. 

XVIII.  Much  harm  too  is  often  caused  by  a  leech  Ben>edie« 
swallowed  with  the  drinking-water,  which,  fastening  which  hare 
on  the  throat,  sucks  the  blood  and  blocks  the  passage  f^c^es!^*^ 
of  food   with   its    own   added   bulk.     If  the   leech 

is  in  such  a  difficult  place  that  it  cannot  be  re- 
moved by  hand,  you  should  insert  a  pipe  or  reed  and 
then  pour  in  warm  oil ;  for  if  this  touches  it,  the  leech 
immediately  falls  off.  The  odour  from  a  burnt  bug  2 
may  also  be  introduced  through  a  pipe  (for  when  a 
bug  is  put  upon  the  fire  and  has  produced  smoke, 
the  vapour  given  off  reaches  the  leech  through  a 
pipe)  and  this  vapour  dislodges  the  leech  from 
its  clinging  hold.  If,  however,  it  is  attached  to  the 
stomach  or  intestine,  it  can  be  killed  by  pouring  hot 
vinegar  through  a  horn.  Though  I  have  prescribed 
these  remedies  to  be  used  for  oxen,  most  of  them  are 
certainly  suitable  also  for  all  the  larger  kinds  of 

XIX.  It  is  necessary  also  to  construct  a  machine  How  to 

1  .   1  1  •'        ,  .        r  ^         1  -I  construct  a 

in  which  one  can  enclose  beasts  oi  burden  and  oxen  machine  for 
and  treat  them,  in  order  that  those  who  are  applying  ^tu^^ben 
remedies  mav  have  readier  access  to  their  patients  they  are 

jne  treated. 


ad  pecudem  medentibus  sit,  nee  in  ipsa  euratione 
quadrupes  reluetando  remedia  respuat.  Est  autem 
talis  machinae  forma :  roboreis  axibus  compingitur 
solum,  quod  habet  in  longitudinem  pedes  novem,  et 
in  latitudinem  pars  prior  dipundium  semissem,  pars 

2  posterior  quattuor  pedes.  Huie  solo  septenum  pedum 
stipites  recti  ab  utroque  latere  quaterni  applicantur. 
li  autem  in  ipsis  quattuor  angulis  affixi  sunt,  omnes- 
que  transversis  sex  temonibus  quasi  vacerrae  inter 
se  ligantur,!  j^g^  ^^^  g^  posteriore  parte,  quae  latior  ^ 
est,  velut  in  caveam  quadrupes  possit  induci,  nee  ex- 
ire  alia  parte  prohibentibus  adversis  axieulis.  Primis 
autem  duobus  statuminibus  imponitur  firmum  iugum, 
ad  quod  iumenta  capistrantur,  vel  bourn  cornua  re- 
ligantur.  Ubi  potest  etiam  numella  ^  fabricari,  ut 
inserto  capite  descendentibus  per  foramina  regulis 

3  cervix  catenetur.  Ceterum  corpus  laqueatum  et 
distentum  temonibus  obligatur,  immotumque  me- 
dentis  arbitrio  est  expositum.  Haec  ipsa  machina 
communis  erit  omnium  maiorum  quadrupedum. 

XX.  Quoniam  de  bubus  satis  praecepimus,  oppor- 
tune de  tauris  vaccisque  dicemus.  Tauros  maxime 
membris  amplissimis,  moribus  placidis,  media  aetate 
probandos  censeo.  Cetera  fere  eadem  omnia  in  his 
observabimus,  quae  in  bubus  eligendis.  Neque  enim 
alio  distat  bonus  taurus  a  castrato,  nisi  quod  huie 
torva  facies  est,  vegetior  aspectus,  breviora  cornua, 
torosior  cervix,  et  ita  vasta,  ut  sit  maxima  portio 

^  ligantur  S  :   ligatur  AR. 

*  latior  c  ed.  pr. :   laterior  SAR. 

'  numella  S  :   numelli  AR. 

'  The  details  of  the  construction  are  not  altogether  clear, 
and  the  text  appears  in  need  of  emendation. 


BOOK  VI.  XIX.  i-xx.  I 

and  that  these  quadrupeds,  while  they  are  actually- 
being  doctored,  may  not  struggle  and  reject  the 
remedies.  The  shape  of  this  machine  is  as  follows : 
a  piece  of  ground  nine  feet  long  and  two  and  a  half 
feet  wide  in  front  and  four  feet  wide  at  the  back  is 
floored  with  boards  of  oak.  In  this  space  four  upright  2 
posts  seven  feet  high  are  placed  on  the  right  and  left 
sides ;  they  are  set  upright  in  the  four  corners  and 
are  all  bound  to  each  other  with  six  cross-poles  <»  to 
form  a  kind  of  railing,  so  that  the  animal  can  be  driven 
in  fi-om  the  back,  which  is  broader,  as  into  a  cage,  but 
cannot  get  out  on  any  of  the  other  sides,  because  the 
bars  get  in  his  way  and  prevent  him.  On  the  two 
front  posts  a  stout  yoke  is  placed,  to  which  beasts  of 
burden  are  fastened  with  halters  and  oxen  tied  by 
their  horns,  and  you  can  also  contrive  here  stocks,  so 
that,  when  the  animal's  head  has  been  inserted,  bars 
may  descend  and  pass  through  holes  and  the  neck 
thus  be  held  tight.  The  rest  of  the  body,  secured  3 
with  nooses  and  stretched  out,  is  bound  to  the  cross- 
poles  and  is  subject  to  the  will  of  the  person  who  is 
doctoring  the  animal.  This  machine  will  serve  alike 
for  all  the  greater  quadrupeds. 

XX.  Now  that  we  have  given  enough  instruction  Buiu. 
about  oxen,  it  will  be  proper  to  deal  next  with  bulls 
and  cows.  In  my  opinion  we  ought  to  esteem  most 
highly  bulls  which  have  very  large  limbs  and  a  calm 
temperament  and  are  not  too  young  or  too  old.  In 
other  respects  we  shall  look  for  much  the  same 
qualities  as  we  sought  when  choosing  oxen.  For  a 
good  bull  does  not  differ  from  a  gelded  ox  except  that 
its  expression  is  fierce,  its  appearance  more  animated, 
its  horns  shorter,  its  neck  more  brawny  and  so  huge 
as  to  form  the  greatest  part  of  its  body ;  its  belly  is 



corporis,  venter  ^  paulo  subtruncior,  qui  magis  rectus  ^ 
et  ad  ineundas  feminas  habilis  sit. 

XXI.  Vaccae  quoque  probantur  altissimae  formae 
longaeque,  maximis  uteris,  frontibus  latissimis,  oculis 
nigris  et  patentissimis,  cornibus  venustis  et  levibus 
et  nigrantibus,  pilosis  auribus,  compressis  malis, 
palearibus  et  caudis  amplissimis,  ungulis  modicis,  et 
cruribus  parvis.^  Cetera  quoque  fere  eadem  in 
feminis,  quae  et  in  maribus,  desiderantur,  et  praeci- 
pue    ut   sint  novellae :    quoniam,  cum   excesserunt 

2  annos  decern,  fetibus  inutiles  sunt.  Rursus  minores 
bimis  iniri  non  oportet.  Si  ante  tamen  conceperint, 
partum  earum  removeri  placet,  ac  per  triduum,  ne 
laborent,  ubera  exprimi,  postea  mulctra  prohiberi. 

XXII.  Sed  et  curandum  est  omnibus  annis  aeque 
ac  in  reliquis  gregibus  pecoris,  ut  delectus  habeatur. 
Nam  et  enixae  ^  et  vetustae,^  quod  gignere  de- 
sierunt,  summovendae  sunt,  et  utique  taurae,  quae 
locum  fecundarum  occupant,  ablegandae  vel  aratro 
domandae ;  quoniam  laboris  et  operis  non  minus 
quam  iuvenci  propter  uteri  sterilitatem  patientes 
sunt.      Eiusmodi    armentum     maritima     et     aprica 

2  hiberna  desiderat ;  aestate  ^  opacissima  nemorum  et 
montium,'  elata  ^  magis  quam  plana  pascua.     Nam 

^  venter  Schneider  :   ventre  SAR. 

*  rectus  ed.  pr.  :  treus  S  :   reus  AR. 

*  parvis  diibiianier  add.  Lundslrom. 

*  enixae  Aid.  :  et  visae  8  :  et  vise  AR. 

*  vetustate  SAR. 

*  6  statim  S  :  aestatim  A. 

'  opacissima  nemorum  et  montium  Lundatrom :  opicis 
morum  omnium  SAR  :   opacis  nemorum  omnium  a. 


BOOK  VI.  XX.  i-xxii.  2 

rather  less  developed  underneath,  so  that  it  forms  a 
straighter  line  and  is  more  convenient  for  coupling 
with  the  female. 

XXI.  Cows  also  are  most  highly  esteemed  which  cowa. 
are  very  tall  and  long  in  shape,  with  large  bellies, 
very  broad  foreheads,  eyes  black  and  very  wide-open, 
horns  elegant,  smooth  and  inclined  to  blackness, 
hairy  ears,  compressed  cheek-bones,  very  large 
dewlaps  and  tails,  hoofs  of  moderate  size,  and  small 
legs.     In  other  respects  almost  the  same  qualities 

are  desirable  in  the  females  as  in  the  males ;  above 
all  things  they  should  be  young,  since,  when  they 
have  passed  ten  years,  they  are  useless  for  breeding. 
On  the  other  hand  they  should  not  be  covered  by  the 
bulls  when  they  are  less  than  two  years  old ;  if,  how-  2 
ever,  they  conceive  before  reaching  two  years,  it  is 
thought  proper  that  their  young  should  be  taken  from 
them  and  their  udders  emptied  for  three  days  that 
they  may  not  feel  pain,  and  that  after  that  they 
should  be  kept  away  from  the  milk-pail. 

XXII.  You    should    also    take    care    to    hold    an  AnnuaJ  re- 
examination of  your  cows,  as  of  all  herds  of  cattle,  j^erd.°'  ^^ 
every  year;    for  those  which  have  done  with  calf- 
bearing  and  are  old,  since  they  have  ceased  bearing, 
should  be  removed,  and  barren  cows  in  particular,  which 

are  occupying  the  place  of  the  fertile,  must  be  got  rid 
of  or  broken  in  to  the  plough  ;  for  on  account  of  their 
sterility  they  can  endure  toil  and  work  quite  as  well 
as  bullocks.  This  kind  of  cattle  requires  sunny  2 
pasture-ground  near  the  sea  in  the  winter ;  but  in 
summer  they  like  the  shadiest  parts  of  the  woods  or 
mountains  and  pasturage  on  high  ground  rather  than 

*  elata  Heinsius  :  ac  laeta  8  :  ac  leta  AR  :  alta  a. 



melius  nemoribus  herbidis  et  frutectis  ^  et  carectis  ^ 
pascitur,'  quoniam  siccis  ac  lapidosis  locis  durantur 
ungulae.  Nee  tarn  fluvios  *  rivosque  desiderat, 
quam  lacus  ^  manu  factos ;  quoniam  et  fluvialis  ^ 
aqua,  quae  fere  frigidior  est,  partum  abigit,  et 
caelestis  iucundior  est.  Omnis  tamen  externi  frigoris 
tolerantior  equino  armento  vacca  est,  ideoque  facile 
sub  dio  hibernat. 

XXIII.  Sed  laxo  spatio  consepta  facienda  sunt,  ne 
in  angustiis  conceptum  altera  alterius  elidat,  et  ut 
invalida  fortioris  ictus  efFugiat.  Stabula  sunt  optima 
saxo  aut  glarea  strata,  non  incommoda  tamen  etiam 
sabulosa,  ilia,  quod  imbres  respuant,  haec,  quod 
celeriter  exsorbent  transmittuntque.  Sed  utraque 
devexa  sint,  ut  humorem  effundant ;  spectentque  ad 
meridiem,  ut  facile  siccentur,  et  frigidis  ventis  non 

2  sint  "^  obnoxia.  Levis  autem  cura  pascui  est.  Nam 
ut  laetior  herba  consurgat,  fere  ultimo  tempore 
aestatis  incenditur.  Ea  res  et  teneriora  pabula  re- 
creat,  incensis  sentibus  duris  ®  et  fruticem  surrectu- 
rum  in  altitudinem  compescit.  Ipsis  vero  corporibus 
afFert  salubritatem  iuxta  conseptum  saxis  et  canali- 
bus  sal  superiectus,  ad  quem  saturae  pabulo  libenter 
recurrunt,  cum  pastorali  signo  quasi  receptui  canitur. 

3  Nam  id  quoque  semper  crepusculo  fieri  debet,  ut  ad 
sonum  buccinae  pecus,  si  quod  in  silvis  substiterit, 

^  frutetis  ed.  pr.  :   fructibus  SAB. 
^  curetis  8AE  :   caretis  ed.  pr. 
'  pascitur,^  add.  Schneider. 

*  pluvios  SAB  :  fluvios  a. 

*  lacus  B  :  iacu  SA . 

*  pluvialis  jS^-K  :   fluvialis  a.  ^  aii  SAB. 

*  incensis  sentibus  duris  et  Lvndslrom  :  dentis  durib ;  S  : 
dentibus  duribus  A^  :  dentibus  duris  B  :  sentibus  duris,  ed. 
pr.  :  incensis  aridis  Palladius,  IX.  4. 


BOOK  VI.  xxii.  2-xxin.  3 

in  the  plain  ;  for  it  is  better  for  them  to  feed  in  grassy 
woods  and  places  covered  with  bushes  and  sedge-beds, 
since  in  dry,  stony  places  their  hoofs  become  hard. 
They  do  not  require  rivers  and  streams  so  much  as 
artificial  ponds,  since  river-water,  which  is  generally 
colder,  causes  abortion,  while  rain-water  is  pleasanter 
to  the  taste.  Cows,  however,  endure  every  out- 
door cold  better  than  horses  and  so  can  easily  pass 
the  winter  under  the  open  sky. 

XXIII.  Enclosures  must  be  constructed  which  Enclosures 
allow  ample  space,  so  that  one  cow  may  not  in  gheds?^ 
narrow  quarters  cause  abortion  in  another  and  that 
a  feeble  cow  may  avoid  the  blows  of  a  stronger. 
The  best  cow-sheds  are  floored  with  stone  or  gravel, 
though  sandy  floors  are  also  suitable,  the  former 
because  they  keep  out  rainwater,  the  latter  because 
they  quickly  absorb  it  and  drain  it  away.  In  either 
case  they  must  be  shelving,  so  as  to  make  the 
moisture  flow  away,  and  they  should  face  the  south 
that  they  may  dry  easily  and  not  be  exposed  to 
the  cold  winds.  The  care  of  the  pasturage  is  a  2 
small  matter;  for,  in  order  that  the  grass  may 
grow  more  abundantly,  it  is  usually  burnt  in  the  last 
part  of  the  summer.  This  makes  the  fodder  more 
tender  when  it  grows  again,  since  the  hard  briers  are 
burnt,  and  it  keeps  down  the  bushes  which  would 
grow  to  a  great  height.  Salt  sprinkled  on  the  stones 
and  water-courses  near  the  enclosures  contributes  to 
the  good  bodily  health  of  the  cattle  and  they  gladly 
have  recourse  to  it  after  they  have  eaten  their  fill, 
when  what  may  be  called  the  cowherd's  signal  for 
retreat  is  sounded ;  for  this  too  ought  always  to  be  3 
given  at  dusk,  so  that  any  cattle  which  have  remained 
in  the  woods  may  be  accustomed,  when  the  horn 



saepta  repetere  consuescat.  Hie  enim  recognosci 
grex  poterit,  numerusque  ^  constare  si  velut  ex 
militari  disciplina  intra  stabularii  ^  castra  manserint. 
Sed  non  eadeni  in  tauros  exercentur  imperia,  qui  freti 
viribus  per  nemora  vagantur,  liberosque  egressus  et 
reditus  habent,  nee  revocantur  nisi  ad  coitus  femi- 

XXIV.  Ex  eis,^  qui  quadrimis  minores  sunt  mai- 
oresque  quam  *  duodecim  annorum,  prohibentur 
admissura :  illi,^  quoniam  quasi  puerili  aetate  semi- 
nandis  armentis  parum  idonei  habentur;  hi,  quia 
senio  sunt  efFeti.^  Mense  lulio  feminae  maribus 
plerumque  permittendae,  ut  eo  tempore  conceptos 

2  proximo  vere  adultis  iam  pabulis  edant.'  Nam 
decern  mensibus  ventrem  perferunt,  neque  ex  imperio 
magistri,  sed  sua  sponte  mai'em  ^  patiuntur.^  Atque 
in  id  fere^"  quod  dixi  tempus,  naturalia  congruunt 
desideria,  quoniam  satietate  verni  pabuli  pecudes 
exhilaratae  lasciviunt  in  venerem,  quam  si  aut 
femina  recusat,  aut  non  appetit  taurus,  eadem 
ratione,  qua  fastidientibus  equis  mox  praecipiemus, 
elicitur  cupiditas  odore  genitalium  admoto  naribus. 

3  Sed  et  pabulum  circa  tempus  admissurae  subtrahitur 
feminis,  ne  eas  steriles  reddat  nimia  corporis  obesitas  ; 

^  numerumqiie  SAB. 

2  stabularii  ed.  pr.  :   stabularum  SAR. 

Ms-S:   his  AR. 

*  quam  AM.  :   cum  SAR. 

*  illi  eil.  pr.  :   ilia  SAR. 
6  effecti  A^  :  effeti  SA^. 

'  edant  ed.  pr.  :   edat  SAR. 

*  -que  post  marem  AR  :   quae  S. 

»  patitur  SAB.  "  ferre  8A  :  fere  ac. 


BOOK  VI.  xxiir.  3-xxiv.  3 

sounds,  to  seek  their  enclosures.  Here  it  will  be 
possible  to  pass  the  herd  in  review  and  its  numbers 
can  be  verified,  if,  as  though  under  military  disci- 
pline, they  occupy  the  quarters  assigned  to  them 
by  the  keeper  of  the  stalls.  But  the  same  strict 
rules  are  not  imposed  upon  the  bulls,  which,  relying 
on  their  strength,  wander  about  in  the  woods  and 
have  free  exit  and  return  and  are  only  recalled  when 
they  are  required  to  cover  the  females. 

XXIV.  Bulls  which  are  less  than  four  years  old  and  The  breed- 
more  than  twelve  are  prevented  from  mounting  the  fe-  '"^  °^  '^""'*' 
males,  the  former  because,  being  as  it  were  in  their 
infancy,  they  are  regarded  as  hardly  suitable  for  breed- 
ing purposes,  the  latter  because  they  are  worn  out  with 
old  age.  The  females  are  generally  allowed  to  con- 
sort with  the  males  in  the  month  of  July,  in  order 
that  they  may  give  birth  to  the  young  which  are 
conceived  at  this  time  in  the  following  spring,  when 
the  fodder  has  already  come  to  perfection ;  for  the  2 
period  of  gestation  is  ten  months.  The  cows  do  not 
admit  the  male  at  their  owner's  command  but  of 
their  own  accord  and  their  natural  desires  coincide 
generally  with  the  time  of  year  which  I  have 
mentioned,  since  exhilarated  by  the  abundance  of 
food  which  the  spring  provides  they  become  wanton 
and  desire  intercourse.  If  the  female  refuses  inter- 
course or  the  bull  feels  no  desire  for  her,  the  same 
method  is  employed  as  we  shall  presently  prescribe 
for  the  stallion  who  shows  distaste  for  the  mare, 
namely  desire  is  stimulated  by  bringing  to  the  nostrils 
the  odour  of  the  genital  parts.  Also  towards  the  time  3 
when  the  females  are  to  be  covered  their  food  is  re- 
duced, so  that  excessive  fatness  may  not  render  them 
barren,  while  the  diet  of  the  bulls  is  increased,  so  that 



et  tauris  adicitur,  quo  fortius  ineant.  Unumque 
marem  quindecim  vaccis  sufficere  abunde  est.  Qui 
ubi  iuvencam  supervenit,  certis  signis  comprehendere 
licet,  quern  sexum  generaverit :  quoniam  si  parte 
dextra  desiluit,  marem  seminasse  manifestum  est ;  si 
laeva,  feminam.  Id  tamien  ^  verum  esse  non  aliter 
apparet,  quam  si  post  unum  coitum  forda  non  ad- 

4  mittit  taurum :  quod  et  ipsum  raro  accidit.  Nam 
quamvis  plena  fetu  non  expletur  libidine :  adeo 
ultra  naturae  terminos  etiam  in  pecudibus  plurimum 
pollent  blandae  voluptatis  illecebrae. 

Sed  non  dubium  est,  ubi  pabuli  sit  laetitia,  posse 
omnibus  annis  partum  educari ;  at  ubi  penuria  est, 
alternis  submitti :  quod  maxime  in  operariis  vaccis 
fieri  placet,  ut  et  \ituli  annui  temporis  spatio  lacte 
satientur,  nee  forda  simul  operis  et  uteri  gravetur  ^ 
onere.  Quae  cum  partum  edidit,  nisi  cibis  fulta  est, 
quamvis  bona  nutrix,  labore  fatigata  nato  subtrahit 

5  alimentum.  Itaque  et  fetae  cytisus  viridis '  et 
torrefactum  hordeum,^  maceratumque  ervum  prae- 
betur,  et  tener  vitulus  ^  torrido  molitoque  miUo  et 
permixto  cum  lacte  salivatur.  Melius  etiam  in  hos 
usus  Altinae  vaccae  parantur,  quas  eius  regionis  in- 
colae  cevas  ^  appellant.     Eae  sunt  humilis  staturae, 

1  tarn  SAR. 

*  gravetur  S  :   graventur  AR. 

*  viridis  ed.  pr.  :   viri  SAB. 

*  in  horreum  SAR. 

»  tener  vitulus  Poniedera  :  tenuervitolus  S^ :  tenue  vitulus 
5* :  teneruit  olus  A. 

*  gevas  S  :  cevas  Aac. 

"  I.e.  from  the  point  of  view  of  nursing  their  young. 

*  A  town  near  Venice. 

*  This  word  is  probably  the  origin  of  tb^  Low  German  Keue. 


BOOK  VI.  XXIV.  3-5 

they  may  put  more  energy  into  the  sexual  act.  One 
bull  is  quite  enough  for  fifteen  cows ;  and,  when  it 
has  covered  a  heifer  there  are  definite  signs  by 
which  you  can  tell  what  is  the  sex  of  the  offspring 
which  it  has  begotten  ;  since,  if  he  uncouples  towards 
the  right  side,  it  is  clear  that  he  has  begotten  a  male, 
if  towards  the  left,  a  female.  But  whether  this  is 
really  true  is  only  apparent  when  after  one  copula- 
tion the  pregnant  cow  refuses  to  admit  the  bull  again, 
and  this  actually  happens  only  rarely ;  for  although  4 
the  cow  may  have  conceived,  she  is  not  satisfied  in 
her  desires ;  so  true  is  it  that  the  seductive  allure- 
ments of  pleasure  exercise  the  greatest  power  even 
over  cattle  beyond  the  bounds  prescribed  by  nature. 
There  is  no  doubt  that  where  there  is  a  great  luxuri- 
ance of  fodder,  a  calf  can  be  reared  from  the  same 
cow  every  year,  but,  where  food  is  scarce,  the  cow 
must  be  used  for  breeding  only  every  other  year. 
This  rule  is  particularly  observed  where  cows  are 
employed  for  work,  in  order  that,  firstly,  the  calves 
may  have  abundance  of  milk  for  the  space  of  a  year, 
and,  secondly,  that  a  breeding  cow  may  not  have 
to  bear  the  burden  of  work  and  pregnancy  at  the 
same  time.  When  she  has  given  birth  to  a  calf,  ' 
however  good  a  mother  she  may  be,  if  she  is  worn 
out  by  work,  she  denies  the  calf  its  due  nourishment 
if  her  diet  does  not  give  her  enough  support.  That  5 
is  why  green  shrub-trefoil  and  toasted  barley  and 
sodden  bitter-vetch  are  given  to  a  cow  which  has 
borne  a  calf,  and  her  tender  young  is  given  a  drench 
of  grilled  millet  ground  up  and  mixed  with  milk. 
For  these  purposes  "  too  it  is  better  to  procure  cows 
from  Altina,*  which  the  inhabitants  of  that  region 
call  cevae.'^    They  are  of  low  stature  and  produce  an 



lactis  abundantes,  propter  quod  remotis  earum 
fetibus,  generosum  pecus  alienis  educatur  uberibus : 
vel  si  hoc  praesidium  non  adest,  faba  fresa  et  vinum 
recte  tolerat,  idque  praecipue  in  magnis  gregibus 
fieri  oportet. 

XXV.  Solent  autem  vitulis  nocere  lumbrici,  qui 
fere  nascuntur  cruditatibus.  Itaque  moderandum 
est,  ut  bene  concoquant :  aut  si  iam  tali  vitio  laborant, 
lupini  semicrudi  conteruntur,  et  ofFae  salivati  more 
faucibus  ingeruntur.  Potest  etiam  cum  arida  fico  et 
ervo  conteri  herba  Santonica,  et  formata  in  oiFam, 
sicut  salivatum  demitti.  Facit  idem  axungiae  pars 
una  tribus  partibus  hyssopi  permixta.  Marrubii 
quoque  suceus  et  porri  valet  eiusmodi  necare 

XXVI.  Castrare  vitulos  Mago  censet,  dum  adhuc 
teneri  sunt;  neque  id  ferro  faeere,  sed  fissa  ^  ferula 
comprimere  testiculos,  et  paulatim  confringere. 
Idque    optimum    genus    castrationum    putat,   quod 

2  adhibetur  aetati  tenerae  sine  vulnere.  Nam,  ubi 
iam  induruit,  melius  bimus  quam  anniculus  castratur. 
Idque  faeere  vere  ^  vel  autumno  luna  decrescente 
praecipit,  vitulumque  ad  machinam  deligare  :  deinde 
prius    quam    ferrum    admoveas,    duabus    angustis ' 

^  fissa  8  :   ipsa  AR. 

uaaoi  a  .    ipsa  .i^-tt. 

vere  S  :  om.  AR. 

angustis  S  :  angustiis  Aac. 

o  Herba  Santonica  according  to  Pliny  (N.H.  XXVII.  §  28) 
was  a  kind  of  absinthium  or  wormwood  found  in  the  territory 
of  the  Santoni  in  the  province  of  Aqnitania  :  the  name  of  the 
town  of  Saintes  in  the  department  of  Charentes  Inferieure  ia 
derived  from  this  tribe. 

'  Described  in  Chapter  XIX  above. 


BOOK  VI.  XXIV.  5-xxvi.  2 

abundance  of  milk,  for  which  reason,  if  their  own 
young  are  taken  from  them,  excellent  cattle  can  be 
reared  at  the  udders  of  cows  who  are  not  their 
mothers ;  or  if  this  resource  is  not  available,  the  calf 
puts  up  quite  well  with  crushed  beans  and  wine. 
This  plan  should  be  adopted  particularly  in  large 

XXV.  Worms,  which  generally  occur  when  indiges-  Kemedies 
tion  is  present,  are  often  harmful  to  calves.     Their  i^'cliv™^ 
feeding,  therefore,  must  be  so  regulated  that  they 
digest  properly ;    or,  if  they  are   already  suffering 

from  a  malady  of  this  kind,  half-raw  lupines  are 
crushed  and  pellets  of  them  thrust  down  their  throats 
to  serve  as  a  drench.  Wormwood «  can  also  be 
ground  up  with  dried  figs  and  bitter-vetch  and 
made  up  into  pellets  and  thrust  down  their  throats 
to  act  as  a  drench.  The  same  effect  is  produced  by 
one  part  of  axle-grease  mixed  with  three  parts  of 
hyssop;  also  the  juice  of  horehound  and  of  leek  is 
effectual  for  killing  creatures  of  this  kind. 

XXVI.  Mago  is  in  favour  of  castrating  calves  while  ^he  castra- 
they  are  still  young  and  tender,  and  he  advises  that  calves. 
the  operation  should  not  be  performed  with  a  knife 

but  that  the  testicles  should  be  compressed  with  a 
piece  of  cleft  fennel  and  gradually  broken  up.  He 
considers  this  to  be  the  best  method  of  castration, 
because  it  is  applied  when  the  animal  is  still  tender 
and  causes  no  wound.  When  the  animal  has  grown  2 
tougher,  it  is  better  that  it  should  be  castrated  as  a 
two-year-old  than  as  a  one-year-old.  He  recom- 
mends that  the  operation  should  take  place  in  the 
spring  or  in  the  autumn  when  the  moon  is  waning, 
and  that  the  calf  should  be  bound  in  the  machine  * ; 
then,  before  applying  the  knife,  you  should  seize 



ligneis  regulis  veluti  forcipibus  apprehendere  testium 
nervos,quos  Graeci  Kpefxacrrijpas  ab  eo  appellant,  quod 
ex  illis  genitales  partes  dependant.  Comprehensos 
deinde  testes  ferro  reserare,  et  expresses  ita  recidere, 
ut  extrema  pars  eorum  adhaerens  praedictis  nervis 

3  relinquatur.  Nam  hoc  modo  nee  eruptione  sanguinis 
periclitatur  iuvencus,  nee  in  totum  effeminatur 
adempta  omni  virilitate ;  formamque  servat  maris 
cum  generandi  vim  deposuit,  quam  tamen  ipsam  non 
protinus  amittit.  Nam  si  patiaris  eum  a  recenti 
curatione  feminam  inire,  constat  ex  eo  posse  generari. 
Sed  minime  id  permittendum,  ne  profluvio  sanguinis 
intereat.  Verum  vulnera  eius  sarmenticio  cinere 
cum  argenti  spuma  linenda  sunt,  abstinendusque  eo 

4  die  ab  humore,  et  exiguo  cibo  alendus.  Sequenti  ^ 
triduo  velut  aeger  cacuminibus  arborum  et  desecto 
viridi  pabulo  oblectandus,  prohibendusque  multa 
potione.  Placet  etiam  pice  liquida  et  cinere  cum 
exiguo  oleo  ulcera  ipsa  post  triduum  linere,  quo  et 
celerius  cicatricem  ducant,  nee  a  muscis  infestentur. 
Hactenus  de  bubus  dixisse  abunde  est. 

XXVII.  Quibus  cordi  est  educatio  generis  equini, 
maxime  convenit  providere  actorem  ^  industrium  et 
pabuli  copiam :  quae  utraque  vel  mediocria  possunt 
aliis^  pecoribus  adhiberi.  Summam  sedulitatem  et 
largam  satietatem  desiderat  equitium.     Quod  ipsum 

^  sequensei  S  :   sequens  AR. 

"  actorem  Gesner  :   auctorem  SAR, 

'  aliia  6' :  alias  AR. 


BOOK  VI.  XXVI.  2-xxvii,  I 

between  two  narrow  laths  of  wood,  as  in  a  forceps, 
the  sinews  of  the  testicles,  which  the  Greeks  call 
"  hangers,"  because  the  genital  parts  hang  from  them, 
and  then  take  hold  of  the  testicles  and  lay  them  open 
with  a  knife  and  after  pressing  them  out  cut  them 
off  in  such  a  way  that  their  extremities  are  left  adher- 
ing to  the  said  sinews.  By  this  method  the  steer  3 
runs  no  danger  from  an  eruption  of  blood,  nor  is  it 
likely  to  lose  its  masculinity  and  become  totally 
effeminate,  and  it  keeps  the  form  of  a  male  when  it 
has  been  deprived  of  generative  power.  This,  how- 
ever, it  does  not  lose  immediately ;  for,  if  you  allow 
it  to  cover  a  cow  directly  after  the  operation,  it  is 
certain  that  it  is  possible  for  it  to  beget  offspring ;  but 
it  should  by  no  means  be  allowed  to  do  so,  lest  it  die 
from  a  flux  of  blood.  The  wounds  should  be  anointed 
with  the  ash  of  brushwood  and  litharge  of  silver, 
and  the  animal  should  be  kept  away  from  water  for 
that  day  and  be  fed  on  only  a  little  food.  For  the  4 
three  following  days  it  should  be  treated  as  a  sick 
animal  and  tempted  to  eat  with  the  tops  of  trees  and 
green  fodder  cut  off  for  it  and  must  not  be  allowed  to 
drink  much.  It  is  thought  right  also  to  anoint  the 
actual  sores  after  three  days  with  liquid  pitch  and 
ashes  mixed  with  a  little  oil,  so  that  they  may  scar 
over  more  quickly  and  that  they  may  not  be  infested 
by  flies.     I  have  now  said  enough  about  oxen. 

XXVII.  For  those  whose  pleasure  it  is  to  rear  Horses. 
horses  it  is  of  the  utmost  importance  to  provide  a 
painstaking  overseer  and  plenty  of  fodder ;  both 
these  points  can  be  neglected  up  to  a  certain  point  in 
dealing  with  other  domestic  animals.  A  stud  of 
horses,  however,  requires  the  most  assiduous  atten- 
tion and  a  generous  diet.     Horses  themselves  fall 



tripartite  ^  dividitur.  Est  enim  generosa  materies, 
quae  circo  sacrisque  certaminibus  equos  praebet. 
Est  mularis,  quae  pretio  fetus  sui  comparatur 
generoso.  Est  et  vulgaris,  quae  mediocres  feminas 
maresque  progenerat,    Ut  quaeque  est  praestantior, 

2  ita  ubere  campo  pascitur.  Gregibus  autem  spatiosa 
et  palustria  montana  pascua  eligenda  sunt,  rigua  nee 
unquam  siccanea,^  vacuaque^  magis  quam  stirpibus 
impedita     frequentibus,*    mollibus  °     potius     quam 

3  proceris  herbis  abundantia,  Vulgaribus  equis  passim 
maribus  ac  feminis  ^  pasci  permittitur,  nee  admissurae 
certa  tempora  servantur.'  Generosis  circa  vernum 
aequinoctium  mares  iniungentur,  ut  eodem  tempore, 
quo  conceperint,®  iam  laetis  et  herbidis  campis  post 
annum  ^  parvo  cum  ^^  labore  fetum  ^^  educent.  Nam 
mense  ^^  duodecimo  ^^  partum  edunt.  Maxime  itaque 
curandum  est  praedicto  tempore  anni,  ut  tam  feminis 
quam  admissariis  desiderantibus  coeundi  fiat  po- 
testas,  quoniam  id  praecipue  armentum,  si  prohibeas, 
libidinis  exstimulatur  furiis,  unde  etiam  veneno  in- 
ditum  est  nomen  iTTTTOfxaves,  quod  equinae  cupidini 

4  similem  mortalibus  amorem  accendit.  Nee  dubium 
quin  aliquot  regionibus  tanto  flagrent  ardore  coeundi 

^  tripartito  SAR. 

^  siccana  Sa  :  sicana  AB. 

^  bacuane  SAB. 

*  frequentibus  S  :  frequenter  Aac. 

*  mollibus  S  :   mollis  AB. 

*  feminis  B  :   finibus  SA. 

'  servantur  S  :  serventur  AB. 

*  conceperint  8^  :   coeperint  A. 

*  post  annum  add.  mensem  SAB. 

!*•  parvo  cum  S^Aac  :  per  vocum  S^. 
11  feitumS:  fittuJ. 
^*  mense  a  :  mensem  8 A . 


BOOK  VI.  XXVII.  1-4 

into  three  classes.  There  is  the  noble  stock  which 
supplies  horses  for  the  circus  and  the  Sacred  Games ; 
then  there  is  the  stock  used  for  breeding  mules 
which  in  the  price  which  its  offspring  fetches  is  a 
match  for  the  noble  breed ;  and  there  is  the  common 
breed  which  produces  ordinary  mares  and  horses. 
The  more  excellent  each  class  is,  the  richer  must  be  2 
the  pasturage  assigned  to  it.  The  feeding-grounds 
chosen  for  herds  of  horses  must  be  spacious  and 
marshy,  mountainous,  well-watered  and  never 
diy,  empty  rather  than  encumbered  by  many  tree- 
trunks,  and  producing  an  abundance  of  soft  rather 
than  tall  grass.  The  stallions  and  mares  of  the  3 
common  stock  are  allowed  to  be  pastured  every- 
where together,  and  no  fixed  seasons  are  observed 
for  breeding.  The  stallions  of  the  noble  stock  will 
be  put  to  the  mares  about  the  time  of  the  spring 
equinox,  so  that  the  mares  may  be  able  to  rear  their 
offspring  with  little  trouble,  when  the  pasture  is  rich 
and  grassy,  at  the  same  season  a  year  later  as  that 
at  which  they  conceived  them ;  for  they  give  birth 
to  their  young  in  the  twelfth  month.  The  greatest 
care,  therefore,  must  be  taken  that  at  the  said  time  of 
year  every  opportunity  is  given  equally  to  mares  as  to 
their  stallions  to  couple  if  they  desire  to  do  so,  because, 
if  you  prevent  them  from  doing  so,  horses  beyond  all 
animals  are  excited  by  the  fury  of  their  lust.  (Hence 
the  term  "  horse-madness  "  is  given  to  the  poison 
which  kindles  in  human  beings  a  passion  like  the 
desire  in  horses.)  Indeed,  in  some  regions,  there  is  4 
no  doubt  that  the  mares  are  affected  by  such  a 
burning  desire  for  intercourse,  that,  even  though 

"  duodecimo  o  :  duodecima  8 A. 



feminae,  ut  etiam  si  marem  non  habeant,  assidua  et 
nimia  cupiditate  figurando^  sibi  ipsae  venerem  co- 
hortalium  more  avium  vento  concipiant.  Neque 
enim  poeta  licentius  dicit : 

5  Scilicet  ante  omnes  furor  est  insignis  equarum. 

lUas  ducit  amor  trans  Gargara,  transque  sonantem 
Ascanium  ;   superant  montes  et  flumina  tranant, 

6  Continuoque  avidis  ubi  subdita  flamma  meduUis, 
Vere  magis,  quia  vere  calor  redit  ossibus,  illae 
Ore  omnes  versae  ad  Zephyrum,  stant  rupibus  altis, 
Exceptantque  leves  auras,  et  saepe  sine  ullis 
Coniugiis,  vento  gravidae  (mirabile  dictu). 

7  Cum  sit  notissimum  etiam  in  Sacro  monte  Hispaniae, 
qui  procurrit  in  occidentem  iuxta  Oceanum,  fre- 
quenter equas  sine  eoitu  ventrem  ^  pertulisse  fetum- 
que  educasse,  qui  tamen  inutilis  est,  quod  triennio, 
prius  quam  adolescat,  morte  absumitur.  Quare,  ut 
dixi,  dabimus  operam,  ne  circa  aequinoctium  vernum 

8  equae  desideriis  naturalibus  angantur.^  Equos  au- 
tem  pretiosos  reliquo  tempore  anni  removere  oportet 
a  feminis,  ne  aut  cum  volent  ineant  aut,  si  id  facere 

^  figurando  S  :   figurandus  AR. 

*  ventrem  S  :  vente  A  :   ventum  B. 

'  aguntur  SAR. 

'  Vergil,  Georg.  III.  266  and  269-275. 
*  The  highest  peak  of  the  range  of  Mt.  Ida. 
«  A  river  of  Bithynia  (Strabo,  XIV.  681). 
"*  The  story  of  the  impregnation  of  mares  by  the  wind  seems 
to  be  as  old  as  Homer  (II.  XVI.  150). 


BOOK  VI.  XXVII.  4-8 

there  is  no  stallion  at  hand,  owing  to  their  continuous 
and  excessive  passion,  by  imagining  in  their  own 
minds  the  pleasures  of  love  they  become  pregnant 
with  wind,  just  as  farmyard  hens  produce  "  wind- 
eggs."  Indeed  the  poet  is  not  indulging  his  fancy 
too  much  when  he  says  :  " 

But,  beyond  all  furies,  wondrous  is  the  rage  5 

Of  mares ; 

Love  leads  them  over  Gargara  * 

And  o'er  Ascanius' "  loudly  roaring  stream  ; 

They  scale  the  mountain  and  through  rivers  swim. 

Soon  as  the  flame  has  reached  their  craving  marrow  6 

(More  so  in  spring,  for  then  the  heat  returns 

And  warms  their  bones)   all  on  high  rocks  they 

Facing  the  west,  and  the  light  breezes  catch. 
And  oft  with  wind  conceive,  without  the  aid 
Of  union — a  wondrous  tale  to  tell !  '^ 

For  it  is  also  well-known  that  on  the  Holy  Mountain  7 
of  Spain,*  which  runs  westward  near  the  Ocean, 
mares  have  often  become  pregnant  without  coition 
and  reared  their  offspring,  which,  however,  is  of  no 
use,  because  it  is  snatched  away  by  death  at  three 
years  of  age,  before  it  can  come  to  maturity.  There- 
fore, as  I  have  said,  we  shall  take  care  that  the  brood- 
mares are  not  tormented  by  their  natural  desires 
about  the  time  of  the  spring  equinox.  But  during  8 
the  rest  of  the  year  the  valuable  stallions  should  be 
kept  away  from  the  mares,  so  that  they  do  not  cover 
them  whenever  they  wish,  nor,  if  they  are  prevented 

•  Varro,  de  Be  Rustica  (II.  1. 9)  says  that  this  occurred  in  the 
district  in  which  Olisipo,  the  modem  Lisbon,  was  situated. 


VOL.  II.  H 


prohibeantur,  cupidine  sollicitati  ^  noxam  contra- 
hant.^  Itaque  vel  in  longinqua  pascua  marem  placet 
ablegari,  vel  ad  praesepia  contineri :  eoque  tempore, 
quo  vocatur  a  feminis,  roborandus  est  largo  cibo,  et 
appropinquante  vere  hordeo  ervoque^  saginandus,  ut 
veneri  supersit,  quantoque  fortior  inierit,  firmiora 
9  semina  praebeat  futurae  stirpi.  Quidam  etiam 
praecipiunt  eodem  ritu,  quo  mulos,  admissarium 
saginare,  ut  hac  sagina  hilaris  pluribus  ^  feminis 
sufficiat.  Verum  tamen  nee  minus  quam  quindecim 
nee  rursus  plures  quam  viginti  unus  debet  implere, 
isque    admissurae    post    trimatum    usque    in    annos 

10  viginti  plerumque  idoneus  est.  Quod  si  admissarius 
iners  in  venerem  est,  odore  proritatur,  detersis 
spongia  feminae  locis,  et  admota  naribus  equi. 
Rursus  si  equa  marem  non  patitur,  detrita  scilla 
naturalia  eius  linuntur,  quae  res  accendit  libidinem. 
Nonnunquam  ignobilis  quoque  ac  vulgaris  elicit  ^ 
cupidinem  coeundi.  Nam  ubi  admotus  ^  fere  ten- 
tavit  obsequium  feminae,'  abducitur,^  et  iam 
patientiori  generosior  equus  imponitur. 

Inde   maior   praegnantibus    adhibenda    cura    est, 

11  largoque  pascuo  firmandae.  Quod  si  frigore  hiemis 
herbae  defecerint,  tecto  contineantur,  ac  neque  opere 

^  sollicitationis  S  :    -i  A. 

*  contrahant  S  :    -unt  A  R. 

'  herboque  S^A  :   hervoq ;   <S*  :   ervoque  c. 

*  pluribus  S  :   plurimis  AR. 

"  elicit  S,  ed.  pr.  :   digit  AR. 

*  admotu  SAR. 

'  feminae  Ur sinus  :  femina  8R  :   semina  A. 

*  adducitur  SAR. 



from  doing  so,  harm  themselves  through  excitement 
due  to  their  desires.  It  is  better,  therefore,  either 
to  banish  a  stallion  in  some  distant  pasture  or  else 
keep  it  shut  up  in  the  stables ;  then  at  the  time 
when  it  is  summoned  by  the  mare,  it  should  be 
fortified  by  a  generous  diet,  and  with  the  approach 
of  spring  should  be  fattened  on  barley  and  bitter- 
vetch,  so  that  it  may  be  equal  to  the  fatigues  of 
intercourse,  and  that,  the  stronger  it  is  when  it  covers 
the  mare,  the  greater  may  be  the  sexual  vigour 
which  it  communicates  to  its  future  descendants. 
Some  authorities  also  prescribe  that  one  should  9 
fatten  up  a  stallion  by  the  method  used  for  mules, 
so  that,  exhilarated  by  this  condition,  it  may  suffice 
for  a  number  of  mares.  However,  one  stallion  ought 
to  be  able  to  impregnate  not  less  than  fifteen  and 
on  the  other  hand  not  more  than  twenty  mares,  and 
is  generally  suitable  to  breeding  purposes  from  three 
years  of  age  to  twenty.  But  if  a  stallion  is  dis-  10 
inclined  for  intercourse,  he  can  be  roused  by  the 
odour  of  a  sponge,  with  which  the  parts  of  the  mare 
have  been  wiped,  applied  to  his  nostrils.  On  the 
other  hand,  if  the  mare  refuses  to  submit  to  the 
stallion,  her  parts  are  anointed  with  crushed  squill, 
and  this  kindles  her  desire.  Sometimes,  too,  a  badly- 
bred  ordinary  horse  is  used  to  arouse  in  the  mare  a 
longing  for  copulation ;  for,  when  he  has  approached 
her  and,  so  to  speak,  invited  her  compliance,  he  is 
led  away  and  the  better-bred  horse  is  mated  with  the 
now  more  complaisant  mare. 

From  the  time  when  mares  become  pregnant  they 
need  special  care  and  must  be  fortified  by  generous 
fodder.  If  the  grass  has  failed  owing  to  the  cold  of 
winter,  they  should  be  kept  under  cover  and  not  be  11 



neque  cursu  exerceantur,  neque  frigori  committan- 
tur,  nee  in  angusto  clause,  ne  aliae  aliarum  conceptus 
elidant:  nam  haec  omnia  incommoda  fetum  abi- 
gunt.  Quod  si  tamen  aut  partu  aut  abortu  aqua 
laboravit,  remedio  erit  felicula  trita,  et  aqua  tepida 

12  permixta  ac  data  per  cornu.  Sin  autem  prospere 
cessit,  minime  manu  contingendus  puUus  erit.^ 
Nam  laeditur  etiam  levissimo  contactu.  Tantum  ^ 
cura  adhibebitur,  ut  et  amplo  et  calido  loco  cum 
matre  versetur,  ne  aut  frigus  adhuc  infirmo  noceat, 
aut  mater  in  angustiis  eum  obterat.  Paulatim 
deinde  producendus  erit,  providendumque,  ne  ster- 
core  ungulas  adurat.  Mox  cum  firmior  fuerit,  in 
eadem  pascua,  in  quibus  mater  est,  dimittendus,  ne 

13  desiderio  partus  sui  laboret  equa.  Nam  id  praecipue 
genus  pecudis  amore  natorum,  nisi  fiat  potestas, 
noxam  trahit.  Vulgari  feminae  solenne  est  omnibus 
annis  parere,  generosam  convenit  alternis  continere, 
quo  firmior  pullus  lacte  materno  laboribus  certa- 
minum  praeparetur. 

XXVI 1 1.  Marem  putant  minorem  trimo  non  esse 
idoneum  admissurae,  posse  vero  usque  ad  vigesimum 
annum  progenerare ;  feminam  bimam  recte  conci- 
pere,  ut  post  tertium  annum  enixa  fetum  educet: 

^  pullus  erit  S  :   polluerit  AR :  poluerit  c. 
*  tanta  SAR. 


BOOK  VI,  XXVII.  ii-xxviii.  I 

fatigued  by  work  or  journeys,  and  they  should  not 
be  exposed  to  the  cold  nor  enclosed  in  a  narrow  space 
lest  they  should  cause  one  another  to  miscarry ;  for 
all  these  unfavourable  conditions  cause  abortion. 
But  if  a  mare  has  suffered  either  in  producing  its  off- 
spring or  from  abortion,  polypody  crushed  and  mixed 
with  tepid  water  and  administered  through  a  horn 
will  serve  as  a  remedy.  If,  on  the  other  hand,  all  12 
goes  well,  the  foal  must  on  no  account  be  touched 
with  the  hand,  for  even  the  lightest  contact  is  harm- 
ful. All  that  one  will  have  to  do  is  to  take  care  that 
the  foal  lives  with  its  mother  in  a  place  which  is  both 
roomy  and  warm,  so  that  the  cold  may  not  hurt  it 
while  it  is  still  weak  and  that  its  mother  may  not 
crush  it  because  its  quarters  are  narrow.  Then 
gradually  it  will  have  to  be  made  to  leave  the  stable, 
and  care  must  be  taken  that  it  does  not  burn  its  hoofs 
with  dung.  Soon,  when  it  has  become  stronger,  it 
must  be  sent  out  to  the  same  pasture  as  its  mother, 
so  that  the  latter  may  not  be  afflicted  through  longing 
for  its  offspring ;  for  this  kind  of  animal  especially  13 
suffers  through  its  love  for  its  young,  if  it  have  not  the 
opportunity  for  indulging  it.  An  ordinary  mare  is  in 
the  habit  of  bearing  a  foal  every  year ;  but  a  well- 
bred  mare  ought  to  be  pregnant  in  alternate  years, 
in  order  that,  receiving  greater  strength  from  its 
mother's  milk,  the  foal  may  be  prepared  for  the  toil 
of  the  contests. 

XXVIII.  It  is  generally  thought  that  a  stallion  is  The  age  of  a 
not  suitable  for  breeding  purposes  before  it  is  three  ^*^^"'°'^- 
years  old,  and  that  it  can  continue  to  procreate  until 
its  twentieth  year,  but  that  it  is  all  right  for  a  mare 
to  conceive  at  the  age  of  two  years,  so  that  it  is  three 
years  old  when  it  bears  and  rears  its  young,  and  it  is 



eandemque  post  decimum  non  esse  utilem,  quod  ex 
annosa  matre  tarda  sit  atque  iners  proles.  Quae 
sive  ut  femina  sive  ut  masculus  concipiatur,  nostri 
arbitrii  fore  Democritus  affirmat,  qui  praecipit,  ut, 
cum  progenerari  marem  velimus,  sinistrum  testicu- 
lum  admissarii  lineo  funiculo  aliove  quolibet  obli- 
gemus ;  cum  feminam,  dextrum.  Idemque  in  omni- 
bus paene  pecudibus  faciendum  censet. 

XXIX.  Cum  vero  natus  est  pullus,  confestim  licet 
indolem  aestimare,  si  hilaris,  si  intrepidus,  si  neque 
conspectu  novae  rei  neque  ^  auditu  ^  terretur,  si  ante 
gregem  procurrit,  si  lascivia  et  alacritate  interdum  et 
cursu  certans  aequales  ^  exsuperat,*  si  fossam  sine 
cunctatione  transilit,  pontem  flumenque  transcendit, 
haec  erunt  honesti  animi  documenta. 

2  Corporis  vero  forma  constabit  exiguo  capite,  nigris 
oculis,  naribus  apertis,  brevibus  auriculis  et  arrectis, 
cervice  molli  lataque  nee  longa,  densa  iuba  ^  et  per 
dextram  partem  profusa,  lato  et  musculorum  toris 
numeroso  pectore,  grandibus  armis  et  rectis,  lateri- 
bus  inflexis,  spina  duplici,  ventre  substricto,  testibus 
paribus   et   exiguis,   latis   lumbis   et   subsidentibus, 

3  Cauda  longa  et  setosa  crispaque,  mollibus  atque 
altis  rectisque  cruribus,  tereti  genu  parvoque  neque 
introrsus  spectanti,  rotundis  clunibus,  feminibus 
torosis  ac  numerosis,  duris  ungulis  et  altis  et  concavis 
rotundisque,  quibus  coronae  mediocres  superpositae 
sunt.  Sic  universum  corpus  compositum,  ut  sit 
grande,*  sublime,  erectum,  ab  aspectu  quoque  agile, 

*  nove  rei  neq.  S  :  noveque  rei  AR. 

*  auditu  S  :  audita  ut  AR. 

'  aequalis  S  :   exequalis  AR. 

*  exuperat  AR  :   exuberat  S. 

*  iuba  c  :  iuva  S  :  tuta  A. 
«  glande  S^A  :  grande  ac. 


BOOK  VI.  xx\aii.  i-xxix.  3 

also  considered  to  be  of  no  use  after  the  tenth  year, 
because  the  offspring  of  an  aged  mother  is  slow  and 
lazy.  Democritus  declares  that  it  will  rest  with  us 
whether  a  male  or  a  female  is  conceived,  since  he 
directs  us,  if  we  wish  that  a  male  should  be  be- 
gotten, to  tie  up  the  stallion's  left  testicle  with  a 
flaxen  cord  or  some  other  material,  and  the  right 
testicle  if  we  want  a  female  offspring ;  and  he  thinks 
that  the  same  method  should  be  adopted  with  almost 
all  other  cattle. 

XXIX.  As  soon  as  a  foal  is  born,  it  is  possible  to  The  quaU- 
judge  its  natural  qualities  immediately.  If  it  is  good-  horse.^  * 
humoured,  if  it  is  courageous,  if  it  is  not  alarmed  by 
the  sight  or  sound  of  something  unfamiliar,  if  it  runs 
in  front  of  the  herd,  if  it  surpasses  its  age-mates  in 
playfulness  and  activity  on  various  occasions  and 
when  competing  in  a  race,  if  it  leaps  over  a  ditch  and 
crosses  a  bridge  on  a  river  without  baulking — these 
are  the  signs  of  generous  mettle. 

Its  physical  form  will  consist  of  a  small  head,  dark  2 
eyes,  wide-open  nostrils,  short,  upstanding  ears,  a 
neck  which  is  soft  and  broad  without  being  long,  a 
thick  mane  which  hangs  down  on  the  right  side,  a 
broad  chest  covered  with  well-proportioned  muscles, 
the  shoulders  big  and  straight,  the  flanks  arched,  the 
back-bone  double,  the  belly  drawn  in,  the  testicles 
well  matched  and  small,  the  loins  broad  and  sunken,  3 
the  tail  long  and  covered  with  bristling,  curly  hair, 
the  legs  soft  and  tall  and  straight,  the  knee  tapering 
and  small  and  not  turned  inwards,  the  buttocks  round, 
the  haunches  brawny  and  well-proportioned,  the 
hoofs  hard,  high,  hollow  and  round  with  moderately 
large  crowns  above  them;  the  whole  body  must  be 
so  formed  as  to  be  large,  tall  and  erect,  and  also  active 



et  ex  longo,  quantum  figura  permittit,  rotundum. 

4  Mores  autem  laudantur,  qui  sunt  ex  placido  con- 
citati,  et  ex  concitato  mitissimi.  Nam  hi  et  ad 
obsequia  reperiuntur  habiles,  et  ad  certamina 
laboremque  promptissimi.  Equus  bimus  ad  usum 
domesticum  recte  domatur ;  certaminibus  autem 
expleto  triennio :  sic  tamen  ut  post  quartum  demum 
annum  labori  committatur. 

5  Annorum  notae  cum  corpore  mutantur.  Nam 
dum  bimus  et  sex  mensium  est,  medii  dentes  superi- 
ores  et  inferiores  cadunt.  Cum  quartum  annum  ^ 
agit  his,  qui  canini  appellantur,  deiectis,  alios  affert. 
Intra  sextum  deinde  annum  molares  superiores  et 
inferiores^  cadunt.  Sexto  anno,  quos  primos  mu- 
tavit,  exaequat.  Septimo  omnes  explentur  aequa- 
liter,  et  ex  eo  cavatos  gerit.  Nee  postea  quot 
annorum  sit,  manifesto  comprehendi  potest.  Decimo 
tamen  anno  tempora  cavari  incipiunt,  et  superciha 
nonnunquam  canescere,  et  dentes  prominere.  Haec, 
quae  ad  animum  et  mores  corpusque  et  aetatem 
pertinent,  dixisse  satis  habeo.  Nunc  sequitur  curam 
recte  et  minus  valentium  demonstrare. 

XXX.  Si   sanis  ^    est   macies,   celerius   torrefacto 
tritico,  quam  hordeo  reficitur.     Sed  et  vini  potio  danda 

^  annum  om.  AR. 

*  et  inferiores  S  :  om.  AM. 

'  satis  SAB. 

"  I.e.  it  should  only  contest  after  a  year's  training. 

BOOK  VI.  XXIX.  3-xxx.  i 

in  appearance  and,  in  spite  of  its  length,  rounded  as 
far  as  its  shape  allows.  As  regards  character,  those  4 
horses  are  esteemed  which  are  roused  to  activity 
after  being  quiet  and  become  very  mild  again  after 
being  roused  ;  for  such  animals  are  found  to  be  both 
amenable  to  discipline  and  very  ready  to  take  part  in 
public  contests  and  the  effort  which  they  require. 
At  two  years  of  age  a  horse  is  suitable  to  be  trained 
for  domestic  purposes ;  but,  if  it  is  to  be  trained  for 
racing,  it  should  have  completed  three  years,  and 
provided  that  it  is  entered  for  this  kind  of  effort  only 
after  its  fourth  year." 

The  signs  which  mark  a  horse's  age  change  with  its  5 
physical  changes.  For  when  it  is  two  years  and  six 
months  old,  its  middle  teeth,  both  the  upper  and  the 
lower,  fall  out.  In  the  course  of  its  fourth  year  the 
so-called  canine  teeth  are  shed  and  it  grows  new 
ones  in  their  place  ;  then,  before  the  end  of  its  sixth 
year  the  upper  and  lower  molars  fall  out,  and  in  the 
course  of  the  sixth  year  it  makes  up  the  number  of 
the  first  set  of  teeth  which  it  has  changed ;  in  the 
seventh  year  the  whole  set  is  completed,  and  hence- 
forward the  animal  has  some  hollow  teeth ;  and, 
subsequently,  it  is  impossible  to  ascertain  with 
certainty  what  its  age  is.  In  its  tenth  year,  however, 
its  temples  begin  to  sink  and  its  eyebrows  sometimes 
begin  to  turn  white  and  its  teeth  to  project.  I  think 
I  have  said  enough  on  the  subject  of  the  horse's  dis- 
position, character,  physique  and  age.  My  next 
business  is  to  set  forth  the  way  to  look  after  horses  in 
health  and  sickness. 

XXX.  If  a  horse  is  thin  without  being  ill,  it  can  be  Medicines 
restored  to  condition  more  quickly  with  roasted  wheat  °^  °'^^' 
than  with  barley ;   but  it  must  also  be  given  wine  to 



est,  ac  deinde  paulatim  eiusmodi  cibi  subtrahend! 
immixtis  hordeo  furfuribus,  dum  consuescat  faba  et 
puro  hordeo  ali.^  Nee  minus  quotidie  corpora  pecu- 
dum  quam  hominum  defricanda  sunt :  ac  saepe  plus 
prodest  pressa  manu  subegisse  terga,  quam  si 
largissime     cibos     praebeas.^     Paleae     vero     equis 

2  stantibus  substernendae.'  Multum  autem  refert 
robur  corporis  ac  pedum  ^  conservare.^  Quod  utrum- 
que  custodiemus,  si  idoneis  temporibus  ad  praesepia, 
ad  aquam,  ad  exercitationem  pecus  duxerimus, 
curaeque  fuerit  ut  stabulentur  sicco  loco,  ne  humore 
madescant  ungulae.  Quod  facile  evitabimus,^  si 
aut  stabula  roboreis  axibus  constrata,  aut  diligenter 
subinde  emundata  fuerit  '  humus,  et  paleae  super- 

3  Plerumque  iumenta  morbos  concipiunt  lassitudine 
et  aestu,  nonnunquam  et  frigore,  et  cum  suo  tempore 
urinam  non  fecerint ;  vel  si  sudant,  et  a  concitatione 
confestim  biberint ;  vel  si,  cum  diu  steterint,  subito 
ad  cursum  extimulata  sunt.  Lassitudini  quies 
remedio  est,  ita  ut  in  fauces  oleum  vel  adeps  vino 
mixta  infundatur.  Frigori  fomenta  adhibentur,  et 
calefacto   oleo   lumbi   rigantur,^   caputque    et   spina 

4  tepenti  adipe  vel  uncto  liniuntur.  Si  urinam  non 
facit,  eadem  fere  remedia  sunt.  Nam  oleum  immix- 
tum  vino  supra  ilia  et  renes  infunditur :  et  si  hoc 
parum  profuit,  melle  decocto  et  sale  coUyrium  tenue 

1  all  A^Ji  :  alii  SAK 

*  praebeat  A  :  preheat  SR. 

'  paleae — substernandae  om.  SAE. 

*  pecudum  SA^E  :  pedum  A^. 
^  conservare  S  :   servare  AR. 

*  evitabimus  A^R  :   evitavimus  SA^.  ''  fuerint  SAR. 

*  superiactae  S  :    superiecta  AR. 

*  et — rigantur  om.  AR. 


BOOK  VI.  XXX.  1-4 

drink,  and  then  by  degrees  foods  of  this  kind  must  be 
reduced  by  mixing  bran  with  barley  until  it  be- 
comes accustomed  to  a  diet  of  beans  and  pure  barley. 
The  bodies  of  horses  require  a  daily  rubbing  down 
just  as  much  as  those  of  human  beings,  and  often  to 
massage  a  horse's  back  with  the  pressure  of  the  hand 
does  more  good  than  if  you  were  to  provide  it  most 
generously  with  food.  Chaff  ought  to  be  spread  on 
the  ground  where  horses  stand.  It  is  also  very  im-  2 
portant  to  maintain  the  vigour  in  their  bodies  and 
feet ;  we  shall  secure  both  these  objects  if  we  conduct 
the  herd  at  suitable  times  to  their  stable,  to  their 
watering-place  and  to  exercise,  and  if  care  is  taken 
that  they  are  stabled  in  a  dry  place,  so  that'their  hoofs 
are  not  wetted.  This  we  shall  easily  avoid  if  the 
stable  is  floored  with  boards  of  hard  wood,  or  if  the 
ground  is  carefully  cleaned  from  time  to  time  and 
chaff  thrown  over  it. 

Beasts  of  burden  generally  fall  ill  from  fatigue  or  3 
from  the  heat,  and  sometimes  also  from  the  cold  and 
when  they  have  not  passed  urine  at  the  proper  time, 
or  if  they  sweat  and  then  drink  immediately  after 
having  been  in  violent  motion,  or  when  they  are 
suddenly  spurred  into  a  gallop  after  they  have 
stood  for  a  long  time.  Rest  is  the  cure  for 
fatigue,  provided  that  oil  or  fat  mixed  with  wine  is 
poured  down  the  throat.  For  a  chill,  fomentations 
are  applied,  and  the  loins  moistened  with  heated  oil, 
and  the  head  and  spine  soaked  with  tepid  fat  or 
ointment.  If  the  animal  does  not  pass  urine,  the  4 
remedies  are  almost  the  same ;  for  oil  mixed  with 
wine  is  poured  over  the  flanks  and  loins,  and  if  this 
has  not  produced  the  desired  effect,  a  small  sup- 
pository made  of  boiled  honey  and  salt  is  applied  to 



inditur  foramini,!  quo  manat  urina,^  vel  musca  viva, 
vel  turis  mica,  vel  de  bitumine  collyrium  inseritur 
naturalibus.     Haec    eadem   remedia    adhibentur,    si 

5  urina  genitalia  deusserit.  Capitis  dolorem  indicant 
lacrimae,  quae  profluunt,  auresque  flaccidae ;  et 
cervix  cum  capite  aggravata,  et  in  terram  summissa. 
Tum  rescinditur  vena,  quae  sub  oculo  est,  et  os 
calda  fovetur,  ciboque  abstinetur  primo  die.  Inde 
postero  autem  potio  ieiuno  tepidae  aquae  praebetur 
ac  viride  gramen,tum  vetus  faenum  vel  molle  stramen- 
tum  substernitur,  crepusculoque  aqua  iterum  datur, 
parumque    hordei    cum    vicialibus,    ut    per    exiguas 

6  potiones  ^  cibi  ad  iusta  perducatur.  Si  equo  maxillae 
dolent,  calido  aceto  fovendae,  et  axungia  vetere 
confricandae  sunt,  eademque  medicina  tumentibus 
adhibenda  est.  Si  armos  laeserit,  aut  sanguinem 
demiserit,^  medio  fere  in  utroque  crure  ^  venae 
solvantur,  et  thuris  polline  cum  eo  qui  profluit 
sanguine  immixto,  armi  linantur,  et  ne  plus  iusto 
exanimetur,  stercus  ipsius  iumenti  fluentibus  venis 
admotum  ^  fasciis  obligetur.  Postero  quoque  die 
ex  iisdem  locis  '  sanguis  detrahatur,  eodemque  mode 
curetur,  et®  hordeo  abstineatur  exiguo  faeno  date. 

7  Post  triduum  deinde  usque  in  diem  sextum  porri 
succus    instar   trium    cyathorum    mixtus    cum    olei 

*  forainini  S  :   -a  AR. 

^  manat  urina  S  :   maturina  AB. 

'  exiguas  potiones  S  :  exigua  potione  (portione  A^)  A^. 

*  demiserit  S  :  di-  AR. 

*  crure  A^c  :   cruore  SA^R. 

*  admotum  A^R  :   -am  8A^. 

'  locis  om.  AR.  »  g^  q^  jiji 


BOOK  VI.  XXX.  4-7 

the  orifice  from  which  the  urine  flows,  or  a  hve  fly  or 
a  grain  of  incense  or  a  suppository  of  bitumen  is  in- 
serted in  the  genital  organs.  The  same  remedies 
will  be  applied,  if  the  urine  has  scalded  these  organs. 
Head-aches  are  indicated  by  tears  which  flow  from  5 
the  eyes  and  the  hanging  down  of  the  ears,  and  the 
neck  and  head  which  are  weighed  down  and  droop 
towards  the  ground.  In  these  circumstances  the  vein 
under  the  eyes  is  opened  and  the  mouth  fomented 
with  hot  water  and  the  animal  is  kept  away  from  food 
for  the  first  day.  Then  on  the  next  day,  before  it 
has  eaten  anything,  it  is  given  a  drink  of  tepid  water 
and  some  green  grass  ;  then  a  litter  of  old  hay  or  soft 
straw  is  spread  under  it  and,  at  dusk,  water  is  again 
given  and  a  little  barley  with  haulm  of  vetch,  so  that 
by  means  of  small  doses  the  animal  may  be  brought 
back  to  regular  forms  of  food.  If  a  horse's  jaws 
give  it  pain,  they  should  be  fomented  with  hot  6 
vinegar  and  rubbed  with  old  axle-grease,  and 
the  same  remedy  should  be  applied  if  the  jaws  are 
swollen.  If  it  has  damaged  its  shoulders  or  has  had  an 
extravasation  of  blood  to  these  parts,  the  veins  some- 
where near  the  middle  of  each  leg  should  be  opened 
and  the  shoulders  should  be  anointed  with  a  mixture 
of  incense-dust  and  the  blood  which  flows  from  the 
wound,  and,  that  the  animal  may  not  be  unduly 
weakened,  some  of  its  own  ordure  should  be  applied 
to  the  bleeding  veins  and  bound  with  bandages.  On 
the  following  day  blood  should  again  be  drawn  from 
the  same  places  and  the  same  treatment  given,  and 
the  animal  should  be  kept  away  from  barley  and  only 
given  a  little  hay.  After  three  days  and  until  the  7 
sixth  day  the  juice  of  a  leek  to  the  quantity  of  about 
three  cyathi  mixed  with  a  hemina  of  oil  should  be 



hemina  faucibus  per  cornu  infundatur.  Post  sextum 
diem  lente  ingredi  cogatur,  et  cum  ambulaverit,  in 
piscinam  demitti  eum  conveniet,  ita  ut  natet :  sic 
paulatim   firmioribus   cibis   adhibitis  ^  ad  iusta  per- 

8  ducetur.  At  si  bilis  molesta  iumento  est,  venter 
intumescit,  nee  emittit  ventos,  manus  uncta  inseritur 
alvo,  et  obsessi  naturales  exitus  adaperiuntur, 
exemptoque  stercore  postea  ^  cunila  bubula  et 
herba  pedicularis  cum  sale  trita  et  decocto  ^  melli 
miscentur,  atque  ita  facta  collyria  subiciuntur,  quae 

9  ventrem  movent,  bilemque  omnem  deducunt.  Qui- 
dam  myrrhae  tritae  quadrantem  cum  hemina  vini 
faucibus  infundunt,  et  anum  *  liquida  pice  oblinunt. 
Alii  marina  aqua  lavant  alvum,  alii  recenti  muria. 

Solent  etiam  vermes  atque  ^  lumbrici  nocere  in- 
testinis ;  quorum  signa  sunt,  si  iumenta  cum  dolore 
crebro  volutantur,  si  admovent  caput  utero,  si  caudam 
saepius  iactant.  Pracsens  medicina  est,  ita  ut 
supra  scriptum  est,  inserere  ^  manum,  et  fimum 
eximere ;  deinde  alvum  marina  aqua  vel  muria  dura 
lavare,  postea  radicem  capparis  tritam  cum  sextario 
aceti  ''  faucibus  infundere ;  nam  hoc  modo  praedicta 
intereunt  animalia. 

XXXI.  Omni  autem  imbecillo  pecori  alte  sub- 
sternendum  est,  quo  mollius  cubet.  Recens  tussis 
celeriter  sanatur,  pinsita  lente  et  a  valvulis  separata 
minuteque     molita.     Quae     cum     ita     facta     sunt, 

^  adivitis  iS^^^  :   adiutus  i?  :   adibitis  5*. 

*  posite  acunila  S  :  posita  ea  AE. 
'  decoctos  SA  :   -a  R. 

*  anura  S'a  :  annu  <S* :   annul  A. 
'  in  qua  8AR. 

*  insero  iS^. 

'  aceti  S  :  cum  aceto  AR. 


BOOK  VI.  XXX.  7-xxxi.  i 

poured  down  its  throat  through  a  horn.  After  the 
sixth  day  it  should  be  made  to  walk  slowly  and,  after  it 
has  taken  this  exercise,  it  will  be  a  good  plan  to  drive 
it  into  a  pond  so  that  it  may  swim ;  then,  by  the 
administration  by  degrees  of  a  more  solid  diet,  it  will 
be  brought  back  to  normal  conditions.  If  a  horse  is  8 
troubled  by  bile  and  its  belly  swells  and  it  cannot  get 
rid  of  wind,  the  hand  is  greased  and  inserted  into  its 
bowel  and  the  natural  exits  which  have  been 
blocked  are  opened  up  ;  afterwards,  when  the  ordure 
has  been  removed,  ox-marjoram  and  lousewort 
crushed  up  with  salt  are  mixed  with  boiled-down 
honey,  so  as  to  form  a  suppository,  and  inserted  from 
below ;  these  move  the  belly  and  bring  away  all 
the  bile.  Some  people  pour  down  the  throat  a  9 
quadrans  of  ground  myrrh  in  a  hemina  of  wine  and 
anoint  the  anus  with  liquid  pitch  ;  others  wash  out  the 
bowel  with  sea-water,  still  others  with  fresh  brine. 

Tape-worms  and  maw-worms,  too,  often  do  harm 
to  the  intestines.  It  is  a  sign  of  their  presence  when 
horses  roll  about  on  the  ground  in  internal  pain  or 
bring  heads  near  their  bellies  or  frequently  flick  their 
tails.  An  efiicacious  remedy  is  that  described  above, 
namely,  the  insertion  of  the  hand  and  the  removal 
of  ordure  followed  by  the  washing  out  of  the  bowel 
with  salt  water  or  hard  brine,  and  afterwards  the 
pouring  down  the  throat  of  the  root  of  the  caper- 
tree  ground  up  with  a  sextarius  of  vinegar ;  for  by 
this  ntiethod  the  animals  mentioned  above  are  killed. 

XXXI.  When  any  animal  is  sick,  deep  litter  must  Kemedies 
be  provided,  so  that  it  may  have  a  softer  resting-  *"''  ^  ''°'^g^ 
place.     A    cough    which    has    only    just    begun    is 
quickly  cured  with  crushed  lentils  separated  from 
the  pods  and  pounded  into  minute  fragments.    When 



sextarius  aquae  calidae  in  eandem  mensuram  lentis 
miscetur,  et  faucibus  infunditur ;  similisque  medicina 
triduo  adhibetur,  ac  viridibus  herbis  cacuminibusque 
arborum  recreatur  aegrotum  pecus.  Vetus  autem 
tussis  discutitur  porri  succo  trium  cyathorum  cum 
olei  hemina  compluribus  diebus  ^  infuso,  iisdemque, 
ut  supra  monuimus,  cibis  praebitis. 

2  Impetigines  et  quicquid  scabiei  est  ^  aceto  et  alu- 
mine  defricantur.  Nonnunquam,  si  haec  per- 
manent, paribus  ponderibus  mixtis  nitro  et  scisso 
alumine  cum  aceto  linuntur.  Papulae  ^  ferventissimo 
sole  usque  eo  strigile  raduntur,  quoad  eliciatur 
sanguis.  Tum  ex  aequo  miscentur  radices  agrestis 
hederae,*  sulfurque  et  pix  liquida  cum  alumine.  Eo 
medicamine  praedicta  vitia  curantur. 

XXXII.  Intertrigo  bis  in  die  subluitur  aqua  calida. 
Mox  decocto  ac  trito  sale  cum  adipe  defricatur,  dum 
sanguis  emanet.  Scabies  mortifera  huic  quadru- 
pedi  est,  nisi  celeriter  succurritur :  quae  si  levis  est, 
inter  initia  candenti  ^  sub  sole  vel  cedro  ^  vel  oleo 
lentisci  linitur  vel  urticae  semine  et  oleo  detritis  vel 
unguine  ceti,  quod  in  lancibus  salitus  thynnus  re- 

2  mittit.  Praecipue  tamen  huic  noxae  salutaris  est 
adeps  marini  vituli.  Sed  si  iam  inveteraverit,  vehe- 
mentioribus  opus  est  remediis.  Propter  quod  bitu- 
men, et  sulfur,'  et  veratrum  ^  pici  liquidae  axungiae- 
que  vetere  ^  mixta  pari  pondere  incoquuntur,  atque 

'  diebus  add.  Lvndstrom. 

^  scabiei  est  Ltcndstrom  :  scabies  SAB. 

*  pabulo  SA^R  :  papulae  A^. 

*  herhe  SAR. 

*  candentis  SAR. 

*  cedro  S  :   cedre  A  R. 

'  sulpure  S^A  :  sulphure  S^R. 

*  veratro  SAR.  »  veteri  R  :   veterio  SA. 


BOOK  VI.  XXXI.  i-xxxii.  2 

this  has  been  done,  a  sextarius  of  hot  water  is  mixed 
with  the  same  quantity  of  lentils  and  poured  down  the 
animal's  throat ;  the  same  treatment  is  continued 
for  three  days  and  the  sick  animal  is  strengthened 
by  a  diet  of  green  grass  and  tree-tops.  A  cough  of 
long  standing  can  be  dispelled  by  pouring  down  the 
throat  on  several  days  three  cyathi  of  leek-juice  in 
a  hemina  of  oil  and  providing  the  same  diet  as  we 
have  prescribed  above. 

Skin-eruptions  and  any  form  of  scab  are  rubbed  with  2  Remedy  f 
vinegar  and  alum.  Sometimes,  if  these  sores  persist,  eases. '^ 
they  are  anointed  with  equal  quantities  of  soda  and 
split  alum  mixed  together  in  vinegar.  Pustules  are 
scraped  with  a  curry-comb  in  very  hot  sunlight  until 
blood  is  made  to  flow,  then  equal  portions  of  the  root 
of  wild  ivy,  sulphur  and  liquid  pitch  are  mixed  with 
alum.  The  aforesaid  ailments  are  treated  with  this 

XXXII.  Sores  due  to  chafing  are  washed  twice  a  Remedies 
day  with  hot  water,  and  then  they  are  rubbed  with  and'^scabkl. 
salt  powdered  and  boiled  with  fat  until  the  blood 
flows.  Scabies  is  fatal  to  this  kind  of  quadruped, 
unless  help  is  speedily  given.  If  the  attack  is  only 
slight,  in  the  first  stages  the  sores  should  be  anointed 
in  burning  sunlight  with  cedar-oil  or  mastic-gum  or 
nettle  seed  and  oil  crushed  together  or  the  fish-oil 
which  is  deposited  on  dishes  by  salted  tunnies.  The  2 
fat  of  the  sea-calf  is  particularly  efficacious  against 
this  malady.  If,  however,  the  trouble  is  of  long 
standing,  more  violent  remedies  are  needed ;  and  so 
bitumen  and  sulphur  and  hellebore  mixed  with 
liquid  pitch  and  stale  axle-grease  in  equal  quantities 
are  boiled  together,  and  the  patients  treated  with 
this  preparation,  the  sores  having  been  previously 



ea  compositione  curantur,  ita  ut  prius  scabies  ferro 
3  erasa  perluatur  urina.  Saepe  etiam  scalpello  usque 
ad  vivum  resecare  et  amputare  scabiem  profuit, 
atque  ita  factis  ulceribus  mederi  liquida  pice  atque 
oleo,  quae  expurgant  et  replent  vulnera.  Quae  ^ 
cum  expleta  sunt,  ut  celerius  cicatricem  et  pilum 
ducant,^  maxime  proderit  fuligo  ex  aeno  ulceri 

XXXIII.  Muscas  quoque  vulnera  infestantes  sum- 
movebimus  pice  et  oleo  vel  unguine  infusis.  Cetera 
ervi  farina  recte  curantur.  Cicatrices  oculorum 
ieiuna  saliva  et  sale  defricatae  ^  extenuantur :  vel 
cum  fossili  *  sale  trita  sepiae  testa,  vel  semine 
agrestis  ^   pastinacae   pinsito   et   per   linteum   super 

2  oculos  expresso.  Omnisque  dolor  oculorum  in- 
unctione  succi  plantaginis  cum  melle  acapno,®  vel  si 
id  non  est,  utique  thymino  celeriter  levatur.  Non- 
nunquam  etiam  per  nares  profluvium  sanguinis 
periculum  attulit,  idque  repressum  est  infuso  naribus 
viridis  coriandri  succo. 

XXXIV.  Interdum  et  fastidio  ciborum  languescit 
pecus.  Eius  remedium  est  genus  seminis  quod  git  ' 
appellatur,  cuius  duo  cyathi  triti  diluuntur  olei 
cyathis  tribus  et  vini  sextario,  atque  ita  faucibus 
infunduntur.  Sed^  nausea  discutitur  etiam,  si  caput 
alii  tritum  cum  vini  hemina  saepius  potandum  prae- 
beas.  Suppuratio  melius  ignea  lamina  quam  frigido 
ferramento  reseratur,  et  expressa  postea  linamentis 

^  aquae  cum  S  :  aeque  quae  cum  AR. 

*  ducat  SAM  :   ducant  o. 

*  defricata  AE  :   defricta  S.  *  fossili  8  :   fusili  AE. 

*  agrestibus  SAE.  *  acaprio  SAE. 

">  git  S:  gis  AE.  «  sed  a  :   det  8^ A. 

'  Roman  coriander  {Nigella  saliva). 

BOOK  VI.  XXXII.  2-xxxiv.  i 

scraped  with  a  knife  and  thoroughly  washed  with 
urine.  Often,  too,  it  has  been  found  beneficial  to  3 
cut  the  scab  to  the  quick  with  a  lancet  and  remove 
it  and  to  treat  the  resulting  sores  with  liquid  pitch 
and  oil,  which  both  cleanse  the  wounds  and  cause 
them  to  fill  up ;  when  they  have  filled,  soot  from  a 
brazen  vessel  rubbed  into  the  sore  will  be  found 
most  beneficial  in  causing  the  wounds  to  scar  over 
and  grow  hair. 

XXXIII.  We  shall  get  rid  of  the  flies  which  infest  Remedies 
wounds  by  pouring  on  them  pitch  and  oil  or  fat.     The  andXr  paia 
other  kinds  of  sores  are  correctly  treated  with  the  '"  t'le  eyes. 
flour  of  bitter-vetch.     Scars  on  the  eyes  are  reduced 

by  rubbing  with  fasting  spittle  and  salt  or  with  the 
shell  of  a  cuttle-fish  pounded  up  with  mineral  salt  or 
with  the  seed  of  the  wild  parsnip  crushed  and 
squeezed  through  linen  over  the  eyes.  Any  kind  of  2 
pain  in  the  eyes  is  quickly  alleviated  by  anointing 
them  with  the  juice  of  the  plantain  mixed  with  honey 
obtained  without  smoking  out  the  bees,  or,  if  this 
is  not  available,  at  any  rate  with  thyme-honey. 
Sometimes  bleeding  at  the  nose  has  proved  dangerous 
and  has  been  stopped  by  pouring  the  juice  of  green 
coriander  into  the  nostrils. 

XXXIV.  A  horse   sometimes  languishes   through  Remedies 
distaste  for  food.     The  remedy  for  this  is  a  kind  of  In^Tm?-* 
seed  called  git,°'  two  cyathi  of  which  are  crushed  and  elation. 
dissolved  in  three  cyathi  of  oil  and  one  sextarius  of 

wine  and  poured  down  the  throat.  Nausea  can  also 
be  stopped  by  frequently  giving  the  animal  a  bruised 
head  of  garlic  in  a  hemina  of  wine  to  drink.  It  is 
better  to  open  up  an  abscess  with  a  red-hot  metal 
plate  than  with  a  cold  iron  instrument,  and  when  the 
pus  has  been  squeezed  out,  it  is  dressed  with  lint. 



2  curatur.  Est  etiam  ilia  pestifera  labes,  ut  intra 
paucos  dies  equae  subita  macie  et  deinde  morte 
corripiantur :  quod  cum  accidit,  quarternos  sextarios 
gari  singulis  per  nares  infundere  utile  est,  si 
minoris  formae  sunt :  nam  si  maioris,  etiam  congios. 
Ea  res  omnem  pituitam  per  nares  elicit,  et  pecudem 

XXXV.  Rara  quidem,  sed  et  haec  est  equarum 
nota  1  rabies,  ut  cum  in  aqua  imaginem  suam  vid^rint, 
amore  ^  inani  capiantur,  et  per  hunc  oblitae  pabuli, 
tabe  cupidinis  intereant.  Eius  vesaniae  ^  signa  sunt, 
cum  per  pascua  veluti  extimulatae  concursant,  sub- 
inde    ut   circumspicientes   requirere  *   ac   desiderare 

2  aliquid  videantur.  Mentis  error  discutitur,  si  de- 
cidas  inaequaliter  comas  equae  et  eam  ^  deducas  ad 
aquam.  Tum  demum  speculata  ^  deformitatem 
suam,  pristinae  imaginis  abolet '  memoriam. 
Haec  de  universe  equarum  genere  satis  dicta  sunt. 
Ilia  proprie  praecipienda  sunt  iis  ®  quibus  mularum 
greges  curae  est  submittere. 

XXXVI.  In  educando  genere  mularum  antiquissi- 
mum  est  diligenter  exquirere  atque  explorare 
parentem  futurae  prolis  feminam  et  marem :  quorum 
si  alter  alteri  *  non  est  idoneus,  labat  etiam  quod  ex 

2  duobus  fingitur.  Equam  convenit  quadrimam  ^" 
usque  in  annos  decern  amplissimae  atque  pulcher- 

^  nota  S  :  non  AR. 

*  amore  S  :  more  AR. 

'  vasae  sapiae  A  :  vase  sapie  SR. 

*  requirit  S  :   requirit  AR. 

'  decidas — eam  emend.  Lundstrom  praeeunle  Svennungxo. 

*  speculatae  ed.  pr.  :  speculata  codd. 
'  abolent  ed.  pr.  :   abolet  codd. 

»  his  SA. 

*  alter  alteri  Schneider  :  alteri  SAR. 


BOOK  VI.  XXXIV.  i-xxxvi.  2 

There  is  also  a  pestilential  malady  the  effect  of  which  2 
is  that  mares  are  attacked  with  sudden  emaciation 
and  carried  off  by  death  in  the  course  of  a  few  days. 
When  this  comes  on,  it  is  beneficial  to  pour  four 
sextarii  of  fish-pickle  into  the  nostrils  of  each  victim 
if  it  be  of  small  stature,  one  congius  if  it  be  of  larger 
size.  This  remedy  draws  away  all  the  phlegm 
through  the  nostrils  and  purges  the  animal. 

XXXV.  There  is  a  form  of  madness  which  comes  Madness  in 
over  mares  and  is  rare  but  remarkable,  namely,  that,  ™^''®s- 

if  they  have  seen  their  reflexion  in  the  water,  they 
are  seized  with  a  vain  passion  and  consequently  forget 
to  eat  and  die  from  a  wasting  disease  due  to  love.  It 
is  a  sign  of  this  form  of  insanity  when  they  rush  about 
over  their  pastures  as  though  they  were  goaded  on 
and  at  times  seem  to  be  looking  about  them  and  seek- 
ing and  missing  something.  This  delusion  is  dis- 
pelled if  you  cut  off  her  mane  unevenly  and  lead 
her  down  to  the  water ;  then  beholding  at  length  2 
her  own  ugliness,  she  loses  the  recollection  of  the 
picture  which  was  formerly  before  her  eyes.  What 
I  have  now  remarked  with  regard  to  mares  in  general 
must  suffice ;  special  instructions  must  now  be  given 
for  those  who  devote  themselves  to  breeding  droves 
of  mules. 

XXXVI.  For   the   rearing  of  mules  it  is   of  the  Mules  and 
utmost  importance  to  seek  out  and  examine  the  male  ^^^  '"*®*^" 
and  female  which  are  to  be  the  parents  of  the  future 
offspring ;    for  if  one  of  them  is  not  suitable  to  the 

other,  the  result  of  their  union  is  a  failure.     A  mare  2 
should  be  chosen  which  is  between  four  and  ten  years 
of  age,  physically  very  big  and  handsome,  with  stout 

^^  quadrituam  Schneider :     quamam  S  :     quam  am  A  : 
quoniam  R. 



rimae  formae,  membris  fortibus,  patientissimam 
laboris  eligere,  ut  discordantem  utero  suo  generis 
alieni  stirpem  insitam  facile  recipiat  ac  perferat,  et 
ad  fetum  ^  non  solum  corporis  bona,  sed  et  ingenium 
conferat.  Nam  cum  difficulter  iniecta  genitalibus 
locis  animentur  semina,  turn  etiam  concepta  diutius 
in  partum  adolescunt,  atque  ^  peracto  anno  mense 
tertiodecimo    vix    eduntur,    natisque    inhaeret    plus 

3  socordiae  paternae  quam  vigoris  materni.  Verumta- 
men  equae  dictos  ut  in  usus  minore  cura  reperiuntur,' 
maior  est  labor  eligendi  maris  * :  quoniam  saepe 
iudicium  probantis  frustratur  experimentum.  Multi 
admissarii  specie  tenus  mirabiles  pessimam  ^  sobo- 
lem  forma  ^  vel  sexu '  progenerant.  Nam  sive 
parvi  corporis  feminas  fingunt,  sive  etiam  speciosi 
plures  mares  quam  feminas,  reditum  patrisfamiliae 
minuunt.  At  quidam  contempti  ab  aspectu  pre- 
tiosissimorum  seminum  feraces  sunt.  Nonnun- 
quam  aliquis  generositatem  suam  natis  exhibet,  sed 
hebes  in  voluptate  rarissime  ^  solicitatur  ad  venerem. 

4  Huiusce  sensum  ^  magistri  lacessunt  i"  admota  ^^ 
generis  eiusdem  femina,  quoniam  similia  similibus 
familiariora  fecit  natura.     Itaque  obiectu  asinae  cum 

^  ad  fetum  S  :  adfectum  A. 

*  atque  edd.  :   utque  SA . 

'  cureperiuntur  SA  :  reperiuntur  ac, 

*  magis  SAR. 

^  mirabiles  pessimam  Ursinus  :   mirabilissimam  SAB. 
9  formam  SAR.  '  sex  SAR. 

*  rarissime  S  :  rarissimi  AR. 

*  sensum  R  :  sensium  SA, 
1"  lacessunt  S  :  om.  AR. 

^^  admota  S  :  subadmota  A. 


BOOK  VI.  XXXVI.  2-4 

limbs  and  well  able  to  endure  toil,  that  she  may- 
receive  and  bear  in  her  womb  an  alien  offspring  of 
another  race  planted  within  her  and  confer  on  her 
progeny  not  only  her  good  physical  qualities  but 
also  her  natural  disposition.  For  not  only  are  the 
seeds,  which  are  injected  into  the  genital  parts,  with 
difficulty  quickened  into  life  but  also  after  concep- 
tion they  take  longer  to  mature  into  the  creature 
which  is  to  be  born,  and  it  is  only  after  the  com- 
pletion of  a  year  that  in  the  thirteenth  month  the 
offspring  is  brought  forth  with  difficulty,  and  more 
of  the  sluggishness  of  the  father  is  inherent  in  the 
offspring  than  the  vigour  of  the  mother.  Neverthe-  3 
less,  while  mares  for  breeding  mules  are  less  trouble 
to  find,  the  task  of  selecting  the  male  parent  is 
greater,  for  often  experience  disappoints  the  judg- 
ment of  the  man  who  has  to  choose  it.  Many 
stallions  which  are  admirable  as  far  as  appearance 
goes  procreate  offspring  which  are  very  inferior  either 
in  physique  or  sexual  qualities — for  if  they  produce 
she-mules  of  small  size  or  more  males  than  females 
of  fine  physique,  they  diminish  the  income  of  the 
proprietor  of  the  estate — while  some  stallions  which 
have  been  despised  on  account  of  their  appearance 
are  productive  of  the  most  valuable  progeny.  It 
sometimes  happens  that  a  stallion  displays  his  high 
quality  in  his  offspring  but  is  sluggish  in  taking  his 
pleasure  and  can  be  only  very  seldom  induced  to 
have  intercourse.  Owners  of  studs  stimulate  the  4 
senses  of  such  a  stallion  by  bringing  up  to  him  a 
female  of  the  same  race  as  himself,*  since  nature  has 
made  like  more  at  home  with  like ;   then,  when  by 

"  I.e.  an  ass  and  not  a  mare. 



superiectum^  eblanditi  sunt,  velut  incensum  et 
obcaecatum  cupidine,  subtracta  quam  petierat, 
fastiditae  imponunt  equae. 

XXXVII.  Est  et  2  alterum  genus  admissarii  fu- 
rentis  in  libidinem,  quod  nisi  astu  inhibeatur,  afFert 
gregi  perniciem.  Nam  et  saepe  vinculis  abruptis 
gravidas  inquietat  et,  cum  admittitur,  cervicibus 
dorsisque  feminarum  imprimit  morsus.  Quod  ne 
faciat,  paulisper  ad  molam  vinctus  amoris  saevitiam 
labore  ^  temperat,  et  sic  veneri  modestior  admittitur. 

2  Nee  tamen  aliter  admittendus  est  etiam  clementioris 
libidinis,  quoniam  multum  refert  naturaliter  sopitum 
pecudis  ingenium  modica  exercitatione  *  concuti 
atque  excitari,  vegetioremque  factum  marem  ^ 
feminae  iniungi,  ut  tacita  quadam  ^  vi  semina  ipsa 
principiis  "^  agilioribus  figurentur. 

3  Mula  ^  autem  non  solum  ex  equa  et  asino,  sed  ex 
asina  et  equo,  itemque  onagro  et  equa  generatur. 
Quidam  vero  non  dissimulandi  auctores,  ut  Marcus 
Varro,  et  ante  eum  Dionysius  ac  Mago  prodiderunt 
mularum  fetus  regionibus  Africae  adeo  non  pro- 
digiosos  haberi,  ut  tam  familiares  sint  incolis  partus 

4  earum,  quam  sunt  nobis  equarum.  Neque  tamen 
uUum  est  in  hoc  pecore  aut  animo  aut  forma  ^  prae- 

1  superiectum  Lundstrom  :    -u  8AR. 

2  est  et  AR  :  et  est  8. 

^  labore  ed.  pr.  :   laborare  SAR. 

*  exercitatione  ed.  pr.  :  excitatione  SAR. 
^  marem  a  :   mare  SA  ^R. 

*  quadam  ed.  pr.  :   quadram  SA.     '  principis  SA. 

*  mula  S  :   multa  AR.  *  formam  SA  :   forma  a. 

'  In  the  translation  of  this  part  of  Columella,  ass  is  the 
female  donkey. 

»  R.R.,  11.  1.  27.  «  See  Book  I.  1.  10. 



putting  the  ass  «  in  his  way,  they  have  lured  on  the 
stallion  which  has  thrown  himself  upon  her,  while  he 
is  as  it  were  inflamed  and  Winded  by  desire,  they 
take  away  the  ass,  which  he  had  wanted,  and  put 
him  to  the  mare  which  he  had  scorned. 

XXXVII.  There  is  another  type  of  stallion  which  The  breed- 
is  mad  to  gratify  his  lust  and  brings  ruin  on  the  stud  (conUnued)! 
unless  cunning  is  used  to  restrain  him,  for  he  often 
breaks  his  bonds  and  disturbs  the  pregnant  mares 
and,  when  he  covers  them,  inflicts  bites  on  their 
necks  and  backs.  To  prevent  this  he  is  harnessed  for 
a  time  to  a  mill  and  tempers  the  fierceness  of  his 
passion  with  hard  work  and  is  only  put  to  the  mare 
when  he  has  moderated  his  desires.  Nor  indeed  2 
should  a  stallion  of  milder  passions  be  allowed  to 
cover  a  mare  under  any  other  conditions,  since  it  is 
very  important  that  the  naturally  slumbering 
temperament  of  the  animal  should  be  stirred  up  and 
excited  by  moderate  exercise  and  that  the  male 
should  be  put  to  the  female  when  he  has  become 
more  animated,  in  order  that  the  seed  itself,  in 
virtue  of  some  secret  force,  may  be  fashioned  by 
more  active  elements. 

A  mule  can  be  bred  not  only  from  a  mare  and  a  3 
donkey,  but  also  from  an  ass  and  a  horse,  and  further 
from  a  wild  ass  and  a  mare.  Indeed  some  authors, 
who  ought  not  to  be  passed  over  in  silence,  such 
as  Marcus  Varro  *  and,  before  him,  Dionysius  <^  and 
Mago,  have  related  that  in  some  regions  of  Africa 
the  production  of  offspring  by  mules  is  so  far  from 
being  considered  a  prodigy  that  their  offspring  is  as 
familiar  to  the  inhabitants  as  those  born  from  mares 
are  to  us.  There  is,  however,  nothing  in  the  way  of  4 
a  mule  superior  either  in  disposition  or  in  form  to 



stantius,  quam  quod  seminavit  asinus  ^  quamvis  ^ 
possit  huic  aliquatenus  comparari  ^  quod  progenerat 
onager,  nisi  et  indomitum,  et  servitio  *  contumax 
silvestris  mores,  strigosumque  ^  patris  praefert  ^ 
habitum.  Itaque  eiusmodi  admissarius  nepotibus 
magis  quam  filiis  utilior  est.  Nam  ubi  asina  et 
onagro  '  natus  admittitur  equae,  per  gradus  infracta  ^ 
feritate  quicquid  ex  eo  provenit,  paternam  ^  formam 
et  modestiam,  foi-titudinem  celeritatemque  avitam 
refert.  Qui  ex  equo  et  asina  concepti  generantur, 
quamvis  a  patre  nomen  traxerint,  quod  hinni  vocan- 
tur,  matri  per  omnia  magis  similes  sunt.  Itaque 
commodissimum  est  asinum  destinare  mularum 
generi  seminando,  cuius,  ut  dixi,  species  experiment© 
est  speciosior.  Verumtamen  ab  aspectu  non  aliter 
probari  debet,  quam  ut  sit  amplissimi  corporis, 
cervice  valida,  robustis  ac  latis  costis,  pectore  muscu- 
loso  et  vasto,  feminibus  lacertosis,  cruribixs  compactis, 
coloris  nigri  vel  maculosi.^''  Nam  murinus  cum  sit  in 
asino  vulgaris,  tum  etiam  non  optime  respondet  in 
mula.  Neque  nos  universa  quadrupedis  species 
decipiat,  si  qualem  probamus  conspicimus.  Nam 
quemadmodum  arietum  quae  sunt  in  Unguis  et 
palatis  maculae,  plerumque  in  velleribus  agnorum 
deprehenduntur  :     ita   si  discolores  pilos   asinus   in 

1  seminabituinsinus  S  :  seminabitu  in  sinus  A. 
-  quamvis  add.  Lundstrom. 
'  conpari  S  :  comparari  a. 

*  servili  SA . 

*  mores  trigo  sunt  quam  8Aa. 

*  praefert  Lundstrom  :   praeferrot  SAR. 
'  onagro  S  :  onager  AR. 

*  infracta  ed.  pr.  :   infra  et  a  SAR. 

*  paternam  S  :  -a  AR. 

1"  macilis  AR  :  magilis  S. 


BOOK  VI.  XXXVII.  4-7 

that  begotten  by  a  male  ass,  though  up  to  a  certain 
point  the  progeny  of  a  wild  ass  can  be  compared  to 
it,  except  that,  being  both  difficult  to  train  and  re- 
bellious against  servitude,  it  exhibits  the  wild 
character  and  lean  condition  of  its  sire.  A  stallion, 
therefore,  of  this  kind  is  more  useful  for  the  pro- 
duction of  descendants  in  the  second  than  in  the  first 
generation  ;  for,  when  the  offspring  of  a  she-ass  and  a 
wild  ass  is  put  to  a  mare,  the  ferocity  of  the  wild 
animal  has  been  broken  down,  and  any  offspring  of 
this  union  reproduces  the  form  and  mild  temper  of 
its  sire  and  the  strength  and  quickness  of  its  grand- 
sire.  The  progeny  conceived  and  procreated  from  5 
a  horse  and  an  ass,  though  they  have  derived  their 
name  of  "  hinny  "  from  their  sire,"  show  in  every 
respect  a  greater  resemblance  to  their  dam ;  it  is, 
therefore,  most  advantageous  to  choose  a  donkey  as 
sire  for  a  race  of  mules  whose  appearance,  as  I  have 
said,  is  proved  by  experience  to  be  handsomer.  How-  6 
ever,  from  the  point  of  view  of  appearance,  it  ought  not 
to  be  approved  unless  it  has  an  ample  stature,  a  strong 
neck,  robust  and  broad  flanks,  a  vast  and  muscular 
chest,  brawny  thighs,  solid  legs  and  a  black  or  spotted 
coat ;  for  a  mouse-colour,  as  it  is  commonplace  in  a 
donkey,  is  not  very  suitable  in  a  mule  either.  We  7 
must  not  let  the  general  appearance  of  this  quadruped 
deceive  us  if  we  see  that  it  is  such  as  we  approve  of; 
for  just  as  the  spots  on  the  tongue  and  palates  of  rams 
are  generally  found  repeated  on  the  fleeces  of  the 
lambs  which  they  sire,  so  if  a  donkey  has  different 
coloured  hairs  on  its  eyelids  or  ears,  it  often  sires 
an    offspring    of   diverse    colouring  also ;    and    this 

"  Because  their  neighing   {hinnitus)  resembles   that   of  a 



palpebris  aut  auribus  gerit,  sobolera  ^  quoque  fre- 
quenter facit  diversi  coloris,  qui  et  ipse,  etiam  si 
diligentissime  in  admissario  exploratus  est,  saepe 
tamen  domini  spem  decipit.  Nam  interdum  etiam 
citra  praedicta  signa  dissimiles  sui  mulas  fingit. 
Quod  accidere  non  aliter  reor,  quam  ut  avitus  color 
primordiis  seminum  mixtus  ^  reddatur  nepotibus, 

8  Igitur  qualem  descripsi  asellum,  cum  est  protinus  ^ 
genitus,  oportet  matri  statim  subtrahi,  et  ignoranti 
equae  subici.  Ea  ^  optime  tenebris  fallitur.  Nam 
obscuro  loco  partu  eius  amoto,  praedictus  quasi  ex 
ea  natus  alitur.  Cui  deinde  cum  decern  diebus 
insuevit  equa,  semper  postea  desideranti  ^  praebet 
ubera.  Sic  nutritus  ^  admissarius  equas  diligere 
condiscit.  Interdum  etiam,  quamvis  materno  lacte 
sit  educatus,  potest  a  tenero '  conversatus  ^  equis 
familiariter  earum  consuetudinem  appetere.     Sed  ei 

9  non  oportet  minori  quam  trimo  inire  permitti.^  Atque 
id  ipsum  si  concedatur,^"  vere  fieri  conveniet,  cum 
et  desecto  viridi  pabulo  et  largo  hordeo  firmandus, 
nonnunquam  etiam  salivandus  erit.  Nee  tamen 
tenerae  feminae  committetur.  Nam  nisi  prius  ea 
marem  cognovit,^^  adsilientem  admissarium  calcibus 
proturbat,  et  iniuria  depulsum  etiam  ceteris  equis 
reddit  inimicum.     Id   ne   fiat,   degener   ac  vulgaris 

^  sobolem  R  :   subole5M^:  sobole  5^ 

*  mixtus  S  :   mixtu  A . 

^  protinus  Lundstrom  :  ptri  A  :    ptris  S :   patri  c. 

*  ae  8A^  :   ac  A'E. 

*  desideranti  S  :   destinanti  AR. 

*  nutritus  S  :   nutritur  AR. 

''  potest  a  tenero  >S'  :   potestate  vero  AR. 

*  conversatus  S  :   -ur  AR. 

*  inire  permitti  Lundstrom  :   inaremitti  S  :   in  are  mitti  A. 
*"  concidatur  SAR. 

**  cognovit  td.  pr.  :  concivit  SAR. 

BOOK  VI.  XXXVII.  7-9 

colouring,  although  the  stallion  was  most  carefully- 
examined  to  see  if  it  was  present,  is  often  a  cause  of 
disappointment  to  the  owner.  For  sometimes  also 
a  stallion  shapes  mules  very  different  from  himself  in 
respects  other  than  the  signs  mentioned  above.  This, 
I  think,  occurs  for  no  other  reason  than  that  the  colour 
of  the  grandsire  is  transmitted  to  the  second  genera- 
tion mixed  with  the  elements  which  form  the  seed. 

As  soon  as  the  foal  of  the  ass,  such  as  I  have  de-  8 
scribed,  is  brought  to  birth,  it  should  be  taken  away 
from  its  mother  and  put  under  a  mare  who  has  no 
knowledge  of  it.  This  deception  is  best  carried  out  in 
dark  conditions ;  for  if  her  offspring  has  been  taken 
away  from  her  in  a  dark  place  and  the  aforesaid  foal  is 
put  under  her  it  is  nourished  by  her  as  if  it  were  her 
own  offspring  ;  and  then,  when  she  has  become  accus- 
tomed to  it  for  ten  days,  she  henceforward  always 
gives  it  her  dugs  whenever  it  wants  to  feed.  The 
future  stallion  fed  in  this  manner  learns  to  have  an 
affection  for  mares.  Sometimes  also,  although  it  has 
been  reared  on  its  own  mother's  milk,  if  it  has  lived 
familiarly  amongst  mares  from  its  tender  years,  it 
may  well  seek  their  company.  It  must  not,  how-  9 
ever,  be  allowed  to  cover  them  when  it  is  less  than 
three  years  old,  and  when  it  is  permitted  to  do  so,  it 
will  be  well  that  intercourse  should  take  place  in  the 
spring,  since  it  will  have  to  be  fortified  with  chopped 
green  fodder  and  an  abundance  of  barley  and  some- 
times also  given  a  drench.  It  ought  not,  however, 
to  be  put  to  a  young  mare  ;  for  unless  she  has  already 
had  experience  of  a  male,  she  repulses  the  donkey 
with  her  hoofs  when  he  leaps  upon  her,  and  the  affront 
which  he  has  received  inspires  him  furthermore  with 
an  aversion  for  all  other  mares.     To  prevent  this,  a 



asellus  admovetur,  qui  solicitet  obsequia  feminae : 
neque  is  tamen  inire  sinitur.  Sed,  si  iam  est  equa 
veneris  patiens,   confestim   abacto  viliore,  pretioso 

10  mari^  subigitur.2  Locus  est  ad  hos  usus  extructus, 
machinam  vocant  rustici,  duos  parietes  adverse 
clivulo  inaedificatos  qui  angusto  intervallo  sic  inter 
se  distant,  ne  femina  conluctari  aut  admissario 
ascendenti  avertere  se  possit.  Aditus  est  ex  utraque 
parte,  sed  ab  inferior e  clatris  ^  munitus :  ad  quae  * 
capistrata  in  imo  clivo  constituitur  equa,  ut  et  prona  ^ 
melius  ineuntis  semina  recipiat,  et  facilem  sui  tergoris 
ascensum  ab  editiore  parte  minori  quadrupedi  prae- 
beat.  Quae  cum  ex  asino  conceptum  edidit,  partum 
sequenti  anno  vacua  nutrit.  Id  enim  utilius  est, 
quam  quod  quidam  faciunt,  ut  et  fetam  nihilominus 

11  admisso  equo  impleant.  Annicula  mula  recte  a 
matre  repellitur,  et  amota  montibus  aut  feris  ^  locis 
pascitur,  ut  ungulas  duret,  sitque  "^  postmodum  longis 
itineribus  habilis.  Nam  clitellis  aptior  mulus.  Ilia 
quidem  ^  agilior :  sed  uterque  sexus  et  viam  recte 
graditur,  et  terram  commode  proscindit,  nisi  si 
pretium  quadrupedis  rationem  rustici  onerat,*  aut 
campus  gravi  gleba  ^^  robora  boum  deposcit. 

1  maris  SAR. 

2  subigitur  S  :  iniungitur  AR. 

3  Claris  SAR.  *  quod  SAR. 
^  pronam  SAR.  «  seris  SAR. 
'  sique  SA  :  sitque  ac.  *  quod  SAR. 
*  onerant  SAR. 

^^  gleba  S  :  graebra  A^  :   craebra  A^ :  crebra  R. 

Compare  Chapter  XIX  above. 


BOOK  VI.  xxxvii.  9-1 1 

badly-bred,  ordinary  donkey  is  brought  to  seek  her 
compliance;  he  should  not,  however,  be  allowed  to 
cover  her,  but  if  the  mare  is  inclined  to  submit  to  his 
desires,  the  more  ignoble  donkey  is  promptly  driven 
away  and  the  mare  is  covered  by  the  valuable  stallion. 
A  special  place  is  constructed  for  these  purposes —  10 
the  countryfolk  call  it  a  "  machine  "  "—it  consists  of 
two  lateral  walls  built  into  gently-rising  ground, 
having  a  narrow  space  between  them,  so  that  the 
mare  cannot  struggle  or  turn  away  from  the  donkey 
when  he  tries  to  mount  her.  There  is  an  entrance  at 
each  end,  that  on  the  lower  level  being  provided  with 
cross-bars,  to  which  the  mare  is  fastened  with  a  halter 
and  stands  with  her  forefeet  at  the  bottom  of  the 
slope,  so  that,  leaning  forward  she  may  the  better 
receive  the  insemination  of  the  donkey  and  make  it 
easier  for  a  quadruped  smaller  than  herself  to  mount 
upon  her  back  from  the  higher  ground.  When  the 
mare  has  given  birth  to  a  foal  of  which  the  donkey  is 
the  sire,  she  rears  it  during  the  following  year  with- 
out being  with  foal  again.  This  method  is  better  than 
that  which  some  people  follow,  who  cause  her  to  be 
covered  again  by  the  stallion  and  to  be  with  foal, 
although  she  has  only  just  foaled.  When  a  she-mule  11 
is  a  year  old,  it  is  right  to  take  it  away  from  its  dam 
and  put  it  to  feed  far  away  in  the  mountains  or  in 
wild  places,  so  that  it  may  harden  its  hoofs  and 
presently  be  fit  for  long  journeys.  Now  the  male  is 
better  than  the  female  mule  for  carrying  a  pack-saddle, 
whereas  the  latter  is  more  nimble ;  but  both  sexes 
step  out  well  on  a  journey  and  are  useful  for  breaking 
up  the  soil,  unless  the  price  of  the  animal  is  too 
burdensome  an  expense  for  the  farmer,  or  a  soil,  being 
of  heavy  sod,  demands  the  strength  of  oxen. 



XXXVIII.  Medicinas  huius  pecoris  plerumque  iam 
in  aliis  generibus  edocui:  propria  tamen  quaedam 
vitia  non  omittam,  quorum  remedia  subscripsi. 
Equienti  mulae  cruda  brassica  datur.  Suspiriosae 
sanguis  detrahitur,  et  cum  sextario  vini  atque  olei 
thuris    semuncia    marrubii    succus    instar    heminae 

2  mixtus  infunditur.  Suffraginosae  hordeacea  farina 
imponitur,  mox  suppuratio  ferro  reclusa  linamentis 
curatur,  vel  gari  ^  optimi  sextarius  cum  libra  olei  per 
narem  sinistram  demittitur,  admisceturque  huic  me- 
dicamini  trium  vel  quattuor  ovorum  albus  liquor  sepa- 

3  ratis  vitellis.  Flemina  ^  secari,  et  interdum  inuri 
Solent.  Sanguis  demissus  ^  in  pedes,  ita  ut  in  equis 
emittitur :  vel  si  est  herba,  quam  veratrum  vocant 
rustici,  pro  pabulo  cedit.  Est  et  voaKvajxos,  cuius 
semen  detritum  et  cum  vino  datum  praedicto  vitio 

Macies  et  languor  submovetur  saepius  data 
potione,  quae  recipit  semunciam  sulphuris  ovumque 
crudum,  et  myrrhae  pondus  denarii.  Haec  trita 
vino  admiscentur,*   atque  ita  faucibus  infunduntur. 

4  Sed  et  tussi  dolorique  veritris  eadem  ista  aeque 
medentur.  Ad  maciem  nulla  res  tantum  quantum 
medica  potest.  Ea  herba  viridis  celerius  ^  nee  tarde 
tamen    arida   faeni   vice   saginat   iumenta :     varum 

^  gari  8  :   cari  AR. 

*  fiemina  Litndslrom  :    femina  8AR. 
'  demissus  S  :   di-  AR. 

*  admiscetur  SA. 

*  celerius  S :  om.  AR. 

"  A  kind  of  hellebore.  *  Medicago  saliva, 



XXXVIII.  Though,  in  dealing  with  other  classes  Bemedies 
of  animals,   I  have  already  described  most  of  the  eas3s  of  '^ 
medicines  which  mules  require,  I  will  not  omit  to  ^"les. 
mention  certain  maladies  which  are  peculiar  to  these 
animals,    the    remedies    for    which    I    have    here 
subjoined.     If  a  mule  is   in  heat,  raw  cabbage  is 
administered ;    if  it  is  asthmatic,  blood  is  drawn  off 
and  about  a  hemina  of  the  juice  of  horehound  mixed 
with  a  sexiarius  of  wine  and  half  an  ounce  of  oil  of 
frankincense  is  poured  down  its  throat.     If  it  is  suffer-  2 
ing  from  spavin,  barley-flour  is  applied,  and  then  the 
suppuration   is    opened  with   a  lancet   and   dressed 
with  lint,  or  else  a  sextarius  of  the  best  fish-pickle 
in  a  pound  of  oil  is  poured  through  the  left  nostril ; 
the  whites   of  three  or  four  eggs  from  which  the 
yolks  have  been  separated  are  mixed  with  this  medica- 
ment.    Blood-blisters  round  the  ankles  are  usually  cut  3 
and  sometimes  cauterized.     When  blood  flows  down 
into  the  feet,  it  is  drawn  off  by  the  same  method  as  is 
applied  to  horses,  or,  if  the  herb  which  the  country- 
folk call  veratrum  "  is  available,  it  is  given  as  fodder. 
Another   remedy   is   henbane,   the    seed   of  which, 
crushed    and    administered    with    wine,    cures    this 

Emaciation  and  languor  are  dispelled  by  frequent 
potions  containing  half  an  ounce  of  sulphury  a  raw 
egg  and  a  denarius  weight  of  myrrh  ;  these  are  beaten 
up  and  mixed  in  wine  and  then  poured  down  the 
animal's  throat.  The  same  ingredients  serve  equally  4 
well  as  a  remedy  for  a  cough  and  for  pain  in  the 
stomach.  For  emaciation  nothing  is  as  efficacious  as 
lucerne  * ;  this  herb,  when  it  is  green,  quickly  fattens 
beasts  of  burden,  and  is  not  slow  in  doing  so  even 
when  it  is  dry  and  used  instead  of  hay,  but  it  must  be 


VOL.  TI.  I 


modice  danda,  ne  nimio  sanguine  stranguletur  pecus. 
Lassae  et  aestuanti  mulae  adeps  ^  in  fauces  demitti- 
tur,2  vinumque  ^  in  os  sufFunditur.  Cetera  exe- 
quemur  in  mulis  sic,  ut  prioribus  huius  voluminis 
partibus  tradidimus,  quae  curam  bourn  equarumque 

1  ad  eos  SA^R :  adeps  A^a. 

*  demittitur  S  :  di-  AR. 

'  virumque  SA  ^  -.  vinumque  a. 



given  in  moderation,  lest  the  animal  be  choked  by  an 
excess  of  blood.  When  a  mule  is  exhausted  and  feel- 
ing the  heat,  fat  is  thrust  down  its  throat  and  wine 
poured  into  its  mouth.  In  all  other  respects  in 
dealing  with  mules  we  shall  follow  the  method  which 
we  have  prescribed  in  the  earlier  parts  of  this  book 
which  deal  with  the  care  of  oxen  and  horses. 




I.  De  minore  pecore  dicturis,  P.  Silvine,  princi- 
pium  tenebit  minor  in  ora  ^  Arcadiae  vilis  hie  vul- 
garisque  asellus,  cuius  plerique  rusticarum  rerum 
auctores  in  emendis  tuendisque  iumentis  praeci- 
puam  rationem  volunt  esse ;  nee  iniuria.  Nam 
etiam  eo  rure,^  quod  pascuo  caret,  contineri  potest, 
exiguo  et  qualicunque  pabulo  contentus.  Quippe 
vel  foliis  spinisque  vepraticis  ^  alitur,  vel  obiecto  fasce 
sarmentorum.  Paleis  vero,  quae  paene  omnibus  re- 
gionibus,  abundant,  etiam  gliscit. 
2  Tum  imprudentis  custodis  negligentiam  fortissime 
sustinet :  plagarum  et  penuriae  tolerantissimus : 
propter  quae  tardius  deficit,  quam  ullum  aliud 
armentum.  Nam  laboris  et  famis  maxime  patiens 
raro  morbis  afficitur.  Huius  animalis  tarn  ■*  exiguae 
tutelae  plurima  et  necessaria  opera  supra  portionem 
respondent,  cum  et  facilem  terram  qualis  in  Baetica 
totaque  Libye  sit  ^  levibus  aratris  ^  proscindat,  et 

^  minor  in  ora  Lundstrom  :   minor  minora  SAac. 
^  eorum  re  SAc  :  eo  re  a. 

'  vepratici  salitur  S  :    vel  pratici  salitur  A  :    vel  prati  his 
alitur  a. 

*  tam  S  :  tamen  Aac. 

*  sit  Aid.  :  si  SAac, 

*  aratis  SA^. 



I.  Since,  Publius  Silvinus,  we  are  now  about  to  deal  The 
with  the  lesser  farm- animals,  our  first  subject  shall 
be  that  cheap  and  common  animal  the  lesser  *  ass 
from  the  region  of  Arcadia,  to  which  the  majority  of 
writers  on  agriculture  consider  that  particular 
attention  should  be  paid  when  it  is  a  question  of 
buying  and  tending  beasts  of  burden ;  and  they  are 
quite  right,  for  it  can  be  kept  even  in  a  country  which 
lacks  pasturage,  since  it  is  content  with  very  little 
fodder  of  any  sort  of  quality,  feeding  on  leaves 
and  the  thorns  of  brier-bushes,  or  a  bundle  of 
twigs  which  is  offered  to  it;  indeed  it  actually 
thrives  on  chaff,  which  is  abundant  in  almost  every 

Further,  it  endures  most  bravely  the  neglect  of  a  2 
careless  master  and  tolerates  blows  and  want  most 
patiently ;  for  which  reasons  it  is  slower  in  breaking 
down  than  any  other  animal  used  for  ploughing,  for, 
since  it  shows  the  utmost  endurance  of  toil  and 
hunger,  it  is  rarely  affected  by  disease.  The  per- 
formance by  this  animal  of  very  many  essential  tasks 
beyond  its  share  is  as  remarkable  as  the  very  little 
care  which  it  requires,  since  it  can  both  break  up  with 
a  light  plough  easily  worked  soil,  such  as  is  found  in 
Baetica  and  all  over  Libya,  and  can  draw  on  vehicles 

*  I.e.  the  ass  as  compared  with  the  mule. 



3  non  minima  pondera  vehiculo  trahat.     Saepe  etiam, 
ut  celeberrimus  poeta  memorat : 

.  .  .  tardi  costas  agitator  aselli 
Vilibus  aut  onerat  pomis,  lapidemque  revertens 
Incusum  aut  atrae  massam  picis  urbe  reportat. 

lam  vero  molarum  et  conficiendi  frumenti  paene 
solemnis  est  huius  pecoris  ^  labor.  Quare  omne  ^  rus 
tanquam  maxima  necessarium  instrumentum  de- 
siderat  asellum,  qui,  ut  dixi,  pleraque  utensilia  et 
vehere  ^  in  urbem  et  reportare  cello  vel  dorse  com- 
mode potest.  Qualis  autem  species  eius  vel  cura 
probatissima  sit,  superiore  libre,  cum  de  pretioso 
praeciperetur,  satis  dictum  est. 

II.  Pest  huius  *  quadrupedis  ovilli  pecoris  secunda 
ratio  est,  quae  prima  fit,  si  ad  utilitatis  magnitu- 
dinem  referas.  Nam  id  praecipue  nos  contra  frigoris 
violentiam  protegit,  cerporibusque  nostris  liberaliora 
praebet  velamina.  Tum  etiam  casei  lactisque 
abundantia  non  solum  agrestes  saturat,  sed  etiam 
elegantium  mensas  iucundis  et  numerosis  dapibus 
2  exornat.  Quibusdam  vero  nationibus  frumenti  ex- 
pertibus  victum  commodat,  ex  quo  Nomadum 
Getarumque  plurimi  yaAa/CTOvroTat  dicuntur.  Igitur 
id  pecus,  quamvis  mollissimum  sit,  ut  ait  prudentis- 
sime  Celsus,  valetudinis  tutissimae  est,  minimeque 
pestilentia  laborat.     Verum  tamen  eligendum  est  ad 

^  pecoru  SA^.  *  omnem  SA^. 

•  vehere  ed.  pr.  :  e  vere  5  :  vera  A.       *  huius  S  :  om.  AR. 

<•  Vergil,  Qeorg.  I.  273  ff. 

*  I.e.  the  mule,  treated  in  Book  VI.  Chapters  XXXVI- 

*  A  tribe  living  north  of  the  lower  course  of  the  Danube. 


BOOK  VII.  I.  2-II.  2 

loads  which  are  far  from  being  small.     Often  too  as  3 
the  most  famous  of  poets  says  : 

The  tardy  donkey's  driver  loads  its  sides 

With  cheap  fruits  and  returning  brings  from  town 

A  hammered  millstone  or  black  lump  of  pitch.** 

This  animal's  almost  invariable  task  at  the  present 
day  consists  in  turning  a  mill  and  grinding  corn. 
Every  estate,  therefore,  requires  a  donkey  as  that 
might  be  called  a  necessary  instrument,  since,  as  I 
have  said,  it  can  conveniently  convey  to  town  and 
bring  back  most  things  that  are  required  for  use 
either  with  load  on  its  neck  or  on  its  back.  What 
kind  of  ass  and  what  method  of  looking  after  it  is 
most  approved,  has  been  sufficiently  described  in  a 
previous  book,  where  instructions  have  been  given 
about  the  valuable  type  of  animal.'' 

II.  The  importance  of  the  sheep  is  secondary  to  Onthepur- 
that   of  the   ass,   though   the   sheep   is   of  primary  care  of 
account  if  one  has  regard  to  the  extent  of  its  useful-  sheep. 
ness.     For  it  is  our  principal  protection  against  the 
violence  of  the  cold  and  supplies  us  with  a  generous 
provision  of  coverings  for  our  bodies.     Then,  too,  it 
is  the  sheep  which  not  only  satisfies  the  hunger  of 
the  country  folk  with  cheese  and  milk  in  abundance 
but  also  embellishes  the  tables  of  people  of  taste 
with  a  variety  of  agreeable  dishes.     Indeed  to  some  2 
tribes,  who  have  no  corn,  the  sheep  provides  their 
diet ;    hence  most  of  the  nomadic  tribes  and  the 
Getae  '^  are  called  the  "  Milk-Drinkers."    Though  the 
sheep,  as  Celsus  most  wisely  remarks,  is  a  very  deli- 
cate creature,  it  enjoys  sound  health  and  suffers  very 
little  from  contagious  disease.    Nevertheless  a  breed 
of  sheep  must  be  chosen  to  suit  local  conditions,  a  prin- 



naturam  loci :  quod  semper  observari  non  solum  in 
hoc,  sed  etiam  in  tota  ruris  disciplina  Vergilius 
praecipit,  cum  ait : 

Nee  vero  terrae  ferre  omnes  omnia  possunt. 

3  Pinguis  et  campestris  situs  proceras  oves  tolerat ; 
gracilis  et  collinus  quadratas ;  silvestris  et  montosus 
exiguas ;  pratis  planisque  novalibus  tectum  pecus 
commodissime  pascitur.  Idque  non  solum  generi- 
bus,  sed  etiam  coloribus  plurimum  refert.  Generis 
eximii  Calabras,  Apulasque  et  Milesias  ^  nostri 
existimabant,  earumque  optimas  Tarentinas.  Nunc 
Gallicae  pretiosiores  habentur,  earumque  praecipue 
Altinates.  Item  quae  circa  Parmam  et  Mutinam 
macris    stabulantur    campis.     Color    albus    cum    sit 

4  optimus,  tum  etiam  est  utilissimus,  quod  ex  eo 
plurimi  fiunt,  neque  hie  ex  alio.  Sunt  etiam  suapte 
natura  pretio  commendabiles  ^  pullus  atque  fuscus, 
quos  praebent  in  Italia  PoUentia,  in  Baetica  Corduba. 
Nee  minus  Asia  rutilos,^  quos  vocant  epvOpaiovs. 
Sed  et  alias  varietates  in  hoc  pecoris  genere  docuit 
usus  exprimere.  Nam  cum  in  municipium  Gaditanum 
ex  vicino  Africae  miri  coloris  silvestres  ac  feri  arietes, 
sicut  aliae  bestiae,  munerariis  deportarentur,  M.  Colu- 
mella patruus  meus  acris  vir  ingenii,  atque  illustris 

^  miles  SAac.  *  commendabilis  SAac. 

3  lutilos  -S^i. 

»  Qeorg.  II.  109. 

""  I.e.  those  which  on  account  of  the  excellence  of  their  wool 
are  covered  with  skins  to  preserve  their  fleeces  (Varro,  R^R.^ 
II.  2.  19  :   Horace,  Od.  II.  C.  10). 

"^  A  town  near  Venice. 

<'  Both  these  towns  were  in  Cisalpine  Gaul,  Mutina  being  the 
modem  Modena. 


BOOK  VII.  II.  2-4 

ciple  which  ought  always  to  be  observed  not  only  with 
regard  to  sheep  but  in  every  department  of  agricul- 
ture, as  Vergil  warns  us,  when  he  says : 

Nor  can  all  kinds  of  land  all  things  produce.*' 

A  rich,  flat  country  supports  tall  sheep,  a  lean  and  3 
hilly  region  those  of  square  build,  while  a  wooded, 
mountainous  land  produces  small  sheep.  "  Coated  "  ^ 
sheep  are  best  pastured  in  meadows  and  flat  fallow 
ground.  Not  only  the  question  of  the  kinds  of 
sheep  but  also  that  of  their  colour  are  matters  of 
great  importance.  Our  farmers  used  to  regard  the 
Calabrian,  Apulian  and  Milesian  as  breeds  of  out- 
standing excellence,  and  the  Tarentine  as  the  best  of 
all ;  now  Gaulish  sheep  are  considered  more  valuable, 
especially  that  of  Altinum,"  also  those  which  have 
their  folds  in  the  lean  plains  round  Parma  and 
Mutina.**  While  white  is  the  best  colour,  it  is  also  4 
the  most  useful,  because  very  many  colours  can  be 
made  from  it ;  but  it  cannot  be  produced  from  any 
other  colour.  By  their  very  nature  black  and  dark 
brown  sheep  also,  which  Pollentia «  in  Italy  and 
Corduba/  in  Baetica  produce,  are  esteemed  for  the 
price  which  they  command ;  Asia  likewise  provides 
the  red  colour  which  they  call  "  erythraean."  Ex- 
perience has  also  taught  the  way  to  produce  other 
variations  of  colour  in  this  kind  of  animal.  For  when 
fierce  wild  rams  of  a  marvellous  colour  were  brought 
across  amongst  other  wild  beasts  from  a  neighbouring 
district  of  Africa  to  the  municipal  town  of  Gades  for 
those  who  were  giving  public  shows,  my  uncle  Marcus 
Columella,  a  man  of  keen  intelligence  and  a  dis- 

•  A  city  of  Liguria  (the  Italian  Riviera), 
/  Cordova  in  Spain. 



agricola,  quosdam  mercatus,  in  agros  transtulit,  et 
5  mansuefactos  tectis  ovibus  admisit.  Eae  primum 
hirtos,^  sed  paterni  coloris  agnos  ediderunt,  qui 
deinde  et  ipsi  Tarentinis  ovibus  impositi,  tenuioris 
velleris  arietes  progeneraverunt.  Ex  his  rursus 
quicquid  conceptum  est,  maternam  mollitiem,  pater- 
num  et  avitum  retulit  colorem.  Hoc  modo  Colu- 
mella dicebat,  qualemcunque  speciem,  quae  fuerit  ^ 
in  bestiis,  per  nepotum  gradus  mitigata  feritate 
reddi.     Sed  ^  ad  propositum  revertar. 

Ergo  duo  genera  sunt  ovilli  pecoris,  molle  et  hirsu- 
tum.  Sed  in  utroque  vel  emendo  vel  tuendo  *  plura 
communia,  quaedam  tamen  sunt  propria  generosi, 
quae  observari  conveniat.  Communia  in  emendis 
gregibus  fere  ilia :  si  candor  lanae  maxime  placet, 
nunquam  nisi  ^  candidissimos  mares  legeris  :  quoniam 
ex  albo  saepe  fuscus  editur  partus ;  ex  erythraeo  vel 
pullo  nunquam  generatur  albus. 

III.  Itaque  non  solum  ea  ratio  est  probandi  arietis, 
si  vellere  candido  vestitur,  sed  etiam  si  palatum  atque 
lingua  concolor  lanae  est.  Nam  cum  hae  corporis 
partes  nigrae  aut  maculosae  sunt,  pulla  vel  etiam 

^  hirtus  Aid.  :   ortos  SAR. 

*  fuerint  SAa  :  fuerunt  c. 

'  reddi  sed  S^ :  reddis  et  S^  :  reddisset  Ac. 

*  vel  tuendo  add.  Lxindstrdm :  om.  SAR. 


BOOK  VII.  11.  4-III.  I 

tinguished  agriculturist,  bought  some  of  them  and 
transferred  them  to  his  estate,  and,  when  he  had 
tamed  them,  mated  them  with  "  coated  "  ewes. 
These  produced  in  the  first  generation  lambs  with 
coarse  wool  but  of  the  same  colour  as  their  sires. 
When  these  in  their  turn  were  coupled  with  Tarentine  5 
ewes,  they  produced  rams  with  a  finer  fleece.  All 
the  descendants  of  these  latter  in  their  turn  repro- 
duced the  soft  wool  of  their  dams  and  the  colours  of 
their  sires  and  grandsires.  Columella  used  to  claim 
that  in  this  way  whatever  outward  appearance  the 
wild  animals  possessed  was  reproduced  in  the 
second  and  later  generations  of  their  descendants, 
while  their  savage  nature  was  tamed.  But  I  must 
return  to  my  subject. 

There  are  then  two  kinds  of  sheep,  the  soft -fleeced 
and  the  shaggy-coated ;  but,  while  there  are  several 
points  common  to  both  kinds  when  you  are  buying 
or  looking  after  them,  there  are  certain  special 
characteristics  of  the  well-bred  sheep  which  it  is  well 
to  observe.  The  following  are  generally  the  common 
points  to  be  looked  for  when  you  are  buying  flocks : 
if  whiteness  of  fleece  is  what  pleases  you  most,  you 
should  never  choose  any  but  the  whitest  rams,  for  a 
dark  lamb  is  often  the  offspring  of  a  white  ram,  while 
a  white  lamb  is  never  bred  from  a  red  or  brown  sire. 

III.  And  so,  if  a  ram  has  a  white  fleece,  this  is  not  it-  Oi  ti^e 
self  a  reason  for  approving  of  it,  but  only  if  its  palate  rams?"^  ° 
and  tongue  are  also  of  the  same  colour  as  its  wool ;  for 
if  these  parts  of  the  body  are  black  or  spotted,  the 
offspring  is  either  dark  or  even  parti-coloured.     The 
same  poet  as  I  quoted  above,  amongst  many  other 

*  nisi  S  :  om.  AB. 



varia    nascitur  proles ;    idque   inter    cetera    eximie 
talibus  numeris  ^  significavit  idem  qui  supra  : 

Ilium  autem,  quamvis  aries  sit  candidus  ipse,^ 
Nigra  subest  udo  tantum  cui  lingua  palato, 
Reice,  ne  maculis  infuscet  vellera  pullis 

2  Una  eademque  ratio  est  in  erythraeis  et  nigris  arieti- 
bus,  quorum  similiter,  ut  iam  dixi,  neutra  pars  esse 
debet  discolor  lanae,  multoque  minus  ipsa  universitas 
tergoris  maculis  variet.  Ideo  nisi  lanatas  oves  emi 
non  oportet,  quo  melius  unitas  coloris  appareat : 
quae  nisi  praecipua  est  in  arietibus,  paternae  notae 
plerumque  natis  inhaerent.* 

3  Habitus  autem  maxime  probatur,  cum  est  altus 
atque  procerus,  ventre  promisso  atque  lanato,  cauda 
longissima,  densique  velleris,  fronte  lata,  testibus 
iamplis,  intortis  cornibus :  non  quia  magis  hie  sit 
utilis,  (nam  est  melior  mutilus  aries)  sed  quia  ^  minime 
nocent  intorta  potius,  quam  surrecta  et  patula  cornua. 
Quibusdam  ^  tamen  regionibus,  ubi  caeli  status 
uvidus  ventosusque  est,  capros  et  arietes  optaverimus 
vel  amplissimis  cornibus,  quod  ea  porrecta  '  altaque  * 
maximam  partem  capitis  a  tempestate  defendant.^ 

4  Itaque  si  plerumque  ^'^  est  atrocior  hiems,^^  hoc  genus 
eligemus :  si  clementior,  mutilum  probabimus  ma- 
rem :     quoniam   est  illud  incommodum  in  cornuto, 

^  numeris  ed.  pr.  :  numeri  SAae. 

*  ipse  S  :  ipsa  Aac.  *  nascentium  SAac. 

*  inheret  SAac.  *  quia  S  :   qui  Ac. 

*  quibusdam  S  :    quibus  Aac. 

'  profecto  SAac.  ^  altoque  SAac. 

*  defendant  ed.  pr.  :  defendat  SAac. 
^'*  plerum  SAa. 

^1  hiems  a,  ed.  pr.  :  hiomis  SA. 


BOOK  VII.  III.  1-4 

points,  has  expressed  the  same  thing  excellently  in 
the  following  lines : 

But  though  the  father-ram  itself  is  white, 
If  under  his  wet  palate  a  black  tongue 
Lurks,  then  reject  it,  lest  with  dusky  spots 
It  stain  the  fleeces  of  the  future  race." 

The  same  reasoning  applies  both  to  red  and  to  black  2 
rams,  in  whom,  likewise,  as  I  said  just  now,  neither 
the  tongue  nor  the  palate  ought  to  be  different  in 
colour  from  the  wool,  still  less  should  the  whole  skin 
be  variegated  with  spots.  Sheep,  therefore,  should 
never  be  bought  unless  they  still  have  their  wool  on 
their  backs,  so  that  it  may  be  easier  to  see  that  they 
are  of  one  colour  only,  because,  unless  this  is  a 
prominent  feature  of  the  rams,  the  marks  on  the  father 
generally  persist  in  the  offspring. 

The  points  which  are  most  highly  esteemed  in  a  3 
ram  are  breadth  and  height  of  stature,  a  belly  which 
hangs  down  and  is  woolly,  a  very  long  tail,  a  thick 
fleece,  a  broad  forehead,  large  testicles  and  curling 
horns — not  because  such  a  ram  is  more  useful  (for  it  is 
better  without  horns),  but  because  horns  do  much  less 
harm  if  they  are  curling  than  if  they  are  up-standing 
and  spreading.  In  some  localities,  however,  where 
the  climate  is  damp  and  windy,  we  should  prefer  that 
both  he-goats  and  rams  should  have  very  large  horns, 
because,  being  thus  wide-spreading  and  lofty,  they 
protect  most  of  the  head  from  the  storm.  So,  if  the  4 
winter  generally  tends  to  be  severe,  we  shall  choose 
rams  of  this  type ;  if  it  is  milder,  we  shall  prefer 
a  ram  which  is  hornless ;  for  there  is  this  dis- 
advantage about  a  sheep  with  horns,  that,  being 

-  ^     «  Vergil,  Georg.  III.  387  ff. 



quod  cum  sentiat  se  velut  quodam  natural!  telo  ^ 
capitis  armatum,  frequenter  in  pugnam  procurrit,  et 
fit  in  feminas  quoque  procacior.  Nam  rivalem 
(quamvis  solus  admissurae  non  sufficit)  violentissime 
persequitur,   nee   ab   alio   tempestive   patitur  iniri  ^ 

5  gregem,  nisi  cum  est  fatigatus  libidine.  Mutilus 
autem,  cum  se  tanquam  exarmatum  intelligat,  nee 
ad  rixam  promptus  est,  et  in  venere  mitior.  Itaque 
capri  vel  arietis  ^  petulci  saevitiam  pastores  hac 
astutia  repellunt.  Mensurae  pedalis  robustam  tabu- 
lam  configunt  aculeis,  et  adversam  fronti  cornibus 
religant.     Ea  res  ferum  prohibet  *  a  rixa,  quoniam 

6  stimulatum  suo  ictu  ipsum  se  sauciat.  Epicharmus 
autem  Syracusanus,  qui  pecudum  medicinas  dili- 
gentissime  conscripsit,  affirmat  pugnacem  arietem 
mitigari  terebra  secundum  auriculas  foratis  cor- 
nibus, qua  curvantur  in  flexum.  Eius  quadrupedis 
aetas  ad  progenerandum  optima  est  trima :  nee 
tamen  inhabilis  usque  in  annos  octo.  Femina  post 
bimatum   maritari  debet,  iuvenisque  habetur  quin- 

7  quennis :  fatiscit  post  annum  septimum.  Igitur,  ut 
dixi,  mercaberis  ^  oves  intonsas :  ^  variam  et  canam  ' 
improbabis,  quod  sit  incerti  coloris.  Maiorem  trima 
dente  ®  minacem  sterilem  repudiabis.  Eliges  bimam 
vasti    corporis,   cervice  ^    prolixi    villi,    nee    asperi, 

^  natural!  t^lo  S  :  naturate  loco  A. 

'  inire  ac  :   ini  SA.  '  arietis  a  :   ariet«8  SA. 

*  prohibet  a  :    prohibita  SA. 

*  mercaberis  ed.  pr.  :   mercaveris  S  :   mercaris  Aac. 

*  intonsas  S  :  intonsis  Aac. 

'  calvamque  Eichter  :   et  canam  prior,  edd. 

*  trima  dente  ed.  pr.  :   trime  dentem  SAac. 

*  cervi  et  SAac. 

»  See  note  on  Book  I.  1.  8. 

BOOK  VII.  III.  4-7 

conscious  that  its  head  is  armed,  as  it  were,  with  a 
natural  weapon,  it  often  rushes  into  the  fray  and  also 
becomes  too  wanton  towards  the  females.  For 
(although  it  does  not  itself  suffice  to  mate  with  the 
whole  flock)  it  pursues  its  rival  in  the  most  violent 
manner  and  does  not  allow  the  flock  to  be  covered  at 
the  proper  time  by  any  other  ram,  except  when  it  is 
worn  out  by  lust.  On  the  other  hand  the  hornless  5 
ram,  since  it  realizes  that  it  is,  as  it  were,  disarmed, 
is  not  prompt  to  quarrel  and  is  milder  in  its  amours. 
Shepherds,  therefore,  use  the  following  ruse  to  check 
the  brutality  of  a  butting  he-goat  or  ram :  they  fix 
spikes  in  a  strong  board  a  foot  in  length  and  tie  it  to 
the  horns  with  the  spikes  facing  the  forehead.  This 
prevents  the  animal,  fierce  though  he  may  be,  from 
quarrelling,  because  by  his  blow  he  pricks  and 
wounds  himself.  Epicharmus,*  the  Syracusan,  who 
has  written  a  very  careful  treatise  on  remedies  for  6 
cattle,  declares  that  a  pugnacious  ram  can  be  tamed 
by  piercing  its  horns  with  a  gimlet  near  the  ears  at 
the  point  where  the  horns  bend  into  a  curve.  The 
best  time  for  breeding  from  this  animal  is  when  it  is 
three  years  old ;  but  it  continues  to  be  suitable  up  to 
eight  years  of  age.  The  female  ought  to  be  mated 
after  its  second  year  and  is  still  regarded  as  young  at 
five  years ;  after  its  seventh  year  it  becomes  ex- 
hausted. You  will,  therefore,  as  I  have  said,  buy  7 
ewes  before  they  have  been  sheared  and  you  will 
reject  those  which  are  parti-coloured  or  bald,  because 
its  colour  can  not  be  determined.  You  will  refuse 
a  sterile  ewe  which  has  passed  its  third  year  and  has 
projecting  teeth :  you  will  select  a  two-year-old 
with  a  large  frame,  a  neck  covered  with  shaggy  hair 
which  is  abundant  but  not  coarse,  and  a  woolly  and 



lanosi  et  ampli  uteri.     Nam  vitandus  est  glaber  et 

8  Atque  haec  fere  communia  sunt  in  comparandis 
ovibus.  Ilia  etiam  tuendis  :  humilia  facere  stabula, 
sed  in  longitudinem  potius  quam  in  latitudinem 
porrecta,!  ut  simul  et  hieme  calida  sint,  nee  angustiae 
fetus  oblidant.2  Ea  poni  debent  contra  medium 
diem:  namque  id  pecus,  quamvis  ex  omnibus 
animalibus  sit  ^  vestitissimum,  frigoris  tamen  im- 
patientissimum  est,  nee  minus  aestivi  vaporis. 
Itaque  cohors  clausa  sublimi  macerie  praeponi 
vestibulo  debet,  ut  sit  in  eam  tutus  exitus  aestuanti ;  * 
deturque  opera,  ne  quis  humor  consistat,  ut  semper 
quam  aridissimis  filicibus  ^  vel  culmis  stabula  con- 
strata  sint,  quo  purius  ^  et  mollius  incubent  foetae, 
sintque  ilia'  mundissima,  neque  earum  valetudo, 
quae  praecipue  custodienda  est,  infestetur  uligine. 

9  Omnia  autem  pecudi  larga  praebenda  sunt  alimenta. 
Nam  vel  exiguus  numerus,  cum  pabulo  satiatur, 
plus  domino  reddit,  quam  maximus  grex,  si  senserit 
penuriam.  Sequeris  autem  novalia  non  solum  her- 
bida,  sed  quae  plerumque  vidua  sunt  spinis ;  utamur  ^ 
emm  saepius  auctoritate  divini  carminis : 

Si  tibi  lanitium  curae  est,  primum  aspera  silva 
Lappaeque  tribulique  absint; 

^  porrecta  S  :  profectam  A. 

*  obligant  SAac.  '  sit  5  :  om.  AB. 

*  aestuanti  Richter  :   aestivandi  prior,  edd. 

*  filicibus  Sc  :  felicibus  Aa. 
«  plurius  SAR. 

''  sint  quala  Gesner  :   sint  quola  SAac. 

*  utamur  ac  :   utantur  c  :    utam  S^A  :   utar  S*. 

BOOK  VII.  HI.  7-9 

ample  belly ;   for  a  small  and  hairless  ewe  must  be 

These  are,  roughly  speaking,  the  general  points  8 
which  must  be  observed  when  you  are  buying  sheep ; 
the  following  points  must  be  observed  in  their 
management.  Their  folds  should  be  built  low  and 
extended  in  length  rather  than  in  breadth,  so  that 
they  may  be  warm  in  winter  and  also  that  lack  of 
space  may  not  cause  the  ewes  to  cast  their  young. 
They  should  be  placed  so  as  to  face  the  mid-day  sun ; 
for  sheep,  though  naturally  the  best  clothed  of 
animals,  can  least  endure  cold,  or  summer  heat 
either.  For  this  reason  a  closed  court  with  a  high 
wall  ought  to  be  constructed  in  front  of  the  entrance, 
so  that  there  may  be  a  safe  way  out  for  the  animal 
when  it  is  affected  by  the  heat ;  and  care  must 
be  taken  to  prevent  there  being  any  standing  water 
by  always  keeping  their  folds  strewn  with  the  driest 
possible  fern  or  straw,  so  that  the  ewes  after  lambing 
may  have  something  clean  and  soft  on  which  to  lie, 
and  that  the  folds  may  be  very  clean,  and  that  the  9 
health  of  the  ewes,  which  must  be  specially  guarded, 
may  not  be  impaired  by  dampness.  Sheep  must  be 
supplied  with  an  abundance  of  every  kind  of  food ; 
for  even  a  small  flock,  if  it  is  given  its  fill  of  fodder, 
brings  its  owner  a  bigger  return  than  a  very  large  one 
which  has  suffered  from  want.  You  must  look  for 
fallow  land  which  is  not  only  grassy  but  also  for  the 
miost  part  free  from  thorns  ;  for,  to  make  our  repeated 
appeal  to  the  authority  of  inspired  poesy," 

If  wool  is  your  desire,  above  all  else 

Avoid  the  prickly  woods  and  burs  and  caltropses. 

•  Vergil,  Georg.  III.  384  f. 



10  quoniam  ea  res,  ut  ait  idem,  scabras  oves  reddit, 

cum  tonsis  illotus  ^  adhaesit 
Sudor,  et  hirsuti  secuerunt  corpora  vepres  : 

turn  etiam  quotidie  minuitur  lanae  fructus,^  quae 
quanto  prolixior  in  pecore  concrescit,  tanto  magis 
obnoxia  ^  est  rubis,  quibus  velut  hamis  inuncata 
pascentium  tergoribus  avellitur.  Molle  vero  pecus 
etiam  velamen,  quo  protegitur,  amittit,*  atque  id  non 
parvo  sumptu  reparatur. 

11  Inter  auctores  fere  constat,  primum  esse  admis- 
surae  tempus  vernuni  Parilibus,^  si  sit  ovis  matura,^ 
sin  vero  '  feta,  circa  lulium  mensem.  Prius  tamen 
haud  dubie  probabilius,^  ut  messem  vindemia,' 
fructum  deinde  vineaticum  fetura  pecoris  excipiat, 
et  totius  autumni  pabulo  satiatus  agnus  ante  mae- 
stitiam  frigorum  atque  hiemis  ieiunium  confirmetur. 
Nam  melior  est  autumnalis  verno,  sicut  ait  verissime 
Celsus ;  quia  ^'^  magis  ad  rem  pertinet,  ut  ante  aesti- 
vum  quam  hibernum  solstitium  convalescat :    solus- 

12  que  ex  omnibus  bruma  commode  nascitur.  Ac  si  res 
exigit,  ut  plurimi  mares  progenerandi  sint,  Aris- 
toteles    vir    callidissimus    rerum    naturae    praecipit 

^  inlutus  S^A  :  inlotus  S'. 

*  fructus  S  :   om.  Aac. 

'  obnoxia  S  :  obnoxium  Aac. 

*  admittit  SAc  :  amittit  a. 

*  Parilibus  S  :   paribus  Aac. 

*  matura  S  :   mature  Aac. 

'  sin  vero  ed.  pr.  :   sincera  SAac. 

*  probabilis  SAac. 

*  mensem  vindemiam  SAa  :  messem  vindemiam  c. 
^°  quia  S  :   qui  Aac. 



For,  as  the  same  poet  says,*  it  causes  scab  in  sheep,      10 

When  after  shearing  sweat  unwashen  clings 
And  prickly  briers  tear  away  their  flesh. 

Moreover,  the  yield  of  wool  is  daily  reduced,  for  the 
more  abundantly  it  grows  upon  the  animal,  the  more 
exposed  it  is  to  brambles,  by  which  it  is  caught,  as  if 
by  hooks,  and  torn  from  their  backs  as  they  feed. 
The  sheep  also  loses  the  soft  covering  with  which  it 
is  protected,  and  this  can  only  be  replaced  at  con- 
siderable expense. 

The  authorities  are  in  general  agreement  that  the  11 
earliest  time  of  the  year  at  which  the  ewes  should 
be  mated  is  the  spring,  when  the  Parilia  ^  is  cele- 
brated, if  the  ewe  has  just  reached  maturity,  but,  if 
she  has  already  produced  a  lamb,  about  the  month  of 
July.  The  earlier  date  is,  however,  undoubtedly 
preferable,  so  that,  just  as  the  vintage  follows  the 
harvest,  so  the  birth  of  the  lamb  may  succeed  to  the 
gathering  in  of  the  grapes,  and  the  lamb,  having 
enjoyed  its  fill  of  food  during  the  whole  autumn,  may 
gain  strength  before  the  gloomy  cold  season  and  the 
short  rations  of  winter  come  on.  For  an  autumn  lamb  is 
superior  to  a  spring  lamb,  as  Celsus  very  truly  remarks, 
because  it  is  more  important  that  it  should  grow 
strong  before  the  summer  solstice  than  before  the 
winter  solstice,  and  it  alone  of  all  animals  can  be  born 
without  risk  in  mid-winter.  If  circumstances  require  12 
that  more  males  than  females  should  be  produced, 
Aristotle,"    that    shrewd    researcher    into    natural 

«  Vergil,  Georg.  III.  443. 

*  The    feast    of   Pales,    tutelary    goddess    of   sheep    and 
shepherds,  which  was  celebrated  on  April  18th. 
«  De  Gen.  Anim.,  766,  35  ff. 



admissurae  tempore  observare  siccis  diebus  halitus 
septentrionales,  ut  ^  contra  ventum  gregem  pasca- 
mus,  et  eum  spectans  admittatur  pecus  :  at  si  feminae 
generandae  sunt,  austrinos  flatus  captare,  ut  eadem 
ratione  ^  matrices  ineantur.  Nam  illud,  quod  priore 
libro  docuimus,  ut  admissarii  dexter  vel  etiam  sinister 
vinculo  testiculos  obligetur,  in  magnis  gregibus 
operosum  est. 

13  Post  feturam  deinde  longinquae  regionis  opilio 
villicus  fere  omnem  sobolem  pastioni  ^  reservat ;  sub- 
urbanae,  teneros  agnos,  dum  adhuc  herbae  sunt 
expertes,  lanio  tradit,  quoniam  et  parvo  sumptu 
devehuntur,  et  iis  submotis,  fructus  lactis  ex  matribus 
non  minor  ^  percipitur.  Submitti  tamen  etiam  in 
vicinia   urbis   quintum   quemque  ^   oportebit.     Nam 

14  vernaculum  pecus  peregrino  longe  est  utilius :  nee 
committi  debet,  ut  ^  totus  grex  effetus  '  senectute 
dominum  destituat :  cum  praesertim  boni  pastoris 
vel  prima  cura  sit  annis  omnibus  in  demortuarum 
vitiosarumque  ovium  locum  totidem  vel  etiam  plura 
capita  substituere :  quoniam  saepe  frigorum  atque 
hiemis  saevitia  pastorem  decipit,  et  eas  oves  ^  in- 
terimit,  quas  ille  tempore  autumni  ratus  adhuc  esse  ^ 

15  tolerabiles,  non  submoverat.  Quo  magis  etiam 
propter  hos  casus,  nisi  quae  validissima  ^°  non  ^^  com- 

1  et  SAac. 

*  ratione  a  :   -em  SA. 
'  pastioni  8  :   -e  Aac. 

*  minor  ac  :   mino  A  :   orn.  8. 

*  quicumq;^.  •  ut  5  :  om.  Aac. 
'  eflectus  Aac  :  effectu  8. 

*  eas  oves  Aid.  :   exe  ovis  8  :   ex  eo  vix  Aac. 

*  esse  aS*  :  essem  8^ A. 
'"  validissimo  SAac. 

^^  non  Sa  :  anon  A  :  anno  c, 


BOOK  VII.  III.  12-15 

phenomena,  advises  that  in  the  breeding  season  we 
should  look  out  for  breezes  from  the  north  on  dry 
days,  so  as  to  pasture  the  flock  facing  this  wind,  and 
that  the  male  should  cover  the  female  looking  in  that 
direction;  if,  on  the  other  hand,  female  births  are 
desired,  we  should  seek  for  southern  breezes,  so  that 
the  ewes  may  be  covered  in  the  same  manner.  The 
device,  which  was  described  in  the  preceding  book," 
of  tying  up  the  right  or  left  testicle  of  the  ram  with  a 
band,  is  difficult  to  carry  out  in  large  flocks. 

After  the  lambing  season  the  bailiff  in  charge  of  13 
the  sheep  on  an  outlying  estate  reserves  almost  all  the 
young  offspring  for  pasture  ;  and  in  a  section  near  town 
hands  over  the  tender  lambs,  before  they  have  begun 
to  graze,  to  the  butcher,  since  it  costs  only  a  little  to 
convey  them  to  the  town  and  also,  when  they  have 
been  taken  away,  no  slighter  profit  is  made  out  of 
the  milk  from  their  mothers.  Even  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  a  town,  however,  one  lamb  in  five  will  have  to 
be  left  with  its  mother,  for  an  animal  born  on  the 
spot  is  much  more  profitable  than  one  broiight  from  a 
distance,  nor  ought  the  mistake  be  made  of  letting  14 
the  whole  flock  become  exhausted  by  age  and  leave 
the  owner  without  any  stock,  especially  as  it  is  the 
first  duty  of  a  good  shepherd  every  year  to  substitute 
the  same  number  of  sheep,  or  even  more,  in  place  of 
those  which  have  died  or  are  diseased,  since  the 
severity  of  the  cold  and  winter  often  surprises  the  shep- 
herd and  causes  the  death  of  those  ewes  which  he  had 
failed  to  remove  from  the  flock  in  the  autumn  because 
he  thought  them  still  able  to  stand  the  cold.  These 
mishaps  are  also  further  reason  why  no  ewe,  unless  it  15 
is  very  strorig,  should  be  caught  unprepared  by  winter 
"Book  VI.  28. 



prehendatur  hieme,  novaque  pi-ogenie  repleatur 
Humerus.  Quod  qui  faciet,  servare  debebit,  ne 
minori  quadrimae,  neve  ei,  quae  excessit  annos  octo, 
prolem  submittat.  Neutra  enim  aetas  ad  educan- 
dum  est  idonea :  turn  etiam  quod  ex  vetere  materia 
nascitur,  plerumque  congeneratum  parentis  senium  ^ 

16  refert.  Nam  vel  sterile  vel  imbecillum  est.  Partus 
vero  incientis  ^  pecoris  non  secus  quam  obstetricum 
more  custodiri  debet.  Neque  enim  aliter  hoe 
animal  quam  muliebris  sexus  enititur,  saepiusque 
etiam,  quando  ^  est  omnis  rationis  ignarum,  laborat  in 
partu.  Quare  veterinariae  medicinae  prudens  esse 
debet  pecoris  magister,  ut,  si  res  exigat,  vel  integrum 
conceptum,  cum  transversus  haeret  locis  genitalibus, 
extrahat,  vel  ferro  divisum  citra  matris  perniciem 
partibus  educat,'*  quod  Graeci  vocant  efJL^pvovXKelv. 

17  Agnus  autem,  cum  est  editus,  erigi  debet,  atque 
uberibus  admjveri,  tum  ^  etiam  eius  diductum  ^  os 
pressis  humectare  papillis,  ut  condiscat  maternum 
trahere  alimentum.  Sed  prius  quam  hoc  fiat,  exi- 
guum  lactis  emulgendum  '  est,  quod  pastores  colos- 
trum vocant :  ea  nisi  aliquatenus  emittitur,  nocet 
agno  qui  primo  biduo  ^  quo  natus  est,  cum  matre 
claudatur,  ut  et  ea  pai-tum  suum  foveat,  et  ille  ma- 

18  trem  agnoscere  condiscat.  Mox  deinde  quamdiu  non 
lascivit,  obscuro  et  calido  septo  ^  custodiatur ;  postea 

^  senium  S^  :   se  nimiu  S'^Ac. 

*  incientis  Ursinus  :   incipientis  codd. 

*  quanrlo  Richter  :   quanto  frior.  edd. 

*  educat  8  :   ducat  Aa  :  duca  c. 
'  tum  S  :   cum  Aac. 

*  diductum  S  :   de-  Aac. 
'  emulgendus  SAac. 

8  primo  biduo  Heinsius  ;   moviduo  /SMc. 

*  septo  Sa  :  septe  Ac, 


BOOK  VII.  III.  15-18 

and  why  the  number  should  be  made  up  with 
young  stock.  Whoever  is  going  to  follow  this 
system  will  have  to  take  care  not  to  put  a  lamb 
under  a  ewe  which  is  less  than  four  years  or 
more  than  eight  years  old,  for  a  ewe  of  neither  of  these 
ages  is  fit  to  bring  up  its  young ;  moreover,  the  off- 
spring of  aged  stock  generally  reproduces  the  qualities 
of  old  age  inherited  from  its  parents,  being  either 
sterile  or  weakly.  The  delivery  of  a  pregnant  ewe  16 
should  be  watched  over  with  as  much  care  as  mid- 
wives  exercise ;  for  this  animal  produces  its  offspring 
just  in  the  same  way  as  a  woman,  and  its  labour  is 
often  even  more  painful  since  it  is  devoid  of  all 
reasoning.  Hence  the  owner  of  a  flock  ought  to  have 
some  knowledge  of  veterinary  medicine,  so  that,  if 
circumstances  require  it,  when  the  foetus  becomes 
stuck  crosswise  in  the  genital  organs,  he  may  either 
extract  it  whole,  or  be  able  to  remove  it  from  the 
womb,  after  dividing  it  with  a  knife  without  causing 
the  mother's  death — an  operation  which  the  Greeks 
call  embryulkein.'^  The  lamb,  when  it  has  been  17 
brought  forth,  ought  to  be  set  upon  its  feet  and  put 
near  its  mother's  udder ;  then  its  mouth  should 
be  opened  and  moistened  by  pressing  the  mother's 
teats,  so  that  it  may  learn  to  derive  its  nourishment 
from  her.  But,  before  this  is  done,  a  little  milk  should 
be  drawn  off,  which  shepherds  call  "  biestings,"  for, 
if  this  is  not  to  some  extent  extracted,  it  does  harm 
to  the  lamb,  which  for  the  first  two  days  after  its 
birth  should  be  shut  up  with  its  mother,  so  that  she 
may  cherish  her  offspring,  and  that  it  may  learn  to 
know  her.  Then,  as  long  as  it  has  not  begun  to  frisk  18 
about,  it  should  be  kept  in  a  dark  and  warm  en- 

»  I.e.  extracting  the  embryo. 



luxuriantem  virgea  cum  comparibus  hara  ^  claudi 
oportebit,  ne  velut  puerili  nimia  exultatione  maces- 
cat  :     cavendumque    est,   ut    tenerior    separetur    a 

19  validioribus,  quia  robustus  angit  imbecillum,  Satis- 
que  ^  est  mane  prius  quami  grex  procedat  in  pascua; 
deinde  etiam  crepusculo  redeuntibus  saturis  ovibus 
admiscere  agnos.  Qui  cum  firmi  esse  coeperint,^ 
pascendi  sunt  intra  stabulum  cytiso,  vel  medica,* 
tum  etiam  furfuribus,  aut,  si  permittat  annona, 
farina  hordei  vel  ervi :  deinde,  ubi  convaluerint,  circa 
meridiem  pratis  aut  novalibus  ^  villae  continuis 
matres  admovendae  sunt,  et  septo  emittendi  agni, 
ut  condiscant  ®  foris  pasci. 

20  De  genere  pabuli  iam  et  ante  diximus,  et  nunc 
eorum,  quae  omissa  sunt,  meminerimus,  iucundis- 
simas  herbas  esse,  quae  aratro  proscissis  arvis 
nascantur ;  deinde  quae  pratis  uligine  carentibus ; 
palustres  silvestresque  minime  idoneas  haberi.  Nee 
tamen  ulla  sunt  tam  blanda  pabula,  aut '  etiam 
pascua,  quorum  gratia  ^  non  exolescat  usu  continue, 
nisi  pecudum  fastidio  pastor  occurrerit  praebito  sale, 
quod  velut  ^  aquae  ac  pabuli  condimentum  per 
aestatem  canalibus  ligneis  impositum,  cum  e  pastu 
redierint  oves,  lambunt,  atque  eo  sapore  cupidinem 

21  bibendi  pascendique  concipiunt.     At  contra  penuriae 

^  area  SAac. 

*  satisque  S  :   atatimque  A^ac. 

*  coeperint  A  :   cepeiunt  S. 

*  mediraedicatum  S  :  medicatum  A. 

*  navalibus  SA . 

^  condiscant  c  :  -at  SAa. 
''  aut  S  :   ut  Aac. 

*  gratio  S'^A  :   ratio  S^. 

*  velut  aquae  ac  Lundstrom  ;   vel  atquae  ac  S ;    vel  atq ; 
A  Roc. 


BOOK  VII.  HI.  18-21 

closure ;  afterwards,  when  it  begins  to  be  sportive,  it 
will  have  to  be  shut  up  with  the  lambs  of  its  own  age 
in  a  pen  fenced  with  osiers,  so  that  it  may  not  become 
thin  from  what  we  may  call  too  much  youthful 
frolicking,  and  care  must  be  taken  to  separate  a 
more  tender  lamb  from  the  stronger  ones,  because  the 
robust  torments  the  feeble.  It  is  enough  to  make  this 
separation  in  the  morning  before  the  flock  goes  out  to 
pasture,  and  then  at  dusk  to  let  the  lambs  mingle  with  19 
the  ewes  when  they  return  home  after  eating  their 
fill.  When  the  lambs  begin  to  get  strong,  they  should 
be  fed  in  the  folds  with  shrub-trefoil  or  lucerne,  and 
also  ^vith  bran,  or,  if  the  price  permits,  with  flour  of 
barley  or  of  bitter-vetch.  Afterwards,  when  they 
have  reached  their  full  strength,  their  mothers  should 
be  brought  about  mid-day  to  the  meadows  or  fallow 
lands  adjoining  the  farm  and  the  lambs  released 
from  their  pen,  so  that  they  may  learn  to  feed  outside. 

Concerning  the  nature  of  their  food  we  have  20 
already  spoken  before  and  now  call  to  mind  what 
was  not  mentioned,  namely,  that  the  vegetation  which 
is  most  acceptable  is  that  which  comes  up  when  the 
fields  have  received  their  first  ploughing ;  the  next 
best  is  that  which  grows  in  meadows  which  are  free 
from  marsh  ;  boggy  and  wooded  lands  are  considered 
least  suitable.  There  is,  however,  no  fodder  or  even 
pasturage  so  agreeable  that  the  pleasure  which  it 
gives  does  not  grow  stale  with  continuous  use,  unless 
the  shepherd  counteracts  this  aversion  of  his  sheep 
by  providing  salt.  This  is  placed  in  wooden  troughs 
during  the  summer  to  serve  as  a  kind  of  seasoning  in 
their  water  and  fodder  and  the  sheep  lick  it  up  when 
they  return  from  the  pasture,  and  the  taste  of  it 
makes  them  conceive  a  desire  to  eat  and  drink.    But  21 



hiemis  succurritur  obiectis  intra  tectum  per  prae- 
sepia  cibis.  Aluntur  autem  commodissime  repositis 
ulmeis  vel  ex  fraxino  ^  frondibus,  vel  autumnali  faeno, 
quod  cordum  vocatur.     Nam  id  mollius  et  ob  hoc 

22  iucundius  est,  quam  maturum,  Cytiso  quoque  et 
sativa  vicia  ^  pulcherrime  pascuntur.  Necessariae 
tamen,  ubi  cetera  defecerunt,  etiam  ex  leguminibus 
paleae.  Nam  per  se  hordeum,  vel  fresa  cum  faba 
cicercula  sumptuosior  est,  quam  ut  suburbanis 
regionibus  salubri  pretio  ^  possit  praeberi :  sed 
sicubi  vilitas  ^  permittit,^  haud  dubie  ^  sunt  optima. 

23  De  temporibus  autem  pascendi,  et  ad  '  aquam  du- 
cendi  per  aestatem  non  aliter  sentio,  quam  ut  pro- 
didit  Maro : 

Luciferi  primo  cum  sidere  frigida  rura 
Carpamus,     dum     mane     novum,     dum    gramina 

Et  ros  in  tenera  pecori  gratissimus  herba, 
Inde,  ubi  quarta  sitim  caeli  coUegerit  hora, 
Ad  puteos,  aut  alta  greges  ad  stagna  .  .  . 

perducamus,  medioque  die,  ut  idem,  ad  vallem, 

Sicubi  magna  lovis  antiquo  robore  quercus 
Ingentes  tendit  ramos,  aut  sicubi  nigrum, 
Ilicibus  crebris  sacra  nemus  accubat  umbra. 

24  Rursus    deinde   iam   mitigato    vapore    compellamus 

^  fragino  SA. 

^  vicia  A  :  vitia  Sac. 

'  potio  SAac.  *  si  cubilitas  SA. 

*  perraittit  S  :   mittit  AB. 

•  dubie  S  :    dubium  Aac. 
''  ad  om.  SAB. 


BOOK  VII.  in.  21-24 

on  the  other  hand  the  lack  of  food  in  winter  is  relieved 
by  putting  food  for  them  under  cover  in  their  folds. 
They  can  be  most  conveniently  fed  on  leaves  of  elm 
or  ash  which  have  been  kept  in  store  or  on  autumn 
hay,  which  is  called  the  "  after-crop  "  ;  for  it  is  softer 
and  therefore  pleasanter  than  the  early  crop.  Shrub-  22 
trefoil  and  cultivated  vetch  also  make  excellent 
fodder ;  but,  when  all  else  has  failed,  chaff  of  dried 
pulse  must  be  used  as  a  last  resort,  for  barley  by  itself 
or  chickling-vetch  crushed  with  beans  is  too  ex- 
pensive to  be  provided  at  a  reasonable  price  in  dis- 
tricts near  towns ;  but,  wherever  their  cheapness 
allows,  they  are  undoubtedly  the  best  food.  As  for  23 
the  times  at  which  sheep  ought  to  be  fed  and  taken 
to  water  during  the  summer,  my  opinion  is  the  same 
as  that  delivered  by  Maro  : 

At  Lucifer's  first  rising  let  us  haste 
To  the  cool  fields,  while  yet  the  dawn  is  new, 
And  turf  still  hoary,  and  on  tender  grass 
The  dew  is  sweetest  to  the  feeding  herd. 
Then,  when  the  sky's  fourth  hour  brings  thirst  to  all, 
Let's    lead    the    flocks    to    wells    and    deep-dug 

and  in  the  middle  of  the  day,  as  the  same  poet  says, 
let  us  conduct  them  to  a  valley. 

Where  haply  Jove's  great  oak  with  hardwood  old 
Stretches  its  giant  branches  or  a  grove 
Black    with    thick    holm-oaks    broods    with    holy 
shade. '' 

Then,  when  the  heat  is  abated,  let  us  again  conduct  24 

»  VergU,  Oeorg.  III.  324  ff.  »  Ih.,  332-334. 



ad  1  aquam — etiam  per  aestatem  id  faciendum  est — 
et  iterum  ad  pabula  ^  producamus. 

Solis  ad  occasum,  cum  frigidus  aera  vesper 
Temperat,  et  saltus  reficit  iam  roscida  luna. 

Sed  observandum  est  sidus  aestatis  per  emersum 
Caniculae  ut  ante  meridiem  grex  in  occidentem 
spectans  agatur  et  in  eam  partem  progrediatur, 
post  meridiem  in  orientem.  Siquidem  plurimum 
refert,  ne  pascentium  capita  sint  adversa  soli,  qui 
plerumque  nocet  animalibus  oriente  praedicto  sidere. 

25  Hieme  et  vere  matutinis  temporibus  intra  septa 
contineantur,  dum  dies  arvis  gelicidia  detrahat. 
Nam  pruinosa  herba  pecudi  gravedinem  ^  creat, 
ventremque  *  proluit.  Quare  etiam  frigidis  humi- 
disque  temporibus  anni  semel  die  ^  potestas  aquae 
facienda  est. 

26  Turn  qui  sequitur  gregem  circumspectus  ac  vigilans 
(id  quod  omnibus  et  omnium  quadrupedum  custo- 
dibus  praecipitur)  magna  dementia  mioderetur ; 
Idemque  ^  propior  '  quia  ^  silent,  et  in  agendis  re- 
cipiendisque  ovibus  adclamatione  ac  baculo  minetur : 
nee  unquam  telum  emittat  in  eas :  neque  ab  his 
longius  recedat :  nee  aut  recubet,^  aut  considat. 
Nam    nisi    procedit,    stare    debet,    quandoquidem 

^,ad  om.  SAac.  ^  in  pabula  S  :  pabulo  AB. 

'  glaudigine  S  :  glaudinem  A. 

*  ventem  quae  S'^A  ^ :  ventrem  S^. 

*  die  Ursinus  :   ei  SA  R. 

«  -que  add.  ed.  pr.  '  proprior  SAR. 

«  -que  8AE.  »  recavet  SAR. 

'  Vergil,  Oeorg.  Ill,  336  f. 

'  The  text  here  gives  no  satisfactory  sense  and  is  certainly 
corrupt.     The  MS.  reading  proprior  is  meaningless  and  propior 


BOOK  VII.  HI.  24-26 

them  to  the  Avater  (and  this  must  be  done  even  in  the 
summer)  and  again  drive  them  back  to  the  pasture, 

Till  sun-set,  when  chill  evening  cools  the  air 
And  Luna's  dews  the  thirsty  glades  refresh.** 

But  about  the  time  when  the  Dogstar  shows  itself, 
we  must  carefully  observe  the  position  of  the  sun  in 
summer,  so  that  before  mid-day  the  flock  may  be 
driven  facing  the  west  and  may  advance  in  that 
direction,  but  that  after  mid-day  it  may  be  driven 
towards  the  east,  since  it  is  of  great  importance  that 
their  heads,  as  they  graze,  should  not  face  the  sun, 
which  is  generally  harmful  to  animals  at  the  rising  of 
the  aforesaid  constellation.  In  winter  and  spring  25 
the  sheep  should  be  kept  in  their  pens  during  the 
morning  hours  until  the  sun  removes  the  rime  from 
the  fields,  for  grass  with  hoar-frost  upon  it  causes 
catarrh  in  cattle  and  loosens  the  bowels ;  wherefore 
also  in  cold  and  damp  seasons  of  the  year  they  must 
be  given  the  opportunity  of  drinking  only  once  a  day. 

He  who  follows  the  flock  should  be  observant  and  26 
vigilant — a  precept  which  applies  to  every  guardian 
of  every  kind  of  four-footed  animal — and  should  be 
gentle  in  his  management  of  them  and  also  keep 
close  to  them,  because  they  are  silent,^  and  when 
driving  them  out  or  bringing  them  home,  he  should 
threaten  them  by  shouting  or  with  his  staff  but  never 
cast  any  missile  at  them,  nor  should  he  withdraw  too 
far  from  them  nor  should  he  lie  or  sit  down ;  for 
unless  he  is  advancing  he  should  stand  upright,  because 
the  duty  of  a  guardian  calls  for  a  lofty  and  com- 

is  scarcely  better.  A  somewhat  different  line  of  thought  is 
contained  in  the  emendation  idemque  pronior  quam  silena 
suggested  by  Richter  {Hermes  LXXX,  213). 



custodis  officium  sublimem  celsissimamque  oculorum 
veluti  speculam  desiderat,  ut  neque  tardiores  et 
gravidas,  dum  cunctantur,^  neque  agiles  et  fetas, 
dum  procurrunt,  separari  ^  a  ceteris  sinat ;  ne  fur, 
aut  bestia  ^  hallucinantem  pastorem  decipiat.  Sed 
haec  communia  fere  sunt  in  omni  pecore  ovillo. 
Nunc  quae  sunt  generosi  propria  dicemus. 

IV.  Graeeum  pecus,  quod  plerique  Tarentinum 
voeant,  nisi  cum  domini  praesentia  est,  vix  expedit 
haberi:  siquidem  et  curam  et  cibum  maiorem  de- 
siderat. Nam  cum  sit  universum  genus  lanigerum 
ceteris  pecudibus  mollius,  tum  ex  omnibus  Tarenti- 
num est  mollissimum,  quod  nullam  domini  aut 
magistrorum  ineptiam  sustinet,  multoque  minus 
avaritiam;  nee  aestus,  nee  frigoris  patiens.  Raro 
foris,  plerumque  domi  alitur,  et  est  avidissimum  cibi ; 
cui  si  quid  *  detrahitur  fraude  villici,^  clades  sequitur 
gregem.  Singula  capita  per  hiemem  recte  pascuntur 
ad  praesepia  tribus  hordei  vel  fresae  cum  suis  valvulis 
fabae,  aut  cicerculae  quattuor  sextariis,  ita  ut  et 
aridam  frondem  praebeas,^  aut  siccam  vel  viridem 
medicam  cytisumve,  tum  etiam  cordi  faeni  septena 
pondo,  aut  leguminum  paleas  adfatim.  Minimus 
agnis  vendundis  in  hac  pecude,  nee  uUus  lactis  re- 
ditus  haberi  potest.  Nam  et  qui  submoveri  debent,' 
paucissimos  post  dies  quam  editi  sunt,  immaturi  fere 

^  cunctantur  a  :   cunctatur  SAc. 

*  separare  SAR. 

*  bestias  A  :   bestius  S. 

*  si  quid  5  :  om.  AR. 

'  vilici  8a  :   vilicis  Ac. 

*  praebeat  SAR.  ^  debet  SAac. 


BOOK  VII.  III.  26-iv.  3 

manding  elevation  from  which  the  eyes  can  see  as 
from  a  watch-tower,  so  that  he  may  prevent  the 
slower,  pregnant  ewes,  through  delaying,  and  those 
which  are  active  and  have  already  borne  their  young, 
through  hurrying  foi'ward,  from  becoming  separated 
from  the  rest,  lest  a  thief  or  a  wild  beast  cheat  the 
shepherd  while  he  is  day-dreaming.  These  precepts 
are  of  general  application  and  apply  to  sheep  of  all 
kinds ;  we  will  now  deal  with  some  points  which  are 
peculiar  to  the  best  breeds. 

IV.  It  is  scarcely  advantageous  to  keep  the  Greek  "  Coated ' 
breed,  which  most  people  call  the  Tarentine,  unless  ^^^®^p* 
the  owner  is  constantly  on  the  spot,  since  it  requires 
more  care  and  food  than  other  kinds.  For,  while  all 
the  sheep  which  are  kept  for  their  wool  are  more 
delicate  than  the  others,  the  Tarentine  breed  is 
particularly  so,  for  it  does  not  tolerate  any  careless- 
ness on  the  part  of  the  owner  or  shepherd,  much  less 
niggardliness,  nor  can  it  stand  heat  or  cold.  It  is  2 
seldom  fed  out  of  doors  but  generally  at  home,  and  is 
most  greedy  of  fodder  and,  if  the  bailiff  fraudulently 
abstracts  any  of  the  food,  disaster  overtakes  the  flock. 
During  the  winter,  when  the  sheep  are  fed  in  their 
pens,  a  satisfactory  diet  per  head  is  three  sextarii  of 
barley  or  of  beans  crushed  with  their  pods,  or  four 
sextarii  of  chickling-vetch  provided  you  also  supply 
them  with  dried  leaves  or  lucerne,  dry  or  fresh,  or 
shrub-trefoil ;  also  seven  pounds  of  hay  of  the  second 
crop  is  to  their  liking  or  plenty  of  pulse-chaff.  Only  3 
a  very  small  profit  can  be  made  by  selling  the  lambs 
of  this  kind  of  sheep  and  no  return  from  the  ewes' 
milk;  for  the  lambs  which  ought  to  be  taken  away 
from  their  mother  a  very  few  days  after  birth,  are 
generally  slaughtered  before  they  reach  maturity,  and 


VOL.  11.  K 


mactantur ;  orbaeque  natis  ^  suis  matres  alienae 
soboli  praebent  ubera :  quippe  singuli  agni  binis 
nutricibus  submittuntur,  nee  quiequam  subtrahi 
submissis  expedit,  quo  saturior  lactis  agnus  celeriter 
confirmetur,  et  parta  nutrici  consociata  minus 
laboret  in  educatione  fetus  sui.  Quam  ob  causam 
diligenti  cura  servandum  est,  ut  et  suis  quotidie 
matribus  et  alienis  non  amantibus  agni  subrumentur. 
Plures  autem  in  eiusmodi  gregibus  quam  in  liirtis 
masculos  enutrire  oportet.  Nam  prius  quam  feminas 
inire  possint  mares  castrati,  cum  bimatum  exple- 
verunt,^  enecantur,  et  pelles  eorum  propter  pulchri- 
tudinem  lanae  maiore  pretio  quam  alia  vellera 
mercantibus  traduntur.  Liberis  autem  campis  et 
omni  ^  surculo  ruboque  vacantibus  ovem  Graecam 
pascere  meminerimus,  ne,  ut  supra  dixi,  et  lana 
carpatur  et  tegumen.  Nee  tamen  ea  minus  sedulam 
curam  foris,  quia^  non  quotidie  procedit  in  pascua, 
sed  maiorem^  domesticam  postulat.  Nam  saepius 
detegenda  et  refrigeranda  est :  saepius  eius  lana 
diducenda,  vinoque  et  oleo  insuccanda,  nonnunquam 
etiam  tota  est  eluenda,  si  diei  permittit  apricitas : 
idque  ter  anno  fieri  sat  est.  Stabula  vero  frequenter 
everrenda  et  purganda,  humorque  omnis  urinae 
deverrendus  est,  qui  commodissime  siccatur  perfo- 
ratis  tabulis,  quibus  ovilia  consternuntur,  ut  grex 
supercubet.     Nee  tantum    caeno   aut  stercore,   sed 

^  nates  SA  :   nate  ac. 

^  expleverunt  A-a  :   expleverint  c  :   expluerunt  iS^*. 

*  omnis  SA. 

*  quia  addidi. 


BOOK  VII.  IV.  3-6 

their  dams,  deprived  of  their  own  lambs,  are  given 
the  oiFspring  of  others  to  suckle ;  for  each  single 
lamb  is  put  under  two  nurses  and  it  is  inexpedient 
that  it  should  be  deprived  of  any  of  their  milk,  that  so, 
receiving  a  more  satisfying  quantity  of  milk,  it  may 
quickly  grow  strong,  and  that  the  ewe  which  has 
borne  a  lamb,  having  a  nurse  to  share  her  duties,  may 
have  less  difficulty  in  bringing  her  offspring  up.  There- 
fore you  must  be  very  careful  to  see  that  the  lambs  are 
daily  put  to  the  udders  of  their  own  mothers  and  also  of 
strange  ewes  who  have  no  maternal  affection  for  them.  4 
But  in  flocks  of  this  kind  more  males  must  be  brought 
up  than  in  those  of  coarse-wooUed  sheep  ;  for  the  males 
are  castrated  before  they  can  be  mated,  when  they 
have  completed  two  years,  and  are  killed,  and  their 
skins  sold  to  dealers  at  a  much  higher  price  than 
other  fleeces  because  of  the  beauty  of  their  wool. 
We  shall  remember  to  feed  a  Greek  sheep  on  open 
fields  free  from  all  shoots  and  brambles,  lest,  as  I  have 
already  said,  its  wool  and  its  covering  be  torn  away. 
Nor,  because  it  does  not  go  out  to  pasture  every  day,  5 
does  it  require  less  but  more  diligent  care  at  home 
than  out  of  doors  ;  for  it  must  frequently  be  un- 
covered and  allowed  to  cool  and  its  wool  pulled  apart 
and  soaked  with  wine  and  oil.  Sometimes  too  the 
whole  animal  must  be  washed,  if  sunny  weather 
allows  it,  but  it  is  enough  to  do  this  three  times  a 
year.  The  fold  must  be  frequently  swept  and 
cleansed  and  all  moisture  due  to  urine  must  be 
brushed  away,  the  best  method  of  keeping  it  dry 
being  the  use  of  boards  with  holes  in  them  with 
which  the  sheep-folds  are  paved,  so  that  the  flock 
may  lie  down  on  them.     The  shelters  must  be  free  6 

*  maiorem  ed.  pr.  :  maioris  SAac. 



exitiosis  quoque  serpentibus  tecta  liberentur:  quod 
ut  fiat, 

Disce  et  odoratam  stabulis  incendere  cedrum, 
Galbaneoque  agitare  graves  nidore  chelydros. 
Saepe  sub  immotis  praesepibus,  aut  mala  tactu, 
Vipera  delituit,  caelumque  exterrita  fugit : 
Aut  tecto  assuetus  coluber. 

Quare,  ut  idem  iubet : 

cape  robora,  pastor, 
ToUentemique  minas,  et  sibila  colla  tumentem 

Vel  ne  istud  cum  periculo  facere  necesse  sit,  mulie- 
bres  capillos,^  aut  cervina  saepius  ure  cornua, 
quorum  odor  maxime  non  patitur  stabulis  praedic- 
tam  pestem  consistere. 

Tonsurae  certum  tempus  anni  per  omnes  regiones 
servari  non  potest,  quoniam  nee  ubique  tarde,  nee 
celeriter  aestas  ingruit :  et  est  modus  optimus  con- 
siderare  tempestates,  quibus  ovis  neque  frigus,  si 
lanam  detraxeris,  neque  aestum,  si  nondum  deton- 
deris,^  sentiat.  Verum  ea  quandoque  detonsa 
fuerit,  ungi  debet  tali  medicamine  :  succus  excocti  ^ 
lupini,  veterisque  vini  faex,  et  amurca  pari  mensura 
miscentur,  eoque  liquamine  tonsa  ovis  imbuitur,^  at 
que  ubi  per  triduum  dilibuto  tergore  medicamina  ^ 

^  capillos  S  :   capillus  Aac. 

*  detonseris  c  :   detoderis  S^  :   detonderis  S' :  detodoris  A, 
'  excocti  S^  :  excoleti  AS. 

*  imbuitur  A^B  :   inbitur  S^  :   imbitur  A^. 
^  medicamina  ^Z(2.  :  media  <S^i2. 

"  Galbanum  was  the  resinous  sap  of  an  umbelliferous  plant 
{Bitbon  gcUbanum)  growing  in  Syria. 


BOOK  VII.  IV.  6-8 

not  only  from  mud  and  ordure  but  also  from  deadly 
snakes ;  with  this  end  in  view, 

Learn  too  to  burn  the  fragrant  cedar-wood 
And  from  the  stalls  to  drive  dread  water-snakes 
With  fumes  of  Syrian  gum  ;  "  a  viper  oft, 
Dangerous  to  the  touch,  'neath  unmoved  pens 
Has  lurked  and,  frightened,  shunned  the  light  of 

Or  else  a  grass-snake  wont  to  haunt  the  shed.** 

Therefore,  at  the  bidding  of  the  same  poet, 

Seize,  shepherd, 
A  club  of  oak,  and  when  it  rears  its  head 
In  threatening  wise  and  swells  its  hissing  neck, 
Then  strike  it  down." 

Or,  to  avoid  the  necessity  of  this  dangerous  expedi- 
ent, burn  a  woman's  hair  continually  or  a  stag's  horn, 
the  odour  of  which  is  the  best  thing  to  prevent  this 
pestilential  creature  from  settling  in  the  sheep-folds. 

It  is  impossible  to  observe  in  all  regions  the  same  7 
fixed  time  of  year  for  shearing,  because  summer  does 
not  everywhere  advance  with  the  same  speed  or 
slowness.  The  best  plan  is  to  watch  carefully  for 
weather  when  the  sheep  will  not  feel  the  cold  if  you 
deprive  them  of  their  wool,  nor  the  heat  if  you  put 
off  shearing  them.  But,  whenever  a  sheep  has  been 
sheared,  it  must  be  anointed  with  the  following 
preparation  :  the  juice  of  boiled  lupines,  the  dregs  of 
old  wine  and  the  lees  of  olives  are  mixed  in  equal 
portions  and  the  sheep  is  soaked  with  this  liquid 
after  it  has  been  sheared,  and  when,  after  its  skin  8 
has   been   anointed   during  three   days   and  it   has 

*  Vergil,  Georg.  III.  414  ff.  «  Ih.,  419-421. 



perbiberit,  quarto  die,  si  est  vicinia  maris,  ad  litus 
deducta  mersatur :  si  minus,  caelestis  ^  aqua  sub 
dio  ^  salibus  in  hunc  usum  durata  paulum  decoquitur, 
eaque  grex  perluitur.  Hoc  modo  curatum  pecus 
toto  anno  scabrum  fieri  non  posse  Celsus  affirmat : 
nee  dubium  est,  quin  etiam  ob  eam  rem  lana  moUior 
atque  prolixior  renascatur. 

V.  Et  quoniam  censuimus  cultum  curamque  recte 
valentium,  nunc  quemadmodum  vitiis  aut  morbo 
laborantibus  subveniundum  sit,  praecipiemus  :  quan- 
quam  pars  haec  exordii  paene  tota  iam  exhausta  ' 
est,  cum  de  medicina  maioris  pecoris  priore  libro 
disputaremus.  Quia  *  cum  sit  fere  eadem  corporis 
natura  minorum  maiorumque  quadrupedum,  paucae 
parvaeque  morborum  et  remediorum  diflferentiae 
possunt  inveniri ;  quae  tamen  quantulaecunque 
sunt,  non  omittentur  a  nobis. 

Si  aegrotat  universum  pecus,  ut  et  ante  praece- 
pimus,  et  nunc,  quia  remur  esse  ^  maxime  salutare, 
iterum  adseveramus,  in  hoc  casu,  quod  est  remedium 
praesentissimum,  pabula  mutemus  et  aquationes, 
totiusque  regionis  alium  quaeramus  statum  caeli,  cu- 
remusque,  si  ex  calore  et  aestu  concepta  pestis 
invasit,  ut  opaca  rura :  si  invasit  frigore,  ut  eligantur 
aprica.  Sed  modice  ac  sine  festinatione  persequl 
pecus  oportebit,  ne  imbecillitas  eius  longis  itineribus 

^  si  minus  celestis  S  :  si  minusca  et  gustis  A. 

^  sub  dio  ed.  pr.  :   subsidio  SAB. 

'  exhausta  ed.  pr.  :   excausa  A^  :   exhausa  S  :   exausta  ac. 

*  qua  SAB. 

*  quia  remur  esse  S^  :  qui  aremus  res  se  iS^  :  quiremus 
resse  Aac. 

•  Book  VI.  6-19  and  30-35. 

BOOK  VII.  IV.  8-v.  3 

absorbed  this  preparation,  on  the  fourth  day,  if  the  sea 
is  near  at  hand,  the  sheep  should  be  driven  down  to 
the  shore  and  plunged  in ;  but,  if  this  is  impossible, 
rain-water,  after  being  hardened  for  this  purpose 
with  salt  in  the  open  air,  is  boiled  for  a  short  time  and 
the  flock  thoroughly  washed  with  it.  Celsus  declares 
that  a  sheep  treated  in  this  manner  cannot  possibly 
suffer  from  scab  for  a  whole  year,  and  there  is  no 
doubt  that,  as  a  result,  its  wool  too  will  grow  again 
more  soft  and  luxuriant  than  before. 

V.  Since  we  have  now  considered  the  management  The  diseases 
and  care  which  sheep  require  when  in  good  health,  their  cure,"'^ 
we  will  now  give  directions  how  to  come  to  the  help 
of  those  which  are  suffering  from  ailments  or  diseases, 
although  almost  all  this  part  of  my  treatise  has 
already  been  entirely  exhausted  when  we  were 
discussing  in  the  previous  book  "  the  medical  treat- 
ment of  the  larger  cattle ;  for  since  the  physical 
nature  of  the  smaller  and  of  the  larger  quadrupeds 
is  practically  the  same,  only  a  few  trifling  differences 
are  to  be  found  in  their  diseases  and  the  remedies  of 
them ;  but,  however  unimportant  they  are,  we  will 
not  omit  them. 

If  the  whole  flock  is  sick,  we  again  prescribe  in  2 
this  case  also  as  the  most  efficacious  remedy  what  we 
directed  before,  because  we  regard  it  as  the  most 
salutary,  ntimely,  to  change  both  the  fodder  and  the 
watering-places  and  to  seek  another  climate  for  the 
grazing-ground  as  a  whole,  and  to  take  care  to  choose 
densely  shaded  country,  if  the  malady  which  has 
attacked  the  flock  is  the  result  of  heat,  but,  if  it  is  the 
result  of  cold,  to  choose  a  sunny  district.  But  it  will  3 
be  advisable  to  drive  the  flock  at  a  moderate  pace  and 
not  to  hurry  it  for  fear  of  aggravating  its  enfeebled 



aggravetur :  nee  tamen  in  totum  pigre  ae  segniter 
agere.  Nam  quiemadmodum  fessas  morbo  pecudes 
vehementer  agitare  et  extendere  non  eonvenit,  ita 
eonducit  mediocriter  exercere,  et  quasi  torpentes 
excitare,  nee  pati  veterno  eonsenescere  atque  ex- 
tingui.  Cum  deinde  grex  ad  locum  fuerit  perductus, 
in  lacinias  eolonis  ^  distribuatur.  Nam  partieulatim 
faeilius  quam  universus  convalescit,  sive  quia  ipsius 
morbi  halitus  minor  est  in  exiguo  numero,  seu  quia 
expeditius  eura  maior  adhibetur  paucioribus.  Haec 
ergo  et  reliqua,  ne  nunc  eadem  repetamus,  quae 
superiore  exordio  percensuimus,  observare  debemus 
si  universae  laborabunt :  ilia,  si  ^  singulae. 

Oves  frequentius,  quam  uUum  aliud  animal  in- 
festantur  ^  scabie :  quae  fere  nascitur,  sicut  noster 
memorat  poeta, 

Cum  frigidus  imber 

Altius  ad  vivum  persedit,  et  horrida  cano 

Bruma  gelu, 

vel  post  tonsuram,  si  remedium  praediciti  medica- 
minis  non  adhibeas,  si  aestivum  sudorem  mari  vel 
flumine  non  abluas,  si  tonsum  gregem  patiaris 
silvestribus  rubis  ac  spinis  sauciari,  si  stabulo  utaris, 
in  quo  mulae  aut  equi  aut  asini  steterunt :  praecipue 

^  coloniis  SAac. 

*  ilia  si  S  :  illas  in  Aac. 

3  infostantur  A^R  :   -atur  S  :   infertur  A^. 

«  Vergil,  Gecrg.  III.  441  f. 

BOOK  VII.  V.  3-5 

condition  with  long  journeys ;  on  the  other  hand  it 
should  not  be  driven  at  an  absolutely  slow  and 
sluggish  rate ;  for,  while  it  is  not  expedient  to  urge 
sheep  on  forcibly  when  they  are  worn  out  by  disease 
and  put  a  strain  upon  them,  yet  it  is  good  to  give 
them  moderate  exercise  and,  as  it  were,  to  rouse  them 
from  their  torpor  and  not  allow  them  to  lose  strength 
through  inactivity,  and  so  perish.  Next,  when  the 
flock  has  been  conducted  to  its  new  station,  it 
should  be  distributed  in  small  groups  amongst  the 
farmers ;  for  it  recovers  more  easily  when  it  is  4 
divided  up  than  when  it  is  kept  together,  either 
because  the  infectiousness  of  the  disease  itself  is  less 
in  a  small  number  or  because  a  more  effective  cure 
can  be  applied  more  expeditiously  to  fewer  victims. 
These  precepts,  then,  and  the  others  which  we  laid 
down  in  the  earlier  part  of  our  treatise  (to  avoid 
repeating  here  what  we  have  already  said)  should 
be  observed  when  the  whole  flock  is  sick ;  but  if  in- 
dividual animals  are  affected,  the  following  rules 
should  be  observed. 

Sheep   more   often   than   any   other   animals   are  5 
attacked  by  the  scab,  which  generally  occurs,  as  our 
poet  says," 

When  the  cold  shower  and  shivering  winter,  chill 
With  hoary  frost,  have  pierced  them  to  the  quick, 

or  else  after  they  have  been  sheared,  if  you  do  not 
apply  the  remedy  already  described,  or  if  you  do  not 
wash  out  the  summer  sweat  in  the  sea  or  in  a  river, 
or  if  you  allow  the  flock,  after  having  been  shorn,  to 
suffer  wounds  from  wild  brambles  or  thorns,  or  if  you 
are  using  a  pen  in  which  mules  or  horses  or  donkeys 
have   stood;    but,   above   all  things,   scantiness   of 



tamen  exiguitas  cibi  maciem,  macies  autem  scabiem 
facit.  Haec  ubi  coepit  irrepere,  sic  intelligitur : 
vitiosum  locum  pecudes  aut  morsu  scalpunt,  aut 
cornu  vel  ungula  tundunt,  aut  arbori  adfricant, 
parietibusve  ^  detergent :  quod  ubi  aliquam  facien- 
tem  videris,  comprehendere  oportebit,  et  lanam  ^ 
diducere  :  nam  subest  aspera  cutis,  et  velut  quaedam 
porrigo.^  Cui  primo  quoque  tempore  occurrendum 
est,  ne  totam  progeniem  coinquinet,  si  quidem 
celeriter  cum  et  alia  pecora,  tum  praecipue  oves 
contagione  vexentur.  Sunt  autem  complura  medi- 
camina,  quae  idcirco  enumerabimus,  non  quia 
cunctis  uti  necesse  sit,  sed  quoniam  nonnullis  re- 
gionibus  quaedam  reperiri  ^  nequeunt,  ut  ^  ex  plu- 
ribus  aliquod  inventum  remedio  sit.  Facit  autem 
commode  primum  ea  compositio,  quam  paulo  ante 
demonstravimus,  si  ad  faecem  et  amurcam  succum- 
que  decocti  lupini  misceas  portione  aequa  detritum 
album  elleborum.^  Potest  etiam  scabritiem  tollere 
succus  viridis  cicutae  :  quae  verno  tempore,  cum  iam 
caulem  nee  adhuc  semina  facit,  decisa  contunditur, 
atque  expressus  humor  eius  fictili  vase  reconditur, 
duabus  urnis  liquoris  admixto  salis  torridi  semodio. 
Quod  ubi  factum  est,  oblitum  vas  in  stercilino  ' 
defoditur,  ac  toto  anno  fimi  vapore  concoctum  mox 
promitur,^  tepefactumque  medicamentum  illinitur 
scabrae  parti,  quae  tamen  prius  aspera  testa  defricta 

*  parietibus  vel  SAR. 

*  lanam  diducere  Aid,  :    lana  rudi  deucere  S  :    lana  rudi 
diicere  Aac. 

*  porrigo  S^  :   prurigo  R. 

*  repperiri  S'  :   repperi  S^A  :  reperiri  R. 
^  ut  om.  SAR. 

*  eleborum  c,  ed.  pr.  :   helloboreos  S  :   -em  A^ :  -um  A^. 
'  intercilino  (S^i  :  instercilino  ^^ :   in  sterquilino  S^ 


BOOK  VII.  V.  5-8 

fodder  causes  emaciation,  and  emaciation  causes  the 
scab.  This  disease  can  be  diagnosed  in  the  following  6 
way  when  it  begins  to  creep  in :  the  sheep  either 
gnaw  the  part  aflfected,  or  strike  it  with  horn  or  hoof, 
or  rub  it  against  a  tree  or  wipe  it  upon  the  walls. 
When  you  see  any  sheep  acting  in  these  ways,  it  will 
be  best  to  take  hold  of  the  animal  and  draw  its  wool 
apart,  for  there  is  a  rough  skin  underneath  it  and  a 
kind  of  crust.  This  must  be  treated  at  the  first  possi- 
ble opportunity,  lest  it  infect  the  whole  flock,  since, 
while  other  cattle  are  readily  attacked  by  contagious 
disease,  sheep  are  particularly  so.  There  are,  how-  7 
ever,  several  remedies,  which  we  will  on  this  account 
enumerate,  not  because  it  is  necessary  to  use  them 
all  at  one  time  but  in  order  that,  since  some  of  them 
are  not  to  be  met  with  in  certain  regions,  one  out  of 
many  may  be  found  in  order  to  effect  a  cure,  first, 
the  preparation  which  I  explained  just  now  can  be 
used  with  advantage,  namely,  a  mixture  in  equal 
portions  of  crushed  white  hellebore  with  lees  of 
wine  and  dregs  of  oil  and  the  juice  of  boiled  lupine. 
The  juice  of  green  hemlock  can  also  be  used  to  remove  8 
scabbiness ;  this  plant  is  cut  in  spring-time,  when  it 
is  already  producing  stalk  but  not  seeds,  and 
crushed,  and  the  juice  is  pressed  out  and  stored  in  an 
earthenware  vessel,  half  a  modius  of  dried  salt  being 
mixed  with  two  urnae  of  the  liquid.  Next  the  vessel 
is  sealed  up  and  buried  in  a  dung-pit  and,  after  having 
matured  for  a  whole  year  in  the  heat  of  the  dung,  it 
is  taken  out  and  the  preparation  is  heated  and 
smeared  over  the  part  affected  by  scab  after  it  has 
been  previously  reduced  to  a  state  of  soreness  by 
being  rubbed  with  a  rough  potsherd  or  a  piece  of 

*  promittitur  »S^^^. 



9  vel  pumice  redulceratur.  Eidem  remedio  est  amurca 
duabus  partibus  decocta :  item  vetus  hominis  urina 
testis  candentibus  inusta.  Quidam  ^  tamen  hanc 
ipsam  2  subiectis  ignibus  quinta  parte  minuunt, 
admiscentque  pari  mensura  succum  viridis  cicutae : 
deinde    singulis    urnis    eius  ^    liquaminis  *     singulos 

10  fricti  salis  sextarios  ^  infundunt.  Facit  etiam  sul- 
furis  triti  et  picis  liquidae  modus  aequalis  igne  lento  ^ 
coctus.  Sed  Georgicum  carmen  affirmat  nullam  esse 
praestantiorem  medicinam, 

Quam  si  quis  ferro  potuit  rescindere  summum 
Ulceris  os  :  alitur  vitium,  vivitque  tegendo. 

Itaque  reserandum  est,  et  ut  cetera  vulnera,  medica- 
mentis  curandum.  Subicit  deinde  aeque  prudenter, 
febricitantibus  ovibus  de  talo  vel  inter  duas  ungulas 
sanguinem  emitti '  oportere  :  ^  nam  plurimum,  inquit^ 

Profuit  incensos  aestus  avertere,  et  inter 
Ima  ferire  pedis  salientem  sanguine  venanti. 

11  Nos  etiam  sub  oculis  et  de  auribus  sanguinem  de- 
trahimus.  Clodigo  ^°  quoque  dupliciter  infestat  ^^ 
ovem,  sive  cum  subluvies  atque  intertrigo  in  ipso 
discrimine  ungulae  nascitur:    seu  cum  idem  locus 

1  quadam  SAR. 

*  hac  ipsa  SA  :  hanc  ipsam  a :  hac  ipsam  c. 

'  singulis  urnis  eius  Lundstrom  ex  cit.  Palladii;    singularis 
triti  et  picis  eius  S  :   singularis  triti  et  picis  A. 

*  liqxiaminis  A^. 

^  fricti  sali  sestarios  S^  :    frictis  aliis  extarios  A^ :    fruti 
salis  sextarios  a. 

*  lento  S  :  lente  AR. 

'  mitti  SA.  8  oportet  SAR. 

*  id  quid  S  :   id  quod  A^ac. 

>"  clodigo  iStennMwgr :  Clodi  5  :  cludi^^:  cladi  ac. 
11  infestato  SR. 


BOOK  VII.  V.  8-II 

pumice-stone.  The  same  disease  is  also  treated  with  9 
oil-lees  boiled  down  by  two-thirds,  and  also  with 
stale  human  urine  in  which  red-hot  tiles  have  been 
plunged.  Some  people,  however,  put  the  urine 
itself  upon  the  fire  and  reduce  its  volume  by  one- 
fifth  and  mix  with  it  an  equal  quantity  of  the  juice 
of  green  hemlock  and  then  pour  into  each  urn  of 
this  liquid  a  sextarius  of  crushed  salt.**  An  equal  10 
quantity  of  ground  sulphur  and  liquid  pitch  boiled 
over  a  slow  fire  has  a  good  effect.  A  passage  in  the 
Georgics,  however,  declares  that  there  is  no  more 
sovereign  remedy. 

Than  if  with  knife  one  cuts  the  ulcer's  head ; 
The  scab,  if  covered,  gains  fresh  food  and  life.* 

That  is  why  it  must  be  opened  and  treated,  like  other 
wounds,  with  medicaments.  The  poet  presently 
adds,  with  equal  wisdom,  that,  when  sheep  are  in  a 
state  of  fever,  they  should  be  bled  either  from  the 
pastern  or  between  the  two  parts  of  the  hoof;  for,  as 
he  says, 

It  oft  has  greatly  helped  to  keep  away 
The  kindled  flames  of  fever,  if  you  strike 
The  vein  which  throbs  with  blood   beneath  the 

We  also  draw  off  blood  beneath  the  eyes  and  from  11 
the  ears.     Lameness  also  troubles  sheep  in  two  ways, 
either  when  fouling  or  galling  occurs  in  the  actual 
division  of  the  hoof,  or  when  the  same  place  harbours 

"  The  reading  here  is  uncertain,  but  triti  et  picis  has  pro- 
bably come  in  from  the  following  sentence. 
"  lb.  453  f. 
'  lb.  459  f. 



tuberculum  habet,   cuius   media  fere   parte   canino 

12  similis  extat  pilus,  eique  ^  subest  vermiculus.  Sub- 
luvies  et  intertrigo  pice  per  se  liquida,  vel  alumine  et 
sulfure  atque  aceto  mixtis  litae  curentur,  vel  tenero  ^ 
punico  malo,  prius  quam  grana  faciat,  cum  alumine 
pinsito,  superfusoque  aceto  vel  aeris  rubigine  in- 
friata,^  vel  combusta  galla  cum  austero  vino  levigata 

13  et  inlita.  Tuberculum,  cui  subest  vermiculus,  ferro 
quam  cautissime  circumsecari  oportet,  ne,  dum 
amputatur,  etiam,  quod  infra  est,  animal  vulnere- 
mus :  id  enim  cum  sauciatur,  venenatam  saniem 
mittit,  qua  respersum  *  vulnus  ita  insanabile  facit, 
ut  totus  pes  amputandus  sit :  sed  cum  tuberculum 
diligenter  circumcideris,  candens  sebum  vulneri  per 
ardentem  tedam  instillato. 

14  Ovem  pulmonariam  similiter  ut  suem  curari  con- 
venit,  inserta  per  auriculam,  quam  veterinarii  con- 
siliginem  vocant :  de  ea  iam  diximus,  cum  maioris 
pecoris  medicinam  traderemus.^  Sed  is  *  morbus 
aestate  plerumque  concipitur,  si  defuit  aqua,  propter 
quod    vaporibus    omni    quadrupedi    largius    bibendi 

15  potestas  danda  est,  Celso  placet,  si  est  in  pulmo- 
nibus  vitium,  acris  aceti  tantum  dare,  quantum  ovis 
sustinere  possit :  vel  humanae  veteris  urinae  tepe- 
factae  trium  heminarum  instar  per  sinistram  narem 

^  ei  quae  SA. 

^  tenero  ed.  pr.  :   tero  S^Aac  :   austero  5*. 

*  infriata  ed.  pr.  :   infrita  S^AE. 

*  repressum  AR  :   res  pressu  S. 

5  traderemus  S'^ :   trademus  S^  :   tradimus  Aa. 

*  is  ac  :  his  SA, 

"  Pulmonaria  officinalis. 
"  Book  VI.  5.  3;   14.  1. 

BOOK  VII.  V.  11-15 

a  tubercule  from  about  the  middle  of  which  a  hair 
projects  like  that  of  a  dog,  which  has  a  small  worm 
beneath  it.  Fouling  and  galling  are  removed  by  12 
being  anointed  with  liquid  pitch  by  itself  or  with 
alum  and  sulphur  and  vinegar  mixed  together,  or 
young  pomegranate,  before  it  forms  its  seeds, 
crushed  up  with  alum  and  with  vinegar  poured  over 
it,  or  copper-rust  sprinkled  over  it,  or  else  burnt  oak- 
apples  pulverized  and  mixed  with  rough  wine  and 
smeared  on  the  sore.  A  tubercule  which  has  a  worm  13 
inside  it  should  be  cut  round  with  a  knife  with  the 
greatest  possible  care,  lest,  in  the  course  of  cutting, 
we  should  also  wound  the  part  of  the  animal  which  is 
underneath  it ;  for,  if  this  is  damaged,  it  discharges 
poisonous  matter  and,  if  this  is  sprinkled  over  the 
wound,  it  makes  it  so  difficult  to  heal  that  the  whole 
foot  has  to  be  amputated.  But  when  you  have  carefully 
cut  round  the  tubercule,  burning  fat  should  be  made 
to  drip  over  the  wound  by  means  of  a  lighted 

Any  sheep  which  is  suffering  from  a  disease  of  the  14 
lungs  should  be  treated  in  the  same  way  as  a  pig  is 
treated  for  the  same  disease,  by  the  insertion  through 
the  ear  of  what  the  veterinary  surgeons  call  lungwort." 
We  have  already  spoken  ^  of  this  plant  when  we  dealt 
with  the  treatment  of  the  larger  cattle.  This  disease 
is  usually  contracted  in  the  summer  if  the  water  has 
been  in  short  supply,  and  for  this  reason  opportunity 
must  be  given  to  all  quadrupeds  of  drinking  more 
freely  in  hot  weather.  Celsus  is  of  opinion  that,  if  15 
there  is  trouble  in  the  lungs,  one  should  give  the 
sufferer  as  much  sour  vinegar  as  it  can  stand,  or  else 
pour  down  the  left  nostril  through  a  small  horn  about 
three  heminae  of  stale  human  urine  which  has  been 



corniculo    infundere,     atque     axungiae     sextantem 
faucibus  inserere. 

16  Est  etiani  insanabilis  sacer  ignis,  quam  pusulam  ^ 
vocant  pastores :  ea  nisi  compescitur  intra  primam 
pecudem,  quae  tali  malo  correpta  est,  universum  gre- 
gem  contagione  prosternit,  si  ^  quidem  nee  medica- 
mentorum  nee  ferri  remedia  patitur.  Nam  paene  ad 
omnem  tactum  exeandescit :  sola  tamen  fomenta 
non  aspernatur  laetis  caprini,  quod  infusum  tactu 
suo  velut^  eblanditur*  igneam  saevitiam,  difFerens 

17  magis  occidionena  gregis,  quam  prohibens.  Sed 
Aegyptiae  gentis  auctor  ^  memorabilis  ^  Bolus ' 
Mendesius,  cuius  commenta,  quae  appellantur 
Graece  ■)(eip6Kixr]Ta,^  sub  nomine  Democriti  falso 
produntur,  censet  ^  propter  banc  pestem  ^^  saepius  ac 
diligenter  ^^  ovium  terga  perspieere,  ut  si  forte  sit  in 
aliqua  tale  vitium  deprehensum,  confestim  scrobem  ^^ 
defodiamus  in  limine  stabuli,  et  vivam  pecudem, 
quae  fuerit  pusulosa,!^  resupinam  obruamus,  patia- 
murque  super  ^^  obrutam  meare  totum  gregem,  quod 
eo  facto  morbus  propulsetur. 

18  Bilis  aestivo  tempore  non  minima  ^^  pernicies 
potione  depellitur  humanae  veteris  urinae,  quae  ipsa^^ 
remedio   est   etiam  pecori   arcuato.     At   si   molesta 

*  pusulam  Ac  :  pusillam  a  :   pustulam  S^. 
2  si  S  :  sic  AR. 

'  tactu  suo  velut  Svenmtng  :  tactus  volet  ut  (et  o)  SAc. 

*  eblanditur  S  :  et  blanditur  AR. 

*  auctor  S  :  auctore  A  :  auctorem  ac. 
'  memorabilis  S^ :  memorabis  S^AR. 
'  Bolus  Reinesius  :  dolus  SAR. 

*  ^eipoKfiTjTa  Schneider  :  XeipoKt/iijra  S. 
'  censet  S  :  gens  et  AR. 

^°  pestem  om.  Aac. 

^^  ac  diligenter  S^ :  adliganter  S'^^A.  ^*  scribom  S^A. 


BOOK  VII.  V.  15-18 

heated,  and  put  a  sextans  of  axle-grease  down  its 

Erysipelas,  which  the  shepherds  call  pusula,  is  16 
incurable.  Unless  it  is  confined  to  the  first  sheep 
which  is  attacked  by  this  kind  of  trouble,  it  infects 
and  lays  low  the  whole  flock,  if  it  does  not  yield  to 
medical  or  surgical  treatment ;  for  it  blazes  forth  at 
almost  any  touch.  The  only  remedy  which  it  does  not 
reject  is  fomentation  with  goat's  milk,  which,  when 
poured  upon  it,  as  it  were, charms  by  its  touch  the  fierv 
raging  of  the  disease,  postponing  rather  than  prevent- 
ing the  destruction  of  the  flock.  The  celebrated  writer  17 
of  Egyptian  race,  Bolus  of  Mendesium,*"  whose  com- 
mentaries, which  in  Greek  are  called  Hand-wrought 
Products  and  are  published  under  the  pseudonym  of 
Democritus,  is  of  opinion  that  as  a  precaution  against 
this  disease  the  hides  of  the  sheep  ought  to  be  fre- 
quently and  carefully  examined,  so  that  if  any  trace  of 
disease  is  by  chance  discovered  in  any  one  of  them, 
we  may  immediately  dig  a  trench  on  the  threshold  of 
the  sheep-fold  and,  laying  it  on  its  back,  inter  alive 
the  animal  which  is  suffering  from  erysipelas  and 
allow  the  whole  flock  to  pass  over  its  buried  body ; 
for  by  doing  this  the  disease  is  driven  away. 

Bile,   not    the   least  fatal   disease  in   summer,   is  18 
dispelled  by  making  the  victim  drink  stale  human 
urine.     The  same  remedy  is  also  given  to  a  sheep 
which  is  suffering  from  jaundice.     If  rheum  is  trouble- 

°  Pliny,  N.H.  XXIV.  102 ;  Vitruvius  IX.  3.     His  work  was 
entitled  ovfjiTradeLcov  Kal  avriTradeLajv. 

13  pusillosa  S^AR.  1*  super  S  :  sub  AR. 

1^  minima  ed.  pr.  :  nimia  SAR. 
i«  ipsa  S  :  ipse  AR. 



pituita  est,  cunelae  bubulae,  vel  surculi  nepetae 
silvestris  lana  involuti  naribus  inseruntur,  versantur- 
que  donee  sternuat  ovis.  Fracta  pecudum  non  aliter 
quam  hominum  crura  sanantur,  involuta  lanis  oleo 
atque   vino    insuecatis,    et   mox    circumdatis    ferulis 

19  conligata.  Est  etiam  gravis  pernicies  herbae  san- 
guinariae,  qua  si  pasta  est  ovis,  toto  ventre  dis- 
tenditur,  contrahiturque,  et  spumat  et  ^  quaedam 
tenuia  ^  taetri  odoris  excernit.-'  Celeriter  sanguinem 
mitti  oportet  sub  cauda  in  ea  parte  quae  proxima  est 
clunibus,  nee  minus  in  labro  superiore  vena  *  solvenda 
est.  Suspiriose  ^  laborantibus  auriculae  ferro  re- 
scindendae,  mutandaeque  regiones  ;  quod  in  omnibus 
morbis  ac  pestibus  fieri  debere  censemus. 

20  Agnis  quoque  succurrendum  est  vel  febricitanti- 
bus,  vel  aegritudine  alia  afFectis.  Qui  ubi  morbo 
laborant,  admitti  ad  matres  non  debent,  ne  in  eas 
perniciem  transferant.  Itaque  separatim  mulgendae 
sunt  oves,  et  caelestis  aqua  pari  mensura  lacti 
miscenda  est,  atque  ea  potio  febricitantibus  danda. 
Multi    lacte    caprino    iisdem    medentur,    quod    per 

21  corniculum  infunditur  faucibus.  Est  etiam  mentigo, 
quam  pastores  ostiginem  vocant,  mortifera  lacten- 
tibus.  Ea  plerumque  fit,  si  per  imprudentiam  ® 
pastoris  emissi  agni  vel  etiam  haedi  roscidas  herbas 

1  et  om.  SAR. 

2  tenui  SAR. 

'  expernit  S^Aac.  *  veno  S^A^. 

6  suspiriose  ac  :   suspiriore  SA. 

*  per  imprudontiam  ed.  pr.  :  prudentiam  SAR. 


BOOK  VII.  V.  18-21 

some,  stalks  of  ox-marjoram  or  wild  mint,  wrapped 
round  with  wool,  are  inserted  in  the  nostrils  and 
turned  round  and  round  until  the  sheep  sneezes. 
The  broken  legs  of  sheep  are  treated  in  the  same 
manner  as  those  of  human  beings  ;  they  are  wrapped  in 
wool  soaked  in  oil  and  wine  and  then  bound  up  in 
splints  which  are  placed  round  them.  Knotgrass  «  19 
has  also  bad  effects  which  are  serious  ;  for,  if  the  sheep 
feeds  on  it,  its  whole  belly  becomes  distended  and 
then  contracts,  and  the  animal  foams  at  the  mouth 
and  emits  a  thin  kind  of  matter  which  has  a  foul  odour. 
The  victim  must  immediately  be  bled  underneath 
the  tail  in  the  region  nearest  to  the  buttocks,  and 
also  a  vein  must  be  opened  on  the  upper  lip.  Sheep 
whose  breathing  is  asthmatical  must  have  their  ears 
cut  with  the  knife  and  be  transferred  to  other  dis- 
tricts, a  precaution  which,  in  my  opinion,  ought  to  be 
taken  in  all  diseases  and  plagues. 

Succour  must  also  be  given  to  lambs  when  they  are  20 
suffering  fi-om  fever  or  affected  by  any  other  sickness  ; 
those  which  are  labouring  under  any  disease  ought 
not  to  be  admitted  to  their  dams,  lest  they  pass  on 
the  malady  to  them.  The  ewes,  then,  must  be  milked 
separately,  and  rain-water  must  be  mixed  in  equal 
measure  with  the  milk  and  this  potion  given  to  the 
lambs  which  have  fever.  Many  people  use  goats' 
milk  as  a  remedy  for  these  same  lambs,  pouring  it 
down  their  throats  through  a  small  horn.  There  is  21 
also  an  eruptive  disease,  called  by  the  shepherds 
ostigo  (lamb-scab),  which  is  fatal  to  sucking  lambs. 
This  generally  occurs,  if,  through  the  carelessness  of 
the  shepherd,  the  lambs  or  even  kids  have  been  let 
loose  and  have  fed  on  grass  which  is  covered  with  dew, 

"  See  Book  VI.  12.  5  and  note. 



depaverint,    quod   minime    committi    oportet,     Sed 
cum  id  factum  ^  est,  velut  ignis  sacer  os  atque  labra 

22  foedis  ulceribus  obsidet.^  Remedio  suht  hyssopus  et 
sal  acquis  ponderibus  contrita.  Nam  ea  mixtura 
palatum  atque  lingua,^  totumque  os  perfricatur. 
Mox  ulcera  lavantur  aceto,  et  tunc  pice  liquida  cum 
adipe  suilla  perlinuntur.  Quibusdam  placet  rubi- 
ginis  aeneae  tertiam  *  partem  duabus  veteris  axungiae 
portionibus  commiscere,  tepefactoque  uti  medica- 
mine.  Non  nulli  folia  cupressi  trita  ^  miscent  aquae, 
et  ita  perluunt  ulcera  atque  palatum.  Castrationis 
autem  ratio  iam  tradita  est.  Neque  enim  alia  in 
agnis,  quam  in  maiore  quadrupede  servatur. 

VI.  Et  quoniam  de  oviarico  satis  dictum  est,  ad 
caprinum  pecus  nunc  revertar.  Id  autem  genus 
dumeta  potius,  quam  campestrem  ^  situm  desiderat : 
asperisque  etiam  locis  ac  silvestribus  optime  pascitur. 
Nam  nee  rubos  aversatur,  nee  vepribus  ofFenditur,  et 
arbusculis  frutectisque  maxime  gaudet.  Ea  sunt 
arbutus,  atque  alaternus  ^  cytisusque  agrestis,  nee 
minus  ilignei  querneique  frutices,  qui  in  altitudinem 
non  prosilierunt. 

2  Caper,  cui  sub  maxilUs  binae  verruculae  coUo  depen- 
dent, optimus  habetur,  amplissimi  corporis,  cruribus 
crassis,^  plena  et  brevi  cervice,  flaccidis  ^  et  prae- 
gravantibus  auribus,  exiguo  capite,  nigro  densoque  et 
nitido  atque  longissimo  pilo.     Nam  et  ipse  tondetur 

Usum  in  castrorum  ac  miseris  velamina  nautis. 

^  id  factum  S^ :  infactum  S^Aac.  *  obsident  SAR. 

'  lingua  S^A^  :  longua  S^ :  linquam  AR.  *  tertia  SA^. 

*  cupressi  trita  S  :   cum  pressurita  AR. 

*  campestre  R  :   campreste  S^A. 
'  alaternus  S  :  alternus  Aac. 

*  crassis  S  :  erasis  AR. 


BOOK  VII.  V.  2I-VI.  2 

which  they  certainly  should  not  be  allowed  to  do. 
But  when  this  has  happened,  a  kind  of  erysipelas 
surrounds  their  mouths  and  lips  with  filthy  sores.  22 
The  cure  consists  of  hyssop  and  salt  crushed  to- 
gether in  equal  quantities,  the  palate,  the  tongue 
and  the  whole  mouth  being  rubbed  with  this  mixture. 
Next  the  sores  are  washed  with  vinegar  and  then 
thoroughly  anointed  with  liquid  pitch  and  lard. 
Some  people  prefer  a  mixture  of  one  part  of  verdigris 
to  two  parts  of  stale  axle-grease  heated  and  used  as  a 
medicine  ;  some  make  a  mixture  of  crushed  cypress- 
leaves  and  water  and  thoroughly  wash  the  sores  and 
the  palate.  The  method  of  castration  has  already  been 
described,  for  the  operation  is  performed  on  lambs 
in  the  same  manner  as  on  the  larger  quadrupeds. 

VI.  Now  that  enough  has  been  said  about  sheep,  Goata. 
I  will  next  turn  to  goats.  This  species  of  animal 
prefers  thickets  to  open  country  and  is  best  pastured 
in  rough  and  wooded  districts  ;  for  it  has  no  aversion 
to  brambles  and  has  no  fault  to  find  with  briers 
and  takes  a  particular  pleasure  in  bushes  and  shrubs, 
such  as  the  strawberry-tree,  the  buck-thorn,  the 
wild  trefoil  and  shrubs  of  holm-oak  and  oak  which 
have  not  yet  reached  any  great  height. 

The  points  of  the  best  type  of  he-goat  are  two  2 
excrescences  which  project  downwards  from  its 
throat  below  its  jaws,  a  large  frame,  thick  legs,  a  full, 
short  neck,  flabby  and  drooping  ears,  a  small  head, 
and  black,  thick,  glossy  and  very  long  hair ;  for  the 
he-goat  is  also  shorn 

For  use  in  camps  and  hapless  sailors'  coats." 

»  Vergil,  Georg.  III.  313. 

*  flaccidis  ac  :  placcidis  S^A^. 



Est  autem  mensumi  septem  satis  habilis  ad 
progenerandum :  ^  quoniam  immodicus  libidinis, 
dum  adhuc  uberibus  ^  alitur,  matrem  stupro  super- 
venit,  et  ideo  ante  sex  annos  celeriter  consenescit, 
quod  immatura  veneris  cupidine  primis  pueritiae 
temporibus  exhaustus  est.  Itaque  quinquennis 
parum  idoneus  habetur  feminis  implendis.  Capella 
praecipue  probatur  simillima  hirco,  quern,  descripsi- 
mus,  si  etiam  est  uberis  maximi  et  lactis  abundan- 
tissimi.  Hanc  pecudem  mutilam  *  parabimus  quieto 
caeli  statu :  nam  procelloso  atque  imbrifero  cornuta. 
Semper  autem  et  omni  regione  maritos  gregum 
mutilos  esse  oportebit :  quia  cornuti  fere  perniciosi 
sunt  propter  petulantiam.  Sed  numerum  huius 
generis  maiorem,  quam  centum  capitum  sub  uno 
clause  non  expedit  habere,  cum  lanigerae  mille 
pariter  commode  stabulentur.^  Atque  ubi  caprae 
primum  comparantur,  melius  est  unum  gregem 
totum,  quam  ex  pluribus  particulatim  mercari,  ut  nee 
in  pastione  separatim  laciniae  diducantur,  et  in  caprili 
maiore  concordia  quietae  consistant.  Huic  pecudi 
nocet  aestus,  sed  magis  frigus,  et  praecipue  fetae, 
quia  gelicidiosior  ®  heims  conceptum  vitiat  J  Nee 
tamen^  ea  sola  creat^  abortus,^"  sed  etiam  glans  cum 
citra  satietatem  data  est.  Itaque  nisi  potest  afFatim 
praeberi,  non  est  gregi  permittenda. 

^  mensum  S^  :    mensuum  S^A  :   mensium  R, 

*  progenerandum  S  :  procerandum  A  •  :   procreandum  R. 
'  uberius  SAB. 

*  mutilam  ed.  pr.  :  mila  S  :  mila  A . 

*  stabuleanter  S^A  *  :  stabulantur  S^. 

*  gelicidiosior  Lundslrorn  :  geliciorior  S^  :  geliciodior  5*  : 
gelicior  Aac. 

'  vitiat  S  :   fecit  AR.  *  tamen  S  :  tantum  AR. 

'  creat  Aac.  :  creant  Aid.  ^°  abortu  S  :  abortat  AR. 


BOOK  VII.  VI.  3-5 

The  he-goat  is  quite  ready  for  breeding  purposes  3 
at  the  age  of  seven  months ;  for  it  is  immoderate  in 
its  desires  and,  while  it  is  still  being  fed  at  its 
mother's  udder,  it  leaps  upon  her  and  tries  to  do  her 
violence.  Hence,  before  it  has  reached  six  years  of 
age,  it  is  fast  becoming  old,  because  it  has  worn  itself 
out  in  early  youth  by  premature  indulgence  of  its 
desires ;  and  so,  when  it  is  only  five  years  old,  it  is 
regarded  as  unfit  for  impregnating  the  female.  A  4 
she-goat  is  most  highly  approved  which  most  closely 
resembles  the  he-goat  which  we  have  described,  if  it 
also  has  a  very  large  udder  and  a  great  abundance  of 
milk.  If  we  live  in  a  calm  climate  we  shall  acquire 
a  she-goat  without  horns ;  for  in  a  stormy  and  rainy 
climate  we  shall  prefer  one  with  horns ;  but  always 
and  in  every  district  the  fathers  of  the  herd  will  have 
to  be  hornless,  because  those  which  have  horns  are 
generally  dangerous  because  of  their  viciousness. 
One  ought  not  to  keep  a  larger  number  than  a  hundred  5 
head  of  goats  in  one  enclosure,  though  one  can  equally 
easily  keep  a  thousand  sheep  in  the  folds.  When  one 
is  acquiring  she-goats  for  the  first  time,  it  is  better  to 
buy  a  whole  herd  at  once  than  to  purchase  them  one 
by  one  from  a  number  of  sources  ;  this  prevents  them 
from  splitting  up  into  small  groups  while  they  are 
pasturing  and  makes  them  settle  down  quickly  and  in 
greater  harmony  in  goat-stalls.  The  heat  is  harmful 
to  this  creature,  but  the  cold  is  even  more  so, 
especially  to  pregnant  she-goats,  for  an  unusually 
frosty  winter  destroys  the  embryo.  But  not  only  the 
abnormally  frosty  winter  causes  abortion ;  it  also  occurs 
if  less  than  a  sufficiency  of  mast  is  given  them  ;  and  so 
the  herd  should  not  be  allowed  to  eat  mast  unless  a 
plentiful  supply  can  be  provided. 



Tempus  admissurae  per  autumnum  fere  ante 
mensem  Decembrem  praecipimus,  ut  iam  propin- 
quante  vere,  gemmantibus  frutectis,  cum  primum 
silvae  nova  germinant  fronde,  partus  edatur.  Ipsum 
vero  caprile  vel  natural!  saxo,  vel  manu  constratum  ^ 
eligi  debet,  quoniam  huie  pecori  nihil  substernitur. 
Diligensque  pastor  quotidie  stabulum  converrit,  nee 
patitur  stercus  aut  humorem  consistere  lutumve  fieri, 
quae  cuncta  sunt  capris  inimica.  Parit  autem,  si  est 
generosa  proles,  frequenter  duos,  nonnunquam 
trigeminos.  Pessima  est  fetura  cum  matres  binae 
ternos  haedos  efficiunt.  Qui  ubi  editi  sunt,  eodem 
modo,  quo  ^  agni  educantur,  nisi  quod  magis  hae- 
dorum  ^  lascivia  compescenda,  et  arctius  cohibenda 
est.  Turn  super  lactis  abundantiam  samera,  vel 
cytisus,  aut  hedera  praebenda,  vel  etiam  cacumina 
lentisci,  aliaeque  tenues  *  frondes  obiciendae  sunt. 
Sed  ex  geminis  singula  capita,  quae  videntur  esse 
robustiora,  in  supplementum  gregis  reservantur, 
cetera  mercantibus  traduntur.  Anniculae  vel  bimae 
capellae  (nam  utraque  aetas  partum  edit)  submitti 
haedum  non  oportet.  Neque  enim  educare  nisi 
trima  debet.  Sed  anniculae  confestim  depellenda 
suboles.  Bimae  ^  tamdiu  admittenda,  dum  possit 
esse  vendibilis.  Nee  ultra  octo  annos  matres  ser- 
vandae  sunt,  quod  assiduo  partu  fatigatae  steriles  ' 
existant.     Magister     autem    pecoris     acer,     durus, 

*  constratu  iS^iJ.      *  qui  SAR.      *  edonmi<S^c:  odoruma. 

*  tenue  SAR.  *  bimae  SA  :   bime  ac. 

*  fatigatae  steriles  S^  :  fatigata  steriles  S^  :  fatigata  est 
exsteriles  A . 

»  Recently  the  reading  bimae,  instead  of  binae  has  been 
strongly  urged  on  the  basis  of  palaeography  and  the  sense  of 
the  passage  (Richter,  Hermes  LXXX.  215). 

BOOK  VII.  VI.  6-9 

The  time  which  we  advise  for  covering  the  she-  6 
goats  is  during  the  autumn,  some  time  before  the 
month  of  December,  so  that  the  kids  may  be  born 
when  spring  is  already  approaching  and  the  shrubs 
are  coming  into  bud  and  the  woods  just  sprouting 
with  new  foliage.  A  site  for  the  goats'  stable 
should  be  chosen  which  has  a  natural  or  artificial 
stone  floor,  since  no  litter  is  provided  for  this  animal. 
A  careful  goatherd  sweeps  out  the  stable  every  day 
and  does  not  allow  any  ordure  or  moisture  to  remain 
or  any  mud  to  form,  all  of  which  things  are  pre- 
judicial to  goats.  If  a  she-goat  is  of  good  stock,  it 
frequently  bears  twins  and  sometimes  triplets.  It  is  7 
a  very  poor  increase  when  two  mothers  produce  only 
three  kids  between  them."  When  the  kids  are  born, 
they  are  reared  in  the  same  manner  as  lambs  except 
that  their  wantonness  must  be  more  repressed  and 
kept  within  stricter  bounds.  Besides  an  abundance 
of  milk,  elm-seed  or  shrub-trefoil  or  ivy  must  be 
provided,  or  else  tops  of  mastic  and  other  delicate 
foliage  must  be  put  before  them.  When  there  are 
sets  of  twins,  from  each  pair  one,  whichever  seems  to 
be  the  more  robust,  is  reserved  to  fill  up  the  herd, 
while  the  rest  are  handed  over  to  the  dealers.  A 
she-goat  of  only  one  or  two  years  (for  both  ages  are 
capable  of  bearing  young)  should  not  be  given  kids 
to  rear ;  for  it  ought  not  to  bring  up  a  kid  till  it  is 
three  years  old.  And  a  mother  of  one  year  ought  to  be  8 
immediately  deprived  of  its  offspring,  but  a  kid  of  a 
two-year-old  mother  ought  to  be  left  with  it  until  it 
is  ready  to  be  sold.  The  mother-goats  ought  not  to 
be  kept  beyond  eight  years,  because,  worn  out  by 
continual  bearing,  they  end  by  becoming  barren. 
The  herd-master  ought  to  be  keen,  hardy,  energetic,  9 



strenuus,  laboris  patientissimus,  alacer  atque  audax 
esse  debet,  et  qui  per  rupes,  per  solitudines,  per 
vepres  facile  vadat,  et  non,  ut  alterius  generis 
pastores,  sequatur,  sed  plerumque  ut  antecedat 
gregem.  Maxime  strenuum  pecus  est  capella  ^ 
praecedens  ;  ^  subinde  quae  incedit,^  compesci  debet, 
ne  procurrat,*  sed  placide  ac  lente  pabuletur,  ut  et 
largi  sit  uberis,  et  non  strigosissimi  corporis. 

VIL  Atque  alia  genera  pecorum,  cum  pestilentia 
vexantur,  prius  morbo  et  languoribus  macescunt, 
solae  capellae  quamvis  opimae  ^  atque  hilares  subito 
concidunt  et  velut  aliqua  ruina  gregatim  prosternan- 
tur.^  Id  autem  accidere  "^  maxime  solet  ubertate 
pabuli.  Quamobrem  cum  adhuc  paucas  pestis 
perculit,  omnibus  sanguis  detrahendus :  nee  tota 
die  pascendae,  sed  mediis  quattuor  horis  intra  septa 
claudendae.  Sin  alius  languor  infestat,  poculo  me- 
dicantur  arundinis  et  albae  spinae  radicibus,  quas 
cum  ferreis  pilis  diligenter  contudimus,^  admiscemus 
aquam  pluvialem,  solamque  potandam  pecori  prae- 
bemus.  Quod  si  ea  res  aegritudinem  non  depellit, 
vendenda  sunt  pecora;  vel,  si  neque  id  contingere 
potest,  ferro  necanda  saliendaque.^  Mox  inter- 
posito  spatio,  conveniet  olim  gregem  reparare.  Nee 
tamen  antequam  pestilens  tempus  anni,  sive  id  fuit 

^  capelle  SAE. 

*  praecedens  Sc/ineirfer:  capraecedent  5 :  capre  cedent  Joe. 
'  quae  incedit  Liindstrom  :    quern  cedit  SAR. 

*  procurret  SAJi. 

*  optima  SA^. 

*  prostematur  SAR. 

^  id  autera  accidere  Lvudstrom  :  id  actim  cedere  5^  :  id 
actum  cedere  Aa  :  id  accidere  S^. 

*  contudimus  S  :    contundimus  AR. 

*  saliendaque -S  :  saltenda  quae  ^'. 


BOOK  VII.  VI.  9-vii.  2 

well  able  to  endure  toil,  active  and  bold — the  sort  of 
man  who  can  make  his  way  without  difficulty  over 
rocks  and  deserts  and  through  briers ;  he  ought  not 
to  follow  the  herd  like  keepers  of  the  other  kind  of 
cattle,"  but  should  usually  precede  it.  The  she- 
goat  which  leads  the  herd  is  a  very  energetic  animal ; 
the  one  which  so  advances  ought  from  time  to  time  to 
be  restrained  in  order  that  it  may  not  race  out  in  front 
but  may  browse  quietly  and  slowly, so  that  it  may  have 
a  large  udder  and  not  be  lean  of  body. 

VII.  Other  kinds  of  domestic  animals,  when  Diseases  of 
they  are  afflicted  with  pestilence,  begin  by  wasting  fhek  cure. 
away  with  disease  and  weakness,  but  she-goats  are 
the  only  animals  which,  though  they  are  plump 
and  lively,  are  suddenly  cut  oif  and  over-whelmed, 
as  it  were,  with  sudden  ruin,  the  whole  herd  at 
a  time.  This  usually  occurs  as  a  result  of  too 
rich  a  diet.  Therefore,  when  the  plague  has  still 
stricken  only  a  few  of  the  herd,  the  goats  should  all 
be  bled  and  given  no  food  for  a  whole  day  and  be 
kept  shut  up  in  their  pens  for  the  four  middle  hours 
of  the  day.  If  besides  this,  a  languor  attacks  them,  2 
they  are  dosed  with  a  beverage  consisting  of  the 
roots  of  reeds  and  white  thorn,  with  which,  after 
we  have  carefully  bruised  them  with  an  iron  pestle, 
we  mix  rain-water  and  give  this,  and  nothing  else, 
to  the  goats  to  drink.  If  this  does  not  dispel  their 
sickness,  the  animals  must  be  sold  ;  or,  if  this  cannot 
be  managed,  they  should  be  slaughtered  with  the 
knife  and  their  flesh  salted.  Then,  after  an  interval, 
the  fitting  time  will  come  to  replace  the  flock,  but 
not  before  the  pestilential  season,  if  it  was  winter, 

<•  I.e.  oxen  and  cows  and  sheep. 



hiemis,    vertatur  ^    aestate,    sive    autumni,^    vere  ^ 

3  mutetur.  Cum  vero  *  singulae  morbo  ^  laborabunt, 
eadem  remedia,  quae  etiam  ovibus,  adhibebimus ; 
nam  cum  distendetur  aqua  cutis,  quod  vitium  Graeci 
vocant  vdpojna,  sub  armo  pellis  leviter  incisa  perni- 
ciosum   transmittal   humorem,   turn   factum   vulnus 

4  pice  liquida  curetur.  Cum  efFetae  ^  loca  genitalia 
tumebunt,  aut  secundae  non  responderint,  defruti 
sextarius,  vel  cum  id  defuerit,  boni  vini  tantundem 
faucibus  infundatur,  et  naturalia  ceroto '  liquido 
repleantur.  Sed  ne  nunc  singula  persequar,  sicut  in 
ovillo  pecore  praedictum  est,  caprino  medebimur. 

V^III.  Casei  quoque  faciendi  non  erit  omittenda 
cura,  utique  longinquis  regionibus,  ubi  mulctram  ® 
devehere  non  expedit.  Is  porro  si  tenui  liquore 
conficitur,  quam  celerrime  vendendus  est,  dum 
adhuc  viridis  succum  retinet :  si  pingui  et  opimo, 
longiorem  patitur  ^  custodiam.  Sed  lacte  fieri  debet 
sincero  et  quam  recentissimo.  Nam  requietum 
vel  aqua  mixtum  ^^  celeriter  acorem  concipit.  Id 
plerumque  cogi  agni  aut  haedi  coagulo ;  quamvis 
possit  et  agrestis^i  cardui^^  flore  conduci,  et  seminibus 
cneci,  nee  minus  ficulneo  lacte,  quod  emittit  arbor,  si 
2    eius    virentem    saucies    corticem.     Verum    optimus 

1  vertatur  ed.  pr.  :   vertantur  SAR. 

*  autiimnum  SAM. 

^  verumutetur  SA  :   vere  mutentur  a  :   ver  utetur  c. 

*  vero  R  :   vere  *S'^4, 
6  domo  SAR. 

*  &  faetae  S  :  et  facte  A  R. 
'  geratori  A  :   geroctori  iS'. 

*  mulcram  S  :   mulcra  A '  :   multra  R. 

*  patitur  iS  :   patimur  AR. 

•"  aqua  mixtum  Heinsius  :   quu  mixtum  S  :  maximum  AR. 
^1  agrestius  SAR. 
^*  cardiu  S  :  cardius  AR. 

BOOK  VII.  VII.  2-viii.  2 

has  changed  to  summer,  or,  if  it  was  autumn,  has 
changed  to  spring.  If  only  individual  goats  are  3 
suffering  from  the  disease,  we  shall  apply  the  same 
remedies  as  to  sheep ;  for  when  the  skin  is  distended 
with  water — the  malady  which  the  Greeks  call  hydrops 
(dropsy) — a  slight  incision  should  be  made  in  the  skin 
under  the  shoulder,  causing  the  fatal  liquid  to  flow 
away ;  then  the  wound  thus  caused  should  be  treated 
with  liquid  pitch.  If,  after  a  she-goat  has  borne  4 
young,  the  genital  pai'ts  swell  up  and  the  after-birth 
has  not  put  in  an  appearance,  a  sextarius  of  boiled  down 
must,  or,  if  this  is  not  available,  the  same  quantity  of 
good  wine,  should  be  poured  down  the  throat  and  the 
sexual  parts  filled  with  a  liquid  solution  of  wax.  But, 
not  to  enter  into  more  detail  now,  we  shall  give  goats 
the  same  remedies  as  we  have  prescribed  for  sheep. 

VIII.  It  will  be  necessary  too  not  to  neglect  the  cheese- 
task  of  cheese-making,  especially  in  distant  parts  of  making. 
the  country,  where  it  is  not  convenient  to  take  milk 
to  the  market  in  pails.  Further,  if  the  cheese  is  made 
of  a  thin  consistency,  it  must  be  sold  as  quickly  as 
possible  while  it  is  still  fresh  and  retains  its  moisture  ; 
if,  however,  it  is  of  a  rich  and  thick  consistency,  it 
bears  being  kept  for  a  longer  period.  Cheese  should 
be  made  of  pure  milk  which  is  as  fresh  as  possible,  for 
if  it  is  left  to  stand  or  mixed  with  water,  it  quickly 
turns  sour.  It  should  usually  be  curdled  with  rennet 
obtained  from  a  lamb  or  a  kid,  though  it  can  also  be 
coagulated  with  the  flower  of  the  wild  thistle  or  the 
seeds  of  the  safilower,*  and  equally  well  with  the  liquid 
which  flows  from  a  fig-tree  if  you  make  an  incision  in 
the  bark  while  it  is  still  green.     The  best  cheese,  how-  2 

"  Carthamus  tinctoriu6. 



caseus  est,  qui  exiguum  medicaminis  habet.  Mini- 
mum autem  coagulum  ^  recipit  sinum  lactis  argentei 
pondus  denarii. 2  Nee  dubium  quin  fici  ramulis 
glaciatus  caseus  iucundissime  sapiat.  Sed  mulctra,^ 
cum  est  repleta  lacte,  non  sine  tepore  aliquo  debet 
esse.  Nee  tamen  admovenda  est  flammis,  ut  qui- 
busdam  placet,  sed  haud  procul  igne  constituenda,  et 
confestim  cum  concrevit  liquor,  in  fiscellas  aut  in 
calathos  vel  formas  transferendus  est.  Nam  maxime 
refert  primo  quoque  tempore  serum  percolari  et  a 
concreta  materia  separari.  Quam  ob  causam  rustici 
nee  patiuntur  quidem  sua  sponte  pigro  humore 
defluere,  sed  cum  paulo  solidior  caseus  factus  est> 
pondera  superponunt,  quibus  exprimatur  serum: 
deinde  ut  formis  aut  calathis  exemptus  *  est,  opaco 
ac  frigido  loco,  ne  possit  vitiari :  quamvis  mundis- 
simis  tabulis  componitur,  aspergitur  tritis  salibus,  ut 
exudet  acidum  liquorem :  atque  ubi  duratus  est, 
vehementius  premitur,  ut  conspissetur.  Et  rursus 
torrido  sale  contingitur,  rursusque  ponderibus  con- 
densatur.  Hoc  cum  per  dies  novem  factum  est,  aqua 
dulci  abluitur,^  et  sub  umbra  cratibus  in  hoc  factis  ^ 
ita  ordinatur,  ne  alter  alterum  caseus  contingat,  et 
ut  modice  siccetur  :  deinde,  quo  tenerior  permaneat, 
clauso  neque  ventis  obnoxio  loco  stipatur  per  com- 

^  coagulo  SB  :  coaculo  A  ^. 

*  argenteis  .  .  .  denariis  SAR. 

*  mulctrat  SA. 

*  exemptus  ac  :  exemtus  S' :  exemtis  S^A. 

'  dulci  abluitur  S  :   dulcia  bibitur  A  :   dulci  ebibitur  B. 
«  fatis  SA. 


BOOK  VII.  VIII.  2-5 

ever,  is  that  which  contains  only  a  very  small  quantity  of 
any  drug.  The  least  amount  of  rennet  that  a  pail  of 
milk  requires  weighs  a  silver  denarius  ;  and  there  is  no 
doubt  that  cheese  which  has  been  solidified  by  means 
of  small  shoots  from  a  fig-tree  has  a  very  pleasant 
flavour.  A  pail  when  it  has  been  filled  with  milk  3 
should  always  be  kept  at  some  degree  of  heat ;  it 
should  not,  however,  be  brought  into  contact  with 
the  flames,  as  some  people  think  it  proper  to  do,  but 
should  be  put  to  stand  not  far  from  the  fire,  and, 
when  the  liquid  has  thickened,  it  should  immediately 
be  transferred  to  wicker  vessels  or  baskets  or  moulds  ; 
for  it  is  of  the  utmost  importance  that  the  whey  should 
percolate  as  quickly  as  possible  and  become  separated 
from  the  solid  matter.  For  this  reason  the  country-  4 
folk  do  not  even  allow  the  whey  to  drain  away  slowly 
of  its  own  accord,  but,  as  soon  as  the  cheese  has  be- 
come somewhat  more  solid,  they  place  weights  on  the 
top  of  it,  so  that  the  whey  may  be  pressed  out ;  then, 
when  the  cheese  has  been  taken  out  of  the  moulds  or 
baskets,  it  is  placed  in  a  cool,  shady  place,  that  it  may 
not  go  bad,  and,  although  it  is  placed  on  very  clean 
boards,  it  is  sprinkled  with  pounded  salt,  so  that  it  may 
exude  the  acid  liquid  ;  and,  when  it  has  hardened,  it  is 
still  more  violently  compressed,  so  that  it  may  become 
more  compact ;  and  then  it  is  again  treated  with 
parched  salt  and  again  compressed  by  means  of  weights.  5 
When  this  has  been  done  for  nine  days  it  is  washed 
with  fresh  water.  Then  the  cheeses  are  set  in  rows  on 
wickerwork  trays  made  for  the  purpose  under  the 
shade  in  such  a  manner  that  one  does  not  touch 
another,  and  that  they  become  moderately  dry; 
then,  that  the  cheese  may  remain  the  more  tender,  it 
is  closely  packed  on  several  shelves  in  an  enclosed 



plura  tabulata.  Sic  neque  ^  fistulosus  neque  salsus 
neque  aridus  provenit.  Quorum  vitiorum  primum 
solet  accidere,  si  parum  pressus ;  secundum,  si  nimio 
sale  imbutus :  tertium,^  si  sole  exustus  est.  Hoc 
genus  casei  potest  etiam  trans  maria  permitti.  Nam 
is,  qui  recens  intra  paucos  dies  absumi  debet,  leviore 
cura  conficitur.  Quippe  fiscellis  exemptus  in  salem 
muriamque  ^  demittitur,  et  mox  in  sole  paulum 
siccatur.  Nonnulli  antequam  pecus  numellis  in- 
duant,^  virides  pineas  nuces  in  mulctram  demittunt, 
et  mox  super  eas  emulgent,  nee  separant,  nisi  cum 
transmiserint  ^  in  formas  coactam  materiam.  Ipsos 
quidam  virides  conterunt  nucleos,  et  lacti  permiscent, 
atque  ita  congelant.  Sunt  qui  thymum  contritum 
cribroque  colatum  cum  lacte  cogant.  Similiter 
qualiscunque  velis  saporis  efficere  possis,  adiecto 
quod  elegeris  condimento.  Ilia  vero  notissima  est 
ratio  faciendi  casei,  quem  dicimus  manu  ^  pressum,' 
Namque  is  paulum  gelatus  ^  in  mulctra  dum  ^  est 
tepefacta,^"  rescinditur  et  fervente  aqua  perfusus  vel 
manu  figuratur,^^  vel  buxeis  formis  exprimitur.  Est 
etiam  non  ingrati  saporis  muria  perduratus,  atque  ita 
malini  ligni  vel  culmi  fumo  coloratus.  Sed  iam 
redeamus  ad  originem. 

1  sic  neque  S  :  -s  igneas  A  :  ligneas  c. 

^  tertium  8  :  tertio  AE. 

*  muriamque  <S  :   murtamq;  A. 

*  induant  Broiickhusius  :   indurat  SA  R. 

*  transmiserint  ed.  pr.  :  transierunt  SAR. 
'  vanu  SA. 

'  pressum  a  :   -us  c  :  pressu  SA. 

*  caelatus  S  :  celatus  A  R. 

*  mulctra  dum  <S  :  mulctrandum  AR. 

*'  tepefacta  ed.  pr.  :  neres  phata  S  :  neres  fata  A. 
11  figiiratur  Aid.  :  figuratus  SAIL 


BOOK  VII.  viii,  5-7 

place  which  is  not  exposed  to  the  winds.  Under 
these  conditions  it  does  not  become  full  of  holes  or 
salty  or  dry,  the  first  of  these  bad  conditions  being 
generally  due  to  too  little  pressure,  the  second  to  its 
being  over-salted,  and  the  third  to  its  being  scorched 
by  the  sun.  This  kind  of  cheese  can  even  be 
exported  beyond  the  sea.  Cheese  which  is  to  be 
eaten  within  a  few  days  while  still  fresh,  is  prepared 
with  less  trouble ;  for  it  is  taken  out  of  the  wicker- 
baskets  and  dipped  into  salt  and  brine  and  then 
dried  a  little  in  the  sun.  Some  people,  before  they 
put  the  shackles  "  on  the  she-goats,  drop  green  pine- 
nuts  into  the  pail  and  then  milk  the  she-goats  over 
them  and  only  remove  them  when  they  have  trans- 
ferred the  curdled  milk  into  the  moulds.  Some 
crush  the  green  pine-kernels  by  themselves  and  mix 
them  with  the  milk  and  curdle  it  in  this  way.  Others  ' 
allow  thyme  which  has  been  crushed  and  pounded 
through  a  sieve  to  coagulate  with  the  milk  ;  similarly, 
you  can  give  the  cheese  any  flavour  you  like  by  adding 
any  seasoning  which  you  choose.  The  method  of 
making  what  we  call  "  hand-pressed  "  cheese  is  the 
best-known  of  all :  when  the  milk  is  slightly  con- 
gealed in  the  pail  and  still  warm,  it  is  broken  up  and 
hot  water  is  poured  over  it,  and  then  it  is  either  shaped 
by  hand  or  else  pressed  into  box-wood  moulds. 
Cheese  also  which  is  hardened  in  brine  and  then 
coloured  with  the  smoke  of  apple-tree  wood  or 
stubble  has  a  not  unpleasant  flavour.  But  let  us  now 
return  to  the  point  from  which  we  digressed.'' 

"  I.e.  to  restrain  them  while  they  are  being  milked. 

*  The  author  regards  this  chapter  on  cheese-making  as  a 
digression  from  his  real  subject,  which  is  a  description  of  the 
smaller  domestic  animals. 

VOL.  II.  L 


IX.  In  omni  genere  quadrupedum  species  maris 
diligenter  eligitur,  quoniam  frequentius  ••■  patri 
similior  est  progenies,  quam  matri.  Quare  etiam  in 
suillo  pecore  verres  probandi  sunt  totius  quidem 
corporis  amplitudine  ^  eximii,^  sed  qui  quadrati  potius 
quam  longi  aut  rotundi  sint,  ventre  promisso,  clunibus 
vastis,  nee  proinde  cruribus  aut  ungulis  proceris, 
amplae  et  glandulosae  cervicis,  rostri  *  brevis  ^  et 
resupini.^  Maximeque  ad  rem  pertinet,  quam 
salacissimos  esse  ineuntes.'  Ab  annicula  aetate 
commode  progenerant,  dum  quadrimatum  agant : 
possunt  tamen  etiam  semestres  implere  feminam. 
Scrofae  probantur  longissimi  ^  status,  et  ut  sint 
reliquis  membris  similes  descriptis  verribus.  Si 
regio  frigida  et  pruinosa  est,  quam  durissimae 
densaeque  et  nigrae  setae  ^  grex  eligendus  est ;  si 
temperata  atque  aprica,  glabrum  pecus  vel  etiam 
pistrinale  album  potest  pasci.  Femina  sus  ^°  habetur 
ad  partus  edendos  idonea  ^^  fere  usque  in  annos  sep- 
tem,  quae  quanto  fecundior  est,  celei-ius  senescit. 
Annicula  non  improbe  concipit,  sed  iniri  ^^  debet 
mense  Februario.  Quattuor  quoque  mensibus  feta, 
quinto  parere,  cum  iam  herbae  solidiores  sunt,  ut  et 
firma  lactis  maturitas  porcis  contingat,  et  cum  desie- 

1  frequentius  S  :   frequenter  AR. 

*  amplitudine  S  :   -em  Aac. 

*  eximii  S  :  eximit  AR. 

*  rostri  S  :  rostribus  A  ac. 

*  brevis  SA  :   brevibus  R. 

*  resupina  SAR. 

'  esse  ineuntes  Lundslrom  :   esseminant  et  SAR. 

*  longissimis  SAR. 

*  nigrae  sete  S^ :   nigrae  sedet  S'^ :  nigraes  et  egrex  A. 

10  suus  SA. 

11  edendo  nea  SA'^ 

1*  iniri  Aid.  :  inire  SAB. 

BOOK  VII.  IX.  1-3 

IX.  In  every  kind  of  quadruped  it  is  a  male  of  the  Pigs. 
fine  appearance  which  is  the  object  of  our  careful 
choice,  because  the  offspring  is  more  often  like  its 
father  than  like  its  mother.  So  too,  when  it  is  a 
question  of  pigs,  those  boars  must  meet  with  our 
approval  which  are  remarkable  for  their  outstanding 
bodily  size  in  general,  provided  that  they  are  square 
rather  than  long  or  round,  and  which  have  a  belly 
which  hangs  down,  huge  haunches,  but  not  corre- 
spondingly long  legs  and  hoofs,  a  long  and  glandulous 
neck,  and  a  snout  which  is  short  and  snub ;  also  it  is 
especially  important  that  they  should  be  as  lustful  as 
possible  when  they  have  sexual  intercourse.  They  2 
are  fit  for  breeding  purposes  from  a  year  old  until 
they  are  four  years  old,  though  they  can  also  impreg- 
nate a  sow  at  six  months  old.  Breeding  sows  are 
esteemed  which  are  very  long  in  shape,  provided  that 
in  their  other  limbs  they  resemble  the  description 
which  we  have  given  of  the  boars.  If  the  district  is 
cold  and  frosty,  a  herd  should  be  selected  with  very 
hard,  dense,  black  bristles ;  if  it  is  temperate  and 
sunny,  smooth  pigs  and  even  white  ones  such  as  are 
kept  by  bakers  "  may  be  pastured  there.  A  sow  is  3 
considered  fit  for  breeding  purposes  until  it  is  about 
seven  years  old,  but  the  more  prolific  it  is  the  more 
quickly  it  becomes  old.  It  can  quite  well  conceive 
at  a  year  old,  but  ought  to  be  covered  by  the  boar  in 
the  month  of  February  and,  having  been  four  months 
with  young,  it  should  farrow  in  the  fifth  month,  when 
the  grass  is  already  of  stronger  growth,  so  that  the 
porkers  may  find  the  milk  at  the  perfection  of  its  full 
strength  and  also,  when  they  cease  to  be  suckled  at 

"  It  was  customary  for  bakers  to  keep  pigs  and  feed  them 
on  the  superfluous  bran  (Plant.,  Capt.,  4.  2.  28). 



rint  uberibus  ali/  stipula  pascantur,  ceterisque 
leguminum  caducis  frugibus.  Hoc  autem  fit  longin- 
quis  regionibus,  ubi  nihil  nisi  submittere  expedit. 
Nam  suburbanis  lactens  ^  porcus  aere  ^  mutandus 
est :  sic  enim  mater  non  educando  labori  subtrahitur, 
celeriusque  iterum  conceptum  partum  edet.  Idque 
bis  *  anno  faciet.  Mares,  vel  cum  primum  ineunt 
semestres,  aut  cum  saepius  progeneraverunt,  trimi  ^ 
aut  quadrimi  castrantur,  ut  possint  pinguescere. 
Feminis  quoque  vulvae  ferro  exulcerantur,  et  cica- 
tricibus  clauduntur,  ne  sint  genitales.  Quod  facere 
non  intelligo  quae  ratio  compellat,^  nisi  penuria  cibi. 
Nam  ubi  est  ubertas  pabuli,  submittere  prolem  semper 

Omnem  porro  situm  ruris  pecus  hoc  usurpat.  Nam 
et  montibus  et  campis  commode  pascitur,  melius 
tamen  palustribus  agris,  quam  sitientibus.  Nemora 
sunt  convenientissima,  quae  vestiuntur '  quercu, 
subere,  fago,  cerris,  ilicibus,  oleastris,  termitibus, 
corylis,  pomiferisque  silvestribus,  ut  sunt  albae 
spinae,  Graecae  siliquae,  iuniperus,  lotus,  pampinus, 
cornus,  arbutus,  prunus,  et  paliurus,  atque  achrades 
pyri,  Haec  enim  diversis  temporibus  mitescunt,  ac 
paene  toto  anno  gregem  saturant.  At  ubi  penuria 
est  arborum,  terrenum  pabulum  consectabimur-,  et 

^  ali  8c  :  alti  Aa. 

"  lactis  a  :  lactens  c  :  lactes  SA. 

*  aere  R  :  ae  ru  <S :  eru  A. 

*  vis  A  :   quis  S. 

*  primi  SA. 

*  compellat  B  :    -ant  SA. 
'  vertuntur  SA. 

"  Schneider  is  probably  right  in  thinking  that  termes  repre- 
sents the  Greek  rep/iipdos. 


BOOK  VII.  IX.  3-7 

the  udder,  they  may  feed  on  stubble  and  the  fruits 
also  which  fall  from  leguminous  plants.  This  is  the  4 
practice  in  out-of-the-way  regions  where  raising 
stock  is  the  only  thing  which  pays ;  for  in  districts 
near  towns  the  sucking  pig  must  be  turned  into 
money,  for  then  its  mother  is  saved  trouble  by  not 
having  to  rear  it  and  will  more  quickly  conceive  and 
produce  another  offspring,  and  so  bear  twice  in  the 
same  year.  The  males  are  castrated,  so  that  they 
may  be  enabled  to  grow  fat,  either  at  six  months,  when 
they  first  begin  to  cover  the  sows,  or  else  at  three  or 
four  years  of  age,  when  they  have  been  often  used  for 
breeding.  An  operation  is  also  performed  with  the  5 
knife  on  the  wombs  of  the  females  to  make  them 
suppurate  and  close  up  as  a  result  of  scarring  over, 
so  that  they  cannot  breed.  I  do  not  know  the  reason 
for  doing  this,  unless  it  is  lack  of  food ;  for  where 
there  is  abundance  of  fodder,  it  always  pays  to  rear 

Moreover,  pigs  can  make  shift  in  any  sort  of  6 
country  wherever  situated.  For  they  find  suitable 
pasture  both  in  the  mountains  and  in  the  plains, 
though  it  is  better  on  marshy  ground  than  on  dry. 
The  most  convenient  feeding-grounds  are  woods 
covered  with  oaks,  cork-trees,  beeches,  Turkey  oaks, 
holm-oaks,  wild  olive  trees,  terebinth-trees,'*  hazels, 
wild  fruit-trees  like  the  whitethorn,  carob-trees, 
junipers,  nettle-trees,  vine-tendrils,  cornel-trees, 
strawberry-trees,  plum-trees,  Christ's  thorn,  and 
wild  pear-trees.  For  these  ripen  at  different  times  and 
provide  plenty  of  food  for  the  herd  almost  all  the 
year  round.  But  where  there  is  a  lack  of  trees,  we  7 
shall  have  recourse  to  fodder  which  grows  near  the 
ground  and  prefer  muddy  to  dry  ground,  so  that  the 



sicco  limosum  praeferemus,  ut  paludem  rimentur, 
effodiantque  ^  lumbricos,  atque  in  luto  volutentur, 
quod  est  huic  pecudi  gratissimum  ;  quin  etiam  aquis 
abuti  possint :  namque  id  fecisse  maxime  per  aesta- 
tem  profuit,  et  dulces  eruisse  radiculas  aquatilis 
silvae,  tanquam  scirpi  ^  iuncique  et  degeneris  arun- 
dinis,  quam  vulgus  cannam  vocat.  Nam  cultus 
quidem  ager  opimas  reddit  sues,  cum  est  graminosus, 
et  pluribus  generibus  ^  pomorum  consitus,  ut  per 
anni  diversa  tempora  mala,  pruna,  pyrum,  multi- 
formes  nuces  ac  ficum  praebeat.  Nee  tamen  propter 
haec  parcetur  horreis.  Nam  saepe  de  manu  dandum 
est,  cum  foris  deficit  pabulum.  Proper  quod  plurima 
glans  vel  cisternis  in  aquam  vel  fumo  tabulatis  re- 
condenda  *  est.  Fabae  quoque  et  similium  legu- 
minum,  cum  vilitas  permittit,  facienda  est  potestas, 
et  utique  vere,  dum  adhuc  lactent  ^  viridia  pabula, 
quae  suibus  plerumque  nocent.^  Itaque  mane 
priusquam  procedant  in  pascua,  conditivis  cibis 
sustinenda  "^  sunt,  ne  immaturis  herbis  citetur  alvus, 
eoque  vitio  pecus  emacietur.  Nee  ut  ceteri  greges 
universi  claudi  debent,  sed  per  ^  porticus  harae  ^ 
faciendae  sunt,  quibus  aut  a  partu  ^^  aut  etiam  praeg- 
nates     includantur.     Nam     praecipue    sues     cater- 

1  effodiantque  R  :  et  fodiantque  SA . 

^  stirpi  SAac. 

^  generibus  om.  SA. 

*  recondenda  <S'^  :   reconda  S'^A  :   recondita  ac. 

*  laotent  ex  cit.  Palladii  (III.  26.  3) :  lantiunt  8A  :  lanciunt 

*  nocet  SA. 

'  sustinenda  SAac. 
'  per  om.  SA. 
'  harae  ovi.  SA. 
"  parte  iS^. 


BOOK  VII.  IX.  7-9 

pigs  may  root  about  in  the  marsh  and  turn  up  worms 
and  wallow  in  the  mud,  which  pigs  love  to  do ;  and  may 
they  also  be  able  to  use  water  freely  ;  for  it  has  proved 
a  great  benefit  for  them  to  do  this  in  the  summer  and 
to  tear  up  the  sweet-flavoured  rootlets  of  under-water 
growths,  such  as  the  reed-mace,  the  rush,  and  the  bast- 
ard reed,  which  the  vulgar  call  the  "cane."  Sows  indeed  8 
grow  fat  on  cultivated  ground  when  it  is  grassy  and 
planted  with  fruit-trees  of  several  kinds,  so  as  to 
provide  at  different  seasons  of  the  year  apples, 
plums,  pears,  nuts  of  many  kinds  and  figs.  You 
should  not,  however,  on  the  strength  of  these  fruits 
be  sparing  of  the  contents  of  the  granary,  Avhich 
should  often  be  handed  out  when  out-door  food  fails. 
For  this  purpose  plenty  of  mast  should  be  stored  either 
in  cisterns  of  water  or  in  lofts  exposed  to  the  smoke." 
They  should  also  be  given  the  opportunity  of  feeding  9 
on  beans  and  similar  leguminous  vegetables,  when 
their  cheapness  makes  this  possible,  especially  in  the 
spring  when  green  fodder  is  still  in  a  juicy  condition, 
which  is  generally  harmful  to  pigs.  Early  in  the 
morning,  therefore,  before  they  go  out  to  pasture, 
they  should  be  given  a  nourishing  meal  of  food  from 
the  store,  that  the  bowel  may  not  be  irritated  by 
grass  which  is  immature  and  that  the  herd  may  not 
waste  away  by  the  trouble  which  it  causes.  Pigs 
ought  not  to  be  shut  up  all  together,  like  all  other 
herds,  but  sties  ought  to  be  constructed  after  the 
manner  of  colonnades,  in  which  the  sows  can  be  shut 
up  after  farrowing  and  even  during  pregnancy ;  for 
sows  more  than  any  other  animals,  when  they  are 

"  Cisternis — tabulatis,  these  words  are  possibly  corrupt  but 
the  general  meaning  is  clear.  Pontedera  suggests  cisiemis 
sine  aqua  vel  fumosis  tabulatis^ 



vatim   atque   incondite   cum   sunt   pariter   inclusae, 

10  super  alias  aliae  cubant  et  fetus  elidunt.  Quare, 
ut  dixi,  iunctae  parietibus  harae  construeniae  sunt 
in  altitudinem  pedum  quattuor,  ne  sus  transilire  septa 
queat.  Nam  contegi  non  debet,  ut  a  superiore  parte 
custos  numerum  porcorum  recenseat,  et  si  quem 
decumbens  mater  oppresserit,  cubanti  subtrahat. 
Sit  autem  vigilax,  impiger,  industrius,  navus.  Om- 
nium, quas  pascit,  et  matricum  et  iuniorum  memi- 
nisse  debet,  ut  uniuscuiusque  partum  consideret. 
Semper  observet  enitentem,  claudatque  ut  in  ^  hara 

11  fetum  edat.  Tum  denotet  ^  protinus  quot  et  quales 
sint  ^  nati,  et  curet  maxime  ne  quis  *  sub  nutrice 
aliena  educetur  ^  :  nam  facillime  porci,  si  evaserint 
haram,  miscent  se,  et  scrofa  cum  decubuit,  aeque 

12  alieno  ac  suo  praebet  ubera.  Itaque  porculatoris 
maximum  officium  est,  ut  unamquamque  ^  cum  sua 
prole  claudat.  Qui  si  memoria  deficitur,  quo  minus 
agnoscat  cuiusque  progeniem,  pice  liquida  eandem  ' 
notam  scrofae  et  porcis  imponat,  et  sive  per  literas 
sive  per  alias  formas  unumquemque  fetum  cum 
matre  distinguat.  Nam  in  maiore  numero  diversis 
notis   opus   est,   ne   confundatur   memoria   custodis. 

13  Attamen    quia   id   facere   gregibus    amplis    videtur 

*  claudatq;  ut  in  i?  :   claudat  in  SA. 
"  dinotet  SA. 

'  sunt  SA. 

*  ne  quis  S*  :   nutrix  equis  S^A. 

'  alien^  {-e  ^)  ducetur  SA  :  aliena  educatur  R. 

*  unamque  SA. 

'  eandem  E  :  eadem  AS. 


BOOK  VII.  IX.  9-13 

penned  together  in  a  crowd  and  pell-mell,  lie  one  on  top 
of  another  and  abortions  are  thus  caused.  Therefore,  10 
as  I  have  said,  sties  should  be  built  joined  by  party  walls 
each  to  the  other  and  fourfeet  inheight,so  that  the  sow 
may  not  be  able  to  j  ump  over  the  these  barriei  s.  They 
ought  not  to  be  roofed  over,  so  that  the  man  in 
charge  may  be  able  to  look  in  from  above  and  count 
the  number  of  piglings,  and  that  if  any  mother  is  lying 
on  top  of  its  litter  and  squeezes  one  of  them,  he 
may  extract  it  from  under  her.  The  swineherd 
must  be  watchful,  energetic,  painstaking  and  active : 
he  ought  to  be  able  to  remember  all  the  sows  under 
his  charge,  both  those  which  have  produced  offspring 
and  the  younger  sows,  so  that  he  may  identify  the 
offspring  of  each  separately.  He  must  be  on  the 
watch  for  sows  which  are  farrowing  and  shut  them 
up,  so  that  they  may  produce  their  litter  in  a  sty;  11 
he  must  then  take  note  immediately  of  the  number 
and  quality  of  the  piglings  which  are  born  and  take 
special  care  that  none  of  them  is  brought  up  by  a  sow 
which  is  not  its  mother ;  for  the  sucking-pigs,  if  they 
have  escaped  from  the  sty,  very  easily  become  mixed 
up,  and  the  sow,  when  it  lies  down,  offers  its  dugs  as 
freely  to  the  offspring  of  other  sows  as  to  her  own. 
Thus  the  most  important  duty  of  the  swine  breeder  is  12 
to  keep  each  sow  shut  up  with  its  own  litter.  If  he  has 
not  a  good  memory  and  so  cannot  recognize  the  off- 
spring of  each  sow,  he  should  put  the  same  mark  on 
the  sow  and  its  piglings  with  liquid  pitch,  so  that  he 
may  distinguish  the  different  litters  and  their  mothers 
by  means  of  letters  or  some  other  device ;  for  where 
a  large  number  is  involved,  it  is  necessary  to  employ 
distinctive  marks,  so  that  the  swineherd's  memory 
may  not  be  confused.     Since,  however,  it  seems  a  13 



operosum,  commodissimum  est  haras  ita  fabricare, 
ut  limen  earum  ^  in  tantam  altitudinem  consurgat, 
quantam  ^  possit  nutrix  evadere ;  lactens  autem  su- 
pergredi  ^  non  possit.  Sic  nee  alienus  irrepit,  et  in 
cubili  suam  quisque  matrem  nidus  ^  expectat,  qui 
tamen  non  debet  octo  capitum  numerum  excedere : 
non  quia  ignorem  fecunditatem  scrofarum  maioris 
esse  numeri,  sed  quia  celerrime  fatiscit,  quae  plures 
educat.  Atque  eae  quibus  partus  submittitur,  cocto 
sunt  hordeo  sustinendae,  ne  ad  maciem  summam 
perducantur,^    et    ex    ea    ad    aliquam    perniciem. 

14  Diligens  autem  porculator  frequenter  suile  converrit, 
et  saepius  haras.  Nam  quamvis  praedictum  ani- 
mal in  pabulatione  spuree  versetur,  mundissimum 
tamen  cubile  desiderat.  Hie  fere  cultus  est  pecoris 
suilli  recte  valentis.  Sequitur  ut  dicamus,  quae  sit 
cura  vitiosi. 

X.  Febricitantium  signa  sunt,  cum  obstipae  sues 
transversa  capita  ferunt,  ac  per  pascua  subito,  cum 
paululum  procurrerunt,  consistunt,  et  vertigine 
correptae  concidunt.     Earum  notanda  sunt  capita, 

2  quam  in  partem  prochnent,^  ut  ex  diversa  parte  de 
auricula  sanguinem  mittamus.  Item  sub  cauda 
duobus  digitis  a  clunibus  intermissis  venam  feriamus, 
quae  est  in  eo  loco  satis  ampla,  eamque  sarmento 
prius  oportet  verberari,  deinde  ab  ictu  '  virgae  tu- 

^  limen  earum  li :   minearum  SA. 
^  quanta  S  :   quantum  Aac. 

*  supergrcdi  R  :   ut  pergredi  SA. 

*  nidus  S  :   -OS  AR.  '  perducatur  SA. 

*  proclinent  S  :   proclinentur  ^jB. 
^  avictu  S  :  abiectu  a. 


BOOK  VII.  IX.  13-X.  2 

laborious  task  to  carry  out  this  plan  in  large  herds, 
the  most  convenient  method  is  to  construct  the  sties 
in  such  a  way  that  their  thresholds  are  low  enough 
for  the  sow  to  be  able  to  get  out  but  too  high  for  the 
sucking  pig  to  climb  over ;  thus  no  strange  porker 
can  creep  in,  and  each  litter  awaits  its  own  mother 
in  the  place  where  they  sleep.  A  litter  ought  not  to 
number  more  than  eight,  not  that  I  am  ignorant  that 
the  fecundity  of  breeding-sows  can  produce  more 
than  this  number,  but  because  a  sow  which  rears  more 
than  eight  quickly  becomes  worn  out.  Those  sows 
which  are  given  a  litter  to  rear,  must  be  sustained  with 
cooked  barley,  so  that  they  may  not  be  reduced  to  a 
state  of  extreme  emaciation  and  from  that  to  some 
fatal  sickness.  The  careful  swineherd  will  frequently  14 
sweep  out  the  piggery  and  the  sties  still  more  often ; 
for,  though  the  animal  in  question  behaves  in  a  filthy 
manner  when  it  is  at  pasture,  it  likes  its  sleeping- 
place  to  be  very  clean.  Such,  more  or  less,  is  the 
manner  in  which  pigs  should  be  kept  when  they  are 
in  good  health ;  our  next  task  is  to  deal  with  the  care 
of  the  pig  in  disease. 

X.  The  signs  of  fever  in  pigs  are  when  they  lean  Diseases  of 
over  and  hold  their  heads  awry,  and,  after  running  thei/cures. 
forward    a    little    way    over    their    feeding-ground, 
suddenly  halt  and  are  seized  with  giddiness  and  fall 
down.     Notice   must   be   taken   in   which   direction  2 
they  lean  their  heads  forward,  so  that  we  may  let 
blood  from  the  ear  on  the  opposite  side ;    we  shall 
also  smite  under  the  tail,  at  two  fingers'  distance  from 
the  haunches,  the  vein  which  at  this  point  is  fairly 
big,  but  it  ought  first  to  be  beaten  with  a  vine-twig, 
and  then,  as  it  swells  up  from  the  stroke  of  the  rod,  it 
should  be  opened  with  a  knife,  and,  after  the  blood 



mentem  ferro  rescind!,  detractoque  sanguine  colli- 
gari  saligneo  libro  vel  etiam  ulmeo.  Quod  cum 
fecerimus,  uno  aut  altero  die  sub  tecto  pecudem 
continebimus,  et  aquam  modice  calidam  quantam 
volent,  farinaeque  hordeaceae  singulos  sextarios 
praebebimus.  Strumosis  sub  lingua  sanguis  mitten- 
dus  est,  qui  cum  profluxerit,  sale  trito  cum  farina 
triticea  confricari  totum  os  conveniet.  Quidam 
praesentius  putant  esse  remedium  cum  per  ^  cornu 
singulis  ternos  cyathos  gari  ^  demittunt.  Deinde 
fissas  taleas  ferularum  lineo  funiculo  religant :  et  ita 
collo  suspendunt,  ut  strumae  ferulis  contingantur. 
Nauseantibus  quoque  salutaris  habetur  eburnea 
scobis  sali  ^  fricto  et  fabae  minute  fresae  commixta, 
ieiunisque  prius  quam  in  pascua  prodeant  obiecta.* 
Solet  etiam  universum  ^  pecus  aegrotare  ita,  ut 
emacietur,  nee  cibos  capiat,  productumque  ^  in  pascua 
medio  campo  procumbat,  et  quodam  veterno  pressum 
somnos  aestivo  sub  sole  captet.  Quod  cum  facit, 
totus  grex  tecto  clauditur  stabulo,  atque  uno  die 
abstinetur  potione  et  pabulo : '  postridie  radix 
anguinei  ^  cucumeris  trita  et  commixta  cum  aqua 
datur  sitientibus :  quam  cum  pecudes  biberunt, 
nausea  correptae  vomitant,  atque  expurgantur,  omni- 
que  bile  depulsa,  cicercula  vel  faba  dura  muria  con- 

*  cum  per  R  :   compea  S  :  cumpea  A. 

2  gari  li  :   cari  S^. 

3  sale  SAR. 

*  abiecta  A  R  :   obiecta  S. 

*  universam  SA^ :  -um  A^R. 

*  productusque  <S^. 
'  paulo  SA. 


BOOK  VII.  X.  2-5 

has  been  drawn  off,  the  vein  ought  to  be  bound  up 
with  bark  of  a  willow  or  even  of  an  elm-tree.  After  3 
this  we  shall  keep  the  animals  under  cover  for  a  day 
or  two  and  give  them  as  much  moderately  warm 
water  as  they  shall  desire  and  a  sextarius  each  of 
barley-flour.  If  pigs  are  scrofulous,  they  must  be 
bled  under  the  tongue  and,  when  the  blood  has 
flowed,  it  will  be  well  to  rub  the  whole  mouth  with 
powdered  salt  mixed  with  wheaten  flour.  Some 
people  think  that  a  more  efficacious  remedy  is  to 
make  them  swallow  three  cyathi  each  of  fish-pickle 
through  a  horn  ;  they  then  tie  together  split  sticks  of 
fennel  with  a  linen  cord  and  hang  them  round  their 
necks  in  such  a  way  that  the  scrofulous  tumours  are 
in  contact  with  the  fennel-stalks.  For  pigs  suffer-  4 
ing  from  vomiting,  ivory-dust  is  regarded  as  a  good 
remedy  mixed  with  powdered  salt  and  beans  ground 
very  small  and  given  to  them  on  an  empty  stomach 
before  they  go  out  to  pasture.  Sometimes  also  the 
whole  herd  suffers  at  the  same  time,  which  causes 
them  to  become  thin  and  to  refuse  their  food  and  to 
lie  down  in  the  middle  of  the  field  when  they  are 
driven  out  to  pasture  and  to  want  to  go  to  sleep  in 
the  summer  sunshine  overcome  by  a  kind  of  drowsi- 
ness. When  this  happens,  the  whole  herd  is  shut  up  5 
in  a  covered  stable  and  deprived  of  drink  and  food 
for  one  day ;  then  on  the  following  day  the  root  of  the 
snake-like  cucumber,  crushed  and  mixed  with  water, 
is  given  to  quench  their  thirst,  and  when  the  animals 
have  drunk  it  they  are  seized  with  nausea  and  vomit 
and  so  are  purged ;  when  all  the  bile  has  been  dis- 
charged, they  are  given  chick-pea  or  beans  sprinkled 
with  hard  brine,  after  which  they  are  allowed  to  drink 

*  anguinei  i? :  sanguine!  *S^. 



spersa,  deinde,  sicut  hominibus,  aqua  calida  potanda 

6  Sed  cum  omni  quadruped!  per  aestatem  sitis 
sit  infesta,  turn  suillo  maxime  est  inimica.  Quare 
non  ut  capellam  vel  ovem,  sic  et  hoc  animal  bis  ^  ad 
aquam  duci  praecipimus :  ^  sed  si  fieri  potest,  iuxta 
flumen  aut  stagnum  per  ortum  Caniculae  detineri : 
quia  cum  sit  aestuosissimum,  non  est  contentum 
potione  aquae,  nisi  obesam  ingluviem  atque  distentara 
pabulis  alvum  demerserit  ac  refrigeraverit :  nee  uUa 
re  magis  gaudet,  quam  rivis  atque  caenoso  lacu  volu- 

7  tari.  Quod  si  locorum  situs  repugnat,  ne  ita  fieri 
possit,  puteis  extracta  et  large  canalibus  immissa 
praebenda  sunt  pocula,  quibus  nisi  affatim  satientur, 
pulmonariae  fiunt.  Isque  ^  morbus  optime  sanatur 
auriculis  inserta  consiligine :    de   qua  radicula  dili- 

8  genter  ac  saepius  iam  locuti  sumus.  Solet  etiam 
vitiosi  splenis  dolor  eas  infestare,  quod  accidit,  cum 
siccitas  ^  magna  provenit,  et,  ut  Bucolicum  loquitur 

Strata   iacent    passim    sua    quaeque   sub    arbore 

Nam  pecus  inexsatiabile  ^  sues,  dum  dulcedinem 
pabuli  consectantur  supra  modum,  aestate  splenis  • 
incremento  laborant.  Cui  succurritur,  si  fabri- 
centur  canales  tamaricis '  et  rusco,  repleanturque 
aqua,  et  deinde  sitientibus    admoveantur;    quippe 

1  bis  52  :   vis  5M  :   om.  R. 

*  praecipimus  R  :   precepimus  SA. 

*  isque  ed.  pr.  :   quiq;  E  :   quisq;  S^A. 

*  ficitas  A  :   sicitas  S. 

*  inexitiabiles  bis  SA^  :  inexitiaviles  bis  A^. 

*  esbatae  splenis  SAac. 

'  tramaricis  Ji :  tramaricua  SA. 


BOOK  VII.  X.  5-8 

warm  water,  as  men  are  allowed  to  do  in  similar 

While  thirst  in  the  summer  is  pernicious  to  all  6 
quadrupeds,  it  is  specially  hurtful  to  pigs.  We, 
therefore,  advise  that  they  should  not  be  taken  to 
water  twice  a  day,  like  goats  and  sheep,  but  that,  if 
possible,  they  should  be  kept  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  a  river  or  pool  at  the  time  of  the  rising  of  the 
Dogstar ;  for,  when  a  pig  is  feeling  the  intense  heat, 
it  is  not  content  with  drinking  the  water,  if  it  cannot 
also  plunge  into  it  and  so  cool  its  fat  maw  and  its 
belly  distended  with  fodder,  and  there  is  nothing  in 
which  it  takes  so  much  pleasure  as  wallowing  in 
streams  and  muddy  lakes.  But  if  the  nature  of  the 
district  makes  this  impossible,  drinking  water  should  7 
be  drawn  from  wells  and  poured  into  troughs  in 
generous  supply;  for,  unless  they  are  abundantly 
satisfied,  their  lungs  become  affected.  This  disease 
is  best  treated  by  inserting  lungwort  into  the  ears,  a 
small  root  of  which  we  have  already  more  than  once 
spoken  about  and  in  detail.  Pain  from  a  diseased  spleen  8 
also  often  attacks  them ;  this  happens  when  a  serious 
drought  occurs  and  when,  as  the  Bucolic  poem  says,* 

Fruits  lie  on  all  sides,  each  strewn  'neath  its  tree. 

For  pigs,  being  insatiable  animals,  make  for  sweet- 
ness in  their  food  beyond  measure  and  suffer 
exceedingly  in  the  summer  from  swelling  of  the 
spleen.  This  can  be  relieved  if  troughs  made  of 
tamarisk  wood  and  butcher's  broom  are  constructed 
and  filled  with  water  and  put  in  their  way  when 
they  are  thirsty;  for  the  juice  of  the  wood  has  a 

«  VergU,  Eel  VII.  54. 



ligni  succus  medicabilis  epotus  intestinum  tumorem 

XI.  Castrationis  autem  in  ^  hoc  pecore  duo  tem- 
pora  servantur,  veris  et  autumni :  et  eius  adminis- 
trandae  duplex  ratio.  Prima  ilia,  quam  iam  tradidi- 
mus,  cum  duobus  vulneribus  impressis  per  unam- 
quamque  plagam  singuli  exprimuntur  testiculi. 
Altera   est   speciosior,   sed  magis   periculosa,   quam 

2  tamen  non  omittam.  Cum  virilem  partem  unajn 
ferro  reseratam  ^  detraxeris,  per  impressum  vulnus 
scalpellum  inserito,  et  mediam  quasi  cutem,  quae 
intervenit  duobus  membris  genitalibus,  rescindito, 
atque  uncis  digitis  alterum  quoque  testiculum 
educito :  sic  fiet  una  cicatrix  adhibitis  ceteris 
remediis,  quae  prius  docuimus.  Illud  autem,  quod 
pertinet  ad  religionem  ^  patrisfamilias,  non  reticen- 

3  dum  putavi.  Sunt  quaedam  scrofae,  quae  mandunt 
fetus  suos :  quod  cum  fit,  non  habetur  prodigium. 
Nam  sues  ex  omnibus  pecudibus  *  impatientissimae 
famis  aliquando  sic  indigent  pabuli,  ut  non  tantum 
alienam,  si  liceat,  sobolem,  sed  etiam  suam  consu- 

XII.  De  armentis  ceterisque  pecudibus  et  magis- 
tris,  per  quos  quadrupedum  greges  humana  solertia  * 
domi  forisque  curantur  atque  observantur,  nisi  fallor, 
satis  accurate  disserui.     Nunc  ut  exordio  priore  sum 

^  in  om.  SAR. 

^  reseratam  S  :  resecatam  Aac. 

^  regionem  SA. 

*  pecudibus  B  :   om.  SA. 

^  consummant  a  :   consumat  SAc. 

•  solertia  i? :  sollerti  <S^^. 

»  I.e.  one  testicle. 

*  I.e.  which  may  suggest  superstitious  fancies  to  his  mind. 

BOOK  VII.  X.  8-xii.  I 

medicinal  effect  and,  being  swallowed,  stops  intestinal 

XL  Two  seasons  are  observed  for  castrating  the 
pig,  spring  and  autumn.  There  are  two  methods  of 
can-ying  out  this  operation.  The  first,  which  we 
have  already  described,  consists  of  making  two 
incisions  and  squeezing  out  a  testicle  through  each 
of  them.  The  other  is  more  spectacular  but  more 
dangerous ;  but  I  will  not  pass  it  over  in  silence. 
When  you  have  opened  up  with  the  knife  and  drawn  2 
out  one  of  the  male  organs,*  insert  a  lancet  through 
the  wound  that  has  been  made  ;  then  cut  the  middle 
skin,  as  it  were,  which  intervenes  between  the  two 
genital  members,  and  with  your  bent  fingers  draw 
out  the  other  testicle  also ;  the  result  will  be  that 
there  will  be  only  one  scar  after  the  application  of  the 
other  remedies  which  we  have  described  earlier. 
But  there  is  one  point,  which  concerns  the  religious 
scruples  of  the  head  of  the  family,  **  and  which  I  have  3 
thought  that  I  ought  not  to  pass  over  in  silence, 
namely,  that  there  are  some  breeding-sows  which 
devour  their  young.  When  this  happens,  it  is  not 
regarded  as  a  prodigy ;  for  pigs,  of  all  farm-animals, 
are  the  least  able  to  endure  hunger,  and  sometimes 
feel  such  need  of  food  that  they  consume  not  only 
the  offspring  of  other  sows,  if  they  are  allowed  to  do 
so,  but  also  their  own  young. 

XII.  I  have  now,  unless  I  am  mistaken,  dealt  in  Dogs, 
sufficient  detail  with  animals  used  for  ploughing  and 
other  cattle  and  with  the  herdsmen  who  are  employed 
to  look  after  and  watch  over  flocks  of  four-footed 
animals  at  home  and  out  of  doors  with  all  the  resources 
of  human  intelligence.  Now,  as  I  promised  in  the 
earlier  part   of  my   treatise,   I   will   speak   of  the 



pollicitus,  de  mutis  custodibus  loquar;  quamquam 
canis  falso  dicitur  mutus  custos.  Nam  quis  hominum 
clarius  aut  tanta  vociferatione  bestiam  vel  furem 
praedicat,  quam  iste  latratu  ?  quis  famulus  amantior 
domini  ?  quis  fidelior  comes  ?  quis  custos  incor- 
ruptior?  quis  excubitor  inveniri  potest  vigilantior? 
quis  denique  ultor  aut  vindex  constantior?  Quare 
vel  in  primis  hoc  animal  mercari  tuerique  debet 
agricola,  quod  et  villani  et  fructus  familiamque  et 
pecora    custodit.     Eius    autem    parandi    tuendique 

2  triplex  ratio  est.  Namque  unum  genus  adversus 
hominum  ^  insidias  eligitur,  et  id  villam  quaeque 
iuncta  sunt  villae  custodit.  At  alterum  ^  propellen- 
dis  iniuriis  hominum  ac  ferarum  ;  et  id  observat  domi 
stabulum,  foris  pecora  pascentia.  Tertium  venandi 
gratia  comparatur ;  idque  non  solum  nihil  agricolam 
iuvat,  sed  et  avocat  desidemque  ab  opere  suo  reddit. 

3  De  villatico  ^  igitur  et  pastorali  dicendum  est :  nam 
venaticus  nihil  pertinet  ad  nostram  professionem. 

Villae  custos  eligendus  est  amplissimi  corporis,  vasti 
latratus  canorique,  ut  prius  auditu  maleficum,  deinde 
etiam  conspectu  terreat,  et  tamen  nonnunquam  ne 
visus  quidem  horribili  fremitu  suo  fuget  insidiantem. 
Sit  autem  coloris  unius;   isque  magis  eligatur  albus 

^  post  hominum  add.  et  ferarum  B. 
2  laterum  S^A^. 
*  villatigo /S  :  vitlatigo^^. 

BOOK  VII.  XII.  1-3 

dumb  guardians  of  the  flocks,  though  it  is  wrong  to 
speak  of  the  dog  as  a  dumb  guardian  ;  for  what  human 
being  more  clearly  or  so  vociferously  gives  warning 
of  the  presence  of  a  wild  beast  or  of  a  thief  as  does 
the  dog  by  its  barking?  What  servant  is  more 
attached  to  his  master  than  is  a  dog?  What  com- 
panion more  faithful?  What  guardian  more  in- 
corruptible ?  What  more  wakeful  night-watchman 
can  be  found?  Lastly,  what  more  steadfast 
avenger  or  defender  ?  To  buy  and  keep  a  dog  ought, 
therefore,  to  be  among  the  first  things  which  a  farmer 
does,  because  it  is  the  guardian  of  the  farm,  its  pro- 
duce, the  household  and  the  cattle.  There  are  three  2 
different  reasons  for  procuring  and  keeping  a  dog. 
One  type  of  dog  is  chosen  to  oppose  the  plots  of 
human  beings  and  watches  over  the  farm  and  all  its 
appurtenances ;  a  second  kind  for  repelling  the 
attacks  of  men  and  wild  beasts  and  keeping  an  eye 
at  home  on  the  stables  and  abroad  on  the  flocks  as 
they  feed  ;  the  third  kind  is  acquired  for  the  purposes 
of  the  chase,  and  not  only  does  not  help  the  farmer 
but  actually  lures  him  away  from  his  work  and 
makes  him  lazy  about  it.  We  must,  therefore,  speak  3 
of  the  farm-yard  dog  and  the  sheep-dog;  for  the 
sporting  hound  has  nothing  to  do  with  the  art  which 
we  profess. 

As  guardian  of  the  farm  a  dog  should  be  chosen 
which  is  of  ample  bulk  with  a  loud  and  sonorous  bark 
in  order  that  it  may  terrify  the  malefactor,  first 
because  he  hears  it  and  thenbecausehe  sees  it;  indeed, 
sometimes  without  being  even  seen  it  puts  to  flight  the 
crafty  plotter  merely  by  the  terror  which  its  growling 
inspires.  It  should  be  the  same  colour  all  over,  white 
being  the  colour  which  should  rather  be  chosen  for  a 


in  pastorali,  niger  in  villatico :  nam  varius  in  neutro 
est  laudabilis.  Pastor  album  probat,  quoniam  est 
ferae  dissimilis,  magnoque  opus  interdum  discrimine 
est  in  propulsandis  lupis  sub  obscuro  mane  vel  etiam 

4  crepusculo,  ne  pro  bestia  ^  canem  feriat.  Villaticus, 
qui  hominum  malefieiis  opponitur,  sive  luce  clara  fur 
advenit,^  terribilior  niger  conspicitur :  sive  noctu,' 
ne  conspicitur  quidem  propter  umbrae  similitudinem, 
quamobrem  tectus  tenebris  canis  tutiorem  accessum 
habet  ad  insidiantem,  Probatur  quadratus  potius 
quam  longus  aut  brevis,  capite  tarn  magno,  ut  cor- 
poris videatur  pars  maxima,  deiectis  et  propendenti- 
bus  auribus,  nigris  vel  glaucis  oculis  acri  lumine 
radiantibus,  amplo  villosoque  pectore,  latis  armis, 
cruribus  crassis  et  hirtis,  cauda  brevi,  vestigiorum 
articulis  *  et  unguibus  amplissimis,  qui  Graece 
SpaKes  appellantur.     Hie    erit  villatici   canis    status 

5  praecipue  laudandus.  Mores  autem  neque  mitis- 
simi,  neque  rursus  truces  atque  crudeles;  quod  illi 
furem  quoque  adulantur,  hi  etiam  domesticos  in- 
vadunt.  Satis  est  severos  esse  nee  blandos,  ut  non- 
nunquam  etiam  conserves  iratius  intueantur,  semper 
excandescant  in  exteros.  Maxime  autem  debent  in 
custodia  vigilantes  conspici,  nee  erronei,^  sed  assidui 

^  vestio  S  :   bestico  A^. 

*  advenit  S  :   -erit  AR. 

'  noctu  ne  S  :  nocte  ne  A  :  nocte  nee  ac. 

*  auriculis  SA. 

*  errore  ne  S^ :  errore  A  :  erronei  a :   arronei  c. 


BOOK  VII.  XII.  3-5 

sheep-dog  and  black  for  a  farm-yard  dog ;  for  a 
dog  of  varied  colouring  is  not  to  be  recommended  for 
either  purpose.  The  shepherd  prefers  a  white  dog 
because  it  is  unlike  a  wild  beast,  and  sometimes  a 
plain  means  of  distinction  is  required  in  the  dogs 
when  one  is  driving  off  wolves  in  the  obscurity  of  early 
morning  or  even  at  dusk,  lest  one  strike  a  dog  instead 
of  a  wild  beast.  The  farmyard  dog,  which  is  pitted  4 
against  the  wicked  wiles  of  men,  if  the  thief 
approaches  in  the  clear  light  of  day,  has  a  more 
alarming  appearance  if  it  is  black,  whereas  at  night 
it  is  not  even  seen  because  it  resembles  the  shadow  and 
so,  under  the  cover  of  darkness,  the  dog  can  approach 
the  crafty  thief  in  greater  security.  A  squarely 
built  dog  is  preferred  to  one  which  is  long  or  short, 
and  it  should  have  a  head  so  large  as  to  appear  to 
form  the  largest  part  of  it ;  it  should  have  ears  which 
droop  and  hang  down,  eyes  black  or  grey,  sparkling 
with  rays  of  bright  light,  a  broad  and  shaggy  chest, 
wide  shoulders,  thick,  rough  legs  and  a  short  tail; 
the  joints  of  its  feet  and  its  claws,  which  the  Greeks 
call  drakes,  should  be  very  large.  Such  are  the 
points  which  will  meet  with  most  approval  in  all 
farm-yard  dogs.  In  character  they  should  neither  be  5 
very  mild  nor,  on  the  other  hand,  savage  and  cruel ; 
if  they  are  mild,  they  fawn  on  everyone,  including  the 
thief;  if  they  are  fierce  they  attack  even  the  people 
of  the  house.  It  is  enough  that  they  should  be  stern 
but  not  fawning,  so  that  they  sometimes  look  even 
upon  their  companions  in  servitude  with  a  somewhat 
wrathful  eye,  while  they  always  blaze  with  anger 
against  strangers.  Above  all  they  should  be  seen  to 
be  vigilant  in  their  watch  and  not  given  to  wandering, 
but  diligent  and  cautious  rather  than  rash;   for  the 


et   circumspecti   magis   quam   temerarii.^     Nam   illi 
nisi  ^  quod  certum  compererunt,  non  indicant :    hi 

6  vano  strepitu  et  falsa  suspicione  concitantur.  Haec 
idcirco  memoranda  credidi,  quia  non  natura  tantum, 
sed  etiam  disciplina  ^  mores  facit,  ut  et  cum  emendi 
potestas  fuerit,  eiusmodi  probemus,  et  cum  educabi- 

7  mus  domi  natos,  talibus  institutis  ^  formemus.  Nee 
multum  refert  an  ^  villatici  corporibus  graves  et 
parum  veloces  sint :  plus  enim  cominus  et  in  gradu, 
quam  eminus  et  in  spatioso  cursu  facere  debent. 
Nam  semper  circa  septa  et  intra  aedificium  consistere, 
immo  ne  longius  quidem  recedere  debent,  satisque 
pulchre  funguntur  officio,  si  et  advenientem  sagaciter 
odorantur,^  et  latratu  conterrent,  nee  patiuntur 
propius  '  accedere,^  vel  constantius  appropinquantem 
violenter  invadunt.  Primum  est  enim  non  adten- 
tari,  secundum  est  lacessitum  fortiter  et  perseveranter 
vindicari.  Atque  haec  de  domesticis  custodibus; 
ilia  de  pastoralibus.^ 

8  Pecuarius  canis  neque  tam  strigosus  aut  pernix 
debet  esse,  quam  qui  damas  cervosque  et  velocissima 
sectatur  animalia,  nee  tam  obesus  aut  gravis,  quam 
villae  horreique  custos :   sed  et  robustus  nihilominus, 

9  et  aliquatenus  promptus  ac  strenuus,  quoniam  et  ad 
rixam  et  ad  pugnam,  nee  minus  ^"^  ad  cursum  compara- 
tur,  cum   et  lupi  ^^  repellere  insidias,  et  raptorem 

1  temeri  SA. 

"  nam  illi  nisi  ac  :   quam  inlinisi  SA. 

*  disciplina  SA. 

*  institutis  S  :   -i  A. 

*  refert  an  R  :  refertam  an  ^  * :  refertam  SA  ^, 
"  adoriantura:  odorantur  c  :  oderantur  5^^. 
'  proprius  SAac.  *  accidere  8A^. 

*  pastoribus  SAa  :   pastoralibus  c. 

"  tameniS/1.  ii  rupi  S^. 


BOOK  VII.  XII.  5-9 

cautious  do  not  give  the  alarm  unless  they  have 
discovered  something  for  certain,  whereas  the  rash 
are  aroused  by  any  vain  noise  and  groundless 
suspicion.  I  have  thought  it  necessary  to  mention  6 
these  points,  because  it  is  not  nature  alone  but  educa- 
tion as  well  which  forms  character,  so  that,  when  there 
is  an  opportunity  of  buying  a  dog,  we  may  choose  one 
with  these  qualities  and  that  when  we  are  going  to 
train  dogs  which  have  been  born  at  home,  we  may 
bring  them  up  on  such  principles  as  these.  It  does  7 
not  matter  much  if  farm-yard  dogs  are  heavily  built 
and  lack  speed,  since  they  have  to  function  rather  at 
close  quarters  and  where  they  are  posted  than  at  a 
distance  and  over  a  wide  area ;  for  they  should  always 
remain  round  the  enclosures  and  within  the  buildings, 
indeed  they  ought  never  go  out  farther  from  home 
and  can  perfectly  well  carry  out  their  duties  by 
cleverly  scenting  out  anyone  who  approaches  and 
frightening  him  by  barking  and  not  allowing  him  to 
come  any  nearer,  or,  if  he  insists  on  approaching,  they 
violently  attack  him.  Their  first  duty  is  not  to  allow 
themselves  to  be  attacked,  their  second  duty  to  de- 
fend themselves  with  courage  and  pertinacity  if  they 
are  provoked.  So  much  for  the  dogs  which  guard 
the  house;   our  next  subject  is  sheep-dogs. 

A  dog  which  is  to  guard  cattle  ought  not  to  be  as  8 
lean  and  swift  of  foot  as  one  which  pursues  deer  and 
stags  and  the  swiftest  animals,  nor  so  fat  and  heavily 
built  as  the  dog  which  guards  the  farm  and  granary, 
but  he  must,  nevertheless,  be  strong  and  to  a  certain 
extent  prompt  to  act  and  vigorous,  since  the  purpose  9 
for  which  he  is  acquired  is  to  pick  quarrels  and  to 
fight  and  also  to  move  quickly,  since  he  has  to  repel 
the  stealthy  lurking  of  the  wolf  and  to  follow  the 



ferum  consequi  fugientem  praedam  excutere  atque 
auferre  debeat.  Quare  status  ^  eius  longior  pro- 
ductiorque  ad  hos  casus  magis  habilis  est  quam  brevis 
aut  etiam  quadratus :  quoniam,  ut  dixi,  nonnun- 
quam  necessitas  exigit  celeritate  bestiam  ^  con- 
sectandi.  Ceteri  ^  artus  similes  membris  villatici 
canis  aeque  probantur. 

10  Cibaria  fere  eadem  sunt  utrique  generi  praebenda. 
Nam  si  tam  laxa  rura  sunt,  ut  sustineant  *  pecorum 
greges,  omnes  sine  discrimine  canes  hordeacea  farina 
cum  sero  commode  pascit.  Sin  autem  surculo  con- 
situs  ager  sine  pascuo  est,^  farreo  vel  triticeo  pane 
satiandi  sunt,  admixto  tamen  liquore  coctae  fabae, 
sed  tepido :   nam  fervens  ^  rabiem  creat. 

11  Huic  quadrupedi  neque  feminae  neque  mari  nisi 
post  annum  permittenda  venus  est :  quae  si  teneris 
conceditur,  carpit  et  corpus  et  vires  ^  animosque 
degenerat.  Primus  effetae  partus  amovendus  est, 
quoniam  tiruncula  nee  recte  nutrit,  et  educatio  totius 
habitus  aufert  incrementum.  Mares  iuveniliter 
usque  in  annos  decern  progenerant:  post  id 
tempus  ineundis  feminis  non  videntur  habiles, 
quoniam  seniorum  pigra  soboles  existit.  Feminae 
concipiunt  usque  in  annos  novem,  nee  ®  sunt  utiles 

12  post  decimum.  Catulos  sex  mensibus  primis,  dum 
corroborentur,^  emitti  non  oportet,  nisi  ad  matrem 
lusus  ac  lasciviae  causa.     Postea  catenis  per  diem 

^  debeat  quare  status  om.  SA . 

*  celeritate  bestiam  J?  :    celeriteratem  bestii  A^  :    celeriter 
aute  bestii  S. 

'  consectandi  ceteri  It :   consectam  dicere  SA. 

*  sustineat  SA.  *  est  ii  :  et  SA. 

*  fervens  R  :  nam  ferventi  S :   non  aferventi  A. 
'  veteres  SA. 

*  nee  om.  SA.  '  corroboretur  8 A. 


BOOK  VII.  XII.  9-12 

wild  beast  as  he  escapes  with  his  prey  and  make  him 
drop  it  and  to  bring  it  back  again.  Therefore  a  dog 
of  a  rather  long,  slim  build  is  better  able  to  deal  with 
these  emergencies  than  one  which  is  short  or  even 
squarely  built,  since,  as  I  have  said,  sometimes  the 
necessity  of  pursuing  a  wild  beast  with  speed  demands 
this.  The  other  joints  in  sheep-dogs  if  they  resemble 
the  limbs  of  farm-yard  dogs  meet  with  equal  approval. 

Practically  the  same  food  should  be  given  to  both  10 
types  of  dog.  If  the  farm  is  extensive  enough  to 
support  herds  of  cattle,  barley-flour  with  whey  is  a 
suitable  food  for  all  dogs  without  distinction ;  but  if 
the  land  is  closely  planted  with  young  shoots  and 
affords  no  pasture,  they  must  be  given  their  fill  of 
bread  made  from  emmer  or  wheaten  flour,  mixed, 
however,  with  the  liquid  of  boiled  beans,  which  must 
be  lukewarm,  for,  if  it  is  boiling,  it  causes  madness. 

Neither  dogs  nor  bitches  must  be  allowed  to  have  11 
sexual  intercourse  until  they  are  a  year  old ;  for  if 
they  are  allowed  to  do  so  when  they  are  quite  young, 
it  enfeebles  their  bodies  and  their  strength,  and 
causes  them  to  degenerate  mentally.  The  first 
puppies  which  a  bitch  produces  must  be  taken  from 
her,  because  at  the  first  attempt  she  does  not  nourish 
them  properly  and  the  rearing  of  them  hinders  her 
general  bodily  growth.  Dogs  procreate  vigorously 
up  to  ten  years  of  age,  but  beyond  that  they  do  not 
seem  suitable  for  covering  bitches,  for  the  offspring 
of  an  elderly  dog  turns  out  to  be  slow  and  lazy. 
Bitches  conceive  up  to  nine  years  of  age,  but  are  not 
serviceable  after  the  tenth  year.  Puppies  should 
not  be  allowed  to  run  loose  during  the  first  six  months,  12 
until  they  are  grown  strong,  except  to  join  their 
mother  in  sport  and  play ;  later  they  should  be  kept 



continendi,  et  noctibus  solvendi.  Nee  unquam  eos, 
quorum  generosam  ^  volumus  indolem  eonservare, 
patiemur  alienae  nutricis  uberibus  educari :  quoniam 
semper  et  lae  et  spiritus  maternus  longe  magis  ingenii 

13  atque  incrementa  corporis  auget.^  Quod  si  effeta  ^ 
lacte  deficitur,  caprinum  maxime  conveniet  praeberi 
catulis,^  dum  fiant  ^  mensum  quattuor. 

Nominibus  autem  non  longissimis  appellandi  sunt, 
quo  celerius  quisque  vocatus  exaudiat :  nee  tamen 
brevioribus  quam  quae  duabus  syllabis  enuntientur, 
sicuti  Graecum  est  cr/cuAa^,  Latinum  yeroa;,  Graecum 
Aa/ccov,  Latinum  celer :  vel  femina,  ut  sunt  Graeca 
aiTOvdrj,    aXK-q,  pay^r] :     Latina,   lupa,    cerva,    tigris. 

14  Catulorum  caudas  post  diem  quadragesimum,  quam 
sint  editi,  sic  castrare  ^  conveniet.  Nervus  est,  qui  per 
articulos  spinae  prorepit  usque  ad  ultimam  partem 
caudae  :  is  mordicus  '  comprehensus  ®  et  aliquatenus 
eductus  abrumpitur :  quo  facto  neque  in  longitu- 
dinem  cauda  foedum  capit  incrementum,  et,  ut 
plurimi  pastores  affirmant,  rabies  arcetur  letifer 
morbus  huic  generi. 

XIII.  Fere  autem  per  aestatem  sic  muscis  aures 
canum  exulcerantur,  saepe  ut  totas  amittant :  quod 
ne  fiat,  amaris  nucibus  contritis  liniendae  sunt. 
Quod  si  ulceribus  iam  praeoccupatae  fuerint,  coctam 
picem    liquidam    suillae    adipi    mixtam  ^   vulneribus 

1  generosa  SA.  "  aget  SA'^. 

3  et  fata  SA.  *  catulus  SA. 

5  fiat  SAB.  «  siccatrare  S^A^. 

'  modice  SAR. 

"  comprehensus  i?  :  compressus  5^. 

'  mixtam  add.  Aldus. 

"  Xenophon,  Cyneg.,  VII.  5,  gives  a  list  of  8ome  fifty  names 
of  dogs.    They  all  are  words  of  two  syllables. 



on  the  chain  during  the  day  and  let  loose  at  night. 
We  should  never  allow  those  whose  noble  qualities 
we  wish  to  preserve,  to  be  brought  up  at  the  dugs  of 
any  strange  bitch,  since  its  mother's  milk  and  spirit 
always  does  much  more  to  foster  the  growth  of  their 
minds  and  bodies.  But  if  a  bitch  which  has  a  litter  is  13 
deficient  in  milk,  it  will  be  best  to  provide  goats' 
milk  for  the  puppies  until  they  are  four  months  old. 

Dogs  should  be  called  by  names  which  are  not 
very  long,  so  that  each  may  obey  more  quickly  when 
he  is  called,  but  they  should  not  have  shorter  names 
than  those  which  are  pronounced  in  two  syllables," 
such  as  the  Greek  HKvXa^  (puppy)  and  the  Latin 
Ferox  (savage),  the  Greek  AaKcov  (Spartan)  and  the 
Latin  CeZer  (speedy)  or,  for  a  bitch,  the  Greek  UttovSti 
(zeal),  'AXK-q  (Valour),  'PcojU-Ty  (strength)  or  the  Latin 
Lupa  (she-wolf),  Cerva  (hind)  and  Tigris  (tigress).  14 
It  will  be  found  best  to  cut  the  tails  of  puppies  forty 
days  after  birth  in  the  following  manner :  there  is  a 
nerve,  which  passes  along  through  the  joints  of  the 
spine  down  to  the  extremity  of  the  tail ;  this  is  taken 
between  the  teeth  and  drawn  out  a  little  way  and 
then  broken.  As  a  result,  the  tail  never  grows  to  an 
ugly  length  and  (so  many  shepherds  declare)  rabies, 
a  disease  which  is  fatal  to  this  animal,  is  prevented.'' 

XIII.  It  commonly  happens  that  in  the  summer  the  Eemedies 
ears  of  dogs  are  so  full  of  sores  caused  by  flies,  that  eases  of ' 
they  often  lose  their  ears  altogether.     To  prevent  '^°sa. 
this,  the  ears  should  be  rubbed  with  crushed  bitter 
almonds.     If,  however,  the  ears  are  already  covered 
with  sores,  it  will  be  found  a  good  plan  to  drip  boiled 
liquid  pitch  mixed  with  lard  on  the  wounds.     Ticks 

»  This  is  quoted  by  Pliny,  N.H.  VIII.  §  153. 


stillari   conveniet.     Hoc    eodem  ^    medicamine    con- 
tact! ricini  decidunt.     Nam  manu  non  sunt  vellendi, 

2  ne,  ut  et  ante  praedixeram,  faciant  ^  ulcera.^  Puli- 
cosae  cani  remedia  sunt  sive  cyminum  tritum  pari 
pondere  cum  veratro,  aquaque  mixtum  et  inlitum ; 
seu  cucumeris  anguinei  ^  succus :  vel  si  haec  non 
sunt,  vetus  amurca  per  totum  corpus  infusa.  Si 
scabies  infestabit,  gypsi  et  sesami  tantundem  con- 
terito,  et  cum  pice  liquida  permisceto,  vitiosamque 
partem  linito :  quod  medicamentum  putatur  etiam 
hominibus  esse  conveniens.  Eadem  pestis  si  fuerit 
vehementior,  cedrino  ^  liquore  aboletur.  Reliqua 
vitia  sicut  in  ceteris  animalibus  praecepimus,  curanda 

3  Hactenus  de  minore  pecore.  Mox  de  villaticis 
pastionibus,  quae  continent  volucrum  pisciumque  et 
silvestrium  quadrupedum  curam,  sequenti  volumine 

^  edem  S  :  eadem  AR. 

*  faciant  It  :   faciunt  SA. 

'  ulcera  S  :  'ultra  A  :   vulnera  R. 

*  angiiinei  R  :   sanguine!  SA. 

^  vehementior  cedrino  R  :   cedrino  vehementer  SA. 


BOOK  VII.  XIII.  1-3 

also  fall  off  if  they  are  touched  with  this  same  pre- 
paration ;  for  they  ought  not  to  be  plucked  off  by 
hand, lest,  as  we  have  remarked  also  before,  they  cause 
sores.  A  dog  which  is  infested  with  fleas  should  be 
treated  either  with  crushed  cumin  mixed  in  water 
with  the  same  quantity  of  hellebore  and  smeared  on, 
or  else  with  the  juice  of  the  snake-like  cucumber,  or 
if  these  are  unobtainable,  with  stale  oil-lees  poured 
over  the  whole  body.  If  a  dog  is  attacked  by  the 
scab,  gypsum  and  sesame  should  be  ground  together 
in  equal  quantities  and  mixed  with  liquid  pitch  and 
smeared  on  the  part  affected  ;  this  remedy  is  reported 
to  be  suitable  also  for  human  beings.  If  this  plague 
has  become  rather  violent,  it  is  got  rid  of  by  the 
juice  of  the  cedar-tree.  The  other  diseases  of  dogs 
will  have  to  be  treated  according  to  the  instructions 
which  we  have  given  for  the  other  animals. 

So  much  for  the  lesser  domestic  animals.  In  the 
next  book  we  will  give  instructions  about  the  keeping 
of  live  stock  at  the  farm-house,  which  includes  the 
care  of  fowls,  fish  and  four-footed  wild  creatures. 




I.  Quae  fere  consummabant,  Publi  Silvine,  ruris 
experiendi  ^  scientiam,  quaeque  pecuariae  negotia- 
tionis  exigebat  ratio,  septem  memoravimus  libris. 
Hie  nunc  sequentis  numeri  titulum  possidebit :  nee  ^ 
quia  proximam  propriamque  rustici  curam  desiderent 
ea,  quae  dicturi  sumus,  sed  quia  non  alio  loco,  quam 
in   agris   aut  villis   debeant   administrari,   et  tamen 

2  agrestibus  magis,  quam  urbanis  prosint.  Quippe 
villaticae  pastiones,  sicut  pecuariae,  non  minimam 
colono  stipem  conferunt,  cum  et  avium  stercore 
macerrimis  vineis  et  omni  surculo  atque  arvo 
medeantur ;  et  eisdem  familiarem  focum  ^  mensam- 
que  pretiosis  ^  dapibus  opulentent ;  ^  postremo 
venditorum  animalium  pretio  villae  reditum  augeant. 
Quare*  de  hoc  quoque  genere  pastionis  dicendum 

3  censui.  Est  autem  id  fere '  vel  in  villa,  vel  circa 

In  villa  est,  quod  appellant  Graeci  opvidoJvag,  Koi 
TTepicTTepecovas ',  atque  etiam  cum  datur  liquoris  * 
facultas  l^6vorpo<j>€.Za  sedula  cura  exercentur.     Ea 

^  experiendi  SA  :     exercendis  experiendique  a  :    et  exer- 
cendique  c. 
^  nee  om.  SA. 
^  focum  Aac  :  locum  S. 

*  pretiosis  Sac  :   pretioribus  A. 

*  opulentent  A  :   -ant  c  :   -et  S  :   -em  a. 

*  quare  ac  :   c^e  SA.  '  fere  5ac  :  ferret. 

*  liquoris  Aac  :  litoris  S. 



I.  We  have  now,  Publius  Silvinus,  dealt  in  seven  Of  the 
books  with  what  practically  constituted  a  complete  tMs"nd 
account  of  the  science  of  gaining  knowledge  of  the  ^^  °°  *'*'^ 
land  and  all  that  was  required  for  the  business  of 
raising  cattle.  Our  present  book  shall  bear  the 
next  number,  eight,  for  its  title,  not  that  the  subject 
of  which  we  are  going  to  speak  demands  the  close  and 
particular  attention  of  the  farmer,  but  because  it 
ought  not  to  be  undertaken  except  in  the  country  and 
on  the  farm,  and  brings  benefit  to  country-folk  rather 
than  to  town-dwellers.  For  the  keeping  of  animals  2 
at  the  farm,  as  of  cattle  on  the  pasture,  brings  no 
small  profit  to  farmers,  since  they  use  the  dung  of 
fowls  to  doctor  the  leanest  vines  and  every  kind  of 
young  tree  and  every  kind  of  soil,  and  with  the  fowls 
themselves  they  enrich  the  family  kitchen  and  table 
by  providing  rich  fare ;  and,  lastly,  with  the  price 
which  they  obtain  by  selling  animals  they  increase 
the  revenue  of  the  farm.  Therefore  I  have  thought 
it  fitting  that  I  should  speak  also  of  the  keeping  of 
this  kind  of  animal.  But  it  is  generally  carried  on 
either  at  the  farm  or  in  its  neighbourhood. 

At  the  farm  there  are  what  the  Greeks  call  opvL-  3 
^cDi^e?  and  TrepiGTepecbveg  (poultry-houses  and  dove- 
cotes), and  also,  where  a  supply  of  water  is  available, 
lxdvorpo<f)eXa  (fish-ponds),  the  management  of  which 
requires    unremitting   care.     All   these,   to    use    by 


VOL.  II.  M 


sunt  omnia,  ut  Latine  potius  loquamur,  sicut  avium 
cohortalium  stabula,  nee  minus  earum,  quae  con- 
clavibus  saeptae  saginantur,  vel  aquatilium  animalium 
4  receptacula.  Rursus  circa  villam  ponuntur  /xeAta- 
aciJves  Kal  ;j^rjvoTpo^era,  quin  etiam  Xayorpot^ela 
studiose  administrantur,quae  nos  similiter  appellamus 
apum  cubilia,  apiaria,  vel  nantium  volucrum,  quae 
stagnis  piscinisque  laetantur,  aviaria,  vel  etiam 
pecudum  silvestrium,  quae  nemoribus  clausis  custo- 
diuntur,  vivaria. 

II.  Prius  igitur  de  his  praecipiam,  quae  intra  saepta 
villae  pascuntur.i  Ac  de  aliis  quidem  forsitan 
ambigatur,2  an  sint  agrestibus  possidenda :  galli- 
narum  vero  plerumque  agricolae  cura  solennis  est. 
Earum  genera  sunt  vel  cohortalium,^  vel  rusticarum 

2  vel  Africanarum.  Cohortalis  est  avis,  quae  vulgo 
per  omnes  fere  villas  conspicitur :  rustica,  quae  non 
dissimilis  villaticae  per  aucupem  decipitur,  eaque 
plurima  est  in  insula,  quam  nautae  in  Ligustico  marl 
sitam  producto  nomine  alitis  Gallinariam  vocita- 
verunt:  Africana  est,  quam  plerique  Numidicam 
dicunt,  Meleagridi  similis,  nisi  quod  rutilam  galeam 
et    cristam    capite  *    gerit,    quae    utraque    sunt    in 

3  Meleagride  caerulea.  Sed  ex  his  tribus  generibus 
cohortales  feminae  proprie  appellantur  gallinae, 
mares  autem  galli,  semimares  capi,  qui  hoc  nomine 

^  post  pascuntur  add.  quod  sint  genera  gallinarum  ac. 

2  ambigatur  c  :  ambigantur  SAa. 

'  cohortalium  A  :   chortalium  S.  *  capite  om.  8. 

"  Variously  identified  as  hazel-hen,  heath-hen,  field-hen  and 
red-legged  partridge. 

*  This  island  is  still  called  by  this  name  and  lies  off  Albengo, 
three  miles  E.  of  Alassio  on  the  Italian  Riviera. 

'  Probably  the  guinea-fowl. 


BOOK  VIII.  I.  3-II.  3 

preference  the  terms  employed  in  our  own  language, 
are  enclosures  for  farm-yard  fowls  and  likewise  for 
birds  which  are  fattened  in  coops,  or  else  for  aquatic 
animals.  On  the  other  hand,  in  the  neighbourhood  4 
of  the  farm  [xeXLcraaJves  and  x^^^'^P^^^^'^  (bee-hives 
and  goose-pens)  find  their  place,  and  there  are  also 
carefully  managed  XayoTpocf)€La  (feeding-places  for 
hares).  To  these  we  give  a  set  of  similar  names, 
speaking  of  apiaries,  where  bees  are  lodged,  aviaries 
for  swimming  birds  which  take  their  pleasure  in  pools 
and  fish-ponds,  and  vivaria  for  wild  creatures  which 
are  confined  in  enclosed  woodlands. 

II.  First  then  I  will  give  instructions  about  the  of  the 
creatures  which  are  fed  within  the  precincts  of  the  of "a'rm-^''^*^ 
farm.     With    regards    to     other     animals    it     may  yard 
perhaps  be  doubted  whether  country  people  should  ^°"  '^^' 
possess  them  ;   but  the  keeping  of  hens  by  farmers  is 
quite    a    general    practice.     They    fall    into    three 
classes,  the  farm-yard  fowl,  the  "  rustic  "-hen  ^  and  the 
African    fowl.      The    farm-yard    fowl    is    the    bird  2 
commonly  to  be  seen  on  almost  every  farm.     The 
"  rustic  "-cock  which  is  not  very  different  from  the 
farm-yard  bird  and  is  caught  by  the  wiles  of  the 
fowler,  is  found  in  the  greatest  number  in  the  island 
in  the  Ligurian  sea  to  which  sailors  have  given  the 
name  Gallinaria,''  a  lengthened  form  of  the  Latin 
word  for  hen.     The  African  fowl,"  which  most  people 
call    Numidian,    resembles    the    meleagris,^    except 
that  it  has  on  its  head  a  red  helmet  and  crest,  both  of 
which  are  blue  on  the  meleagris.     Of  these  three  kinds  3 
the  female  farm-yard  fowls  alone  are  properly  called 
hens,  its  males  being  called  cocks  and  the  half-males 

^  Our  term  for  the  turkey  family,  Meleagridae,  is  derived 
from  this  word. 


vocantur,  cum  sunt  castrati  libidinis  abolendae  causa. 
Nee  tamen  id  patiuntur  amissis  genitalibus,  sed  ferro 
candente  calcaribus  inustis,  quae  cum  ignea  vi  con- 
sumpta  sunt,  facta  ulcera  dum  consanescant,  figulari 
creta  linuntur. 

4  Huius  igitur  villatici  generis  non  spernendus  est 
reditus,  si  adhibeatur  educandi  scientia,  quam  pleri- 
que  Graecorum  et  praecipue  celebravere  Deliaci. 
Sed  et  hi,  quoniam  procera  corpora  et  animos  ^  ad 
proelia  pertinaces  requirebant,  praecipue  Tanagri- 
cum  genus  et  Rhodium  probabant,  nee  minus  Chalci- 
dicum  2  et  Medicum,  quod  ab  imperito  vulgo  htera 

5  mutata  Melicum  appellatur.  Nobis  nostrum  verna- 
eulum  maxime  placet :  omisso  tamen  illo  studio 
Graecorum,  qui  ferocissimum  quemque  alitem  certa- 
minibus  et  pugnae  praeparabant.  Nos  enim  cense- 
mus  instituere  vectigal  industrii  patrisfamilias,  non 
rixosaruni  ^  avium  lanistae,  cuius  plerumque  totum 
patrimonium,  pignus  aleae,  victor  gallinaceus  pyetes 

6  Igitur  cui  placebit  sequi  nostra  praecepta,  con- 
sideret  oportet  primum  quam  multas,  et  cuiusmodi 
parare  debeat  matrices,  deinde  qualiter  eas  tutari  *  et 
pascere ;  mox  quibus  anni  temporibus  earum  partus 
exeipere;  tum  demum  ut  incubent  et  excludant 
efficere ;     postremo    ut    commode    pulli    educentur 

^  animos  ac  :  animos-a  (a  erasa)  A  :  animosa  S. 

*  calchidicum  Sc  :   calcidicum  Aa. 
'  rixiosarum  Sa. 

*  tutari  SAc  :  tueri  a. 

"  From  Tanagra  in  Boeotia. 

^  From  Chalcis  in  the  island  of  Euboea. 

'  I.e.  Persian. 

BOOK  VIII.  II.  3-6 

capons  ;  they  are  given  this  name  because  they  have 
been  castrated  to  rid  them  of  sexual  desire.  They 
do  not,  however,  suffer  castration  by  the  loss  of  their 
genital  organs  but  by  having  their  spurs  burnt  with 
a  red-hot  iron ;  when  these  have  been  consumed  by 
the  force  of  the  fire,  they  are  smeared  with  potter's 
clay  until  the  sores  which  have  been  caused  heal  up. 

The  profit  from  keeping  the  farm-yard  type  of  fowl  4 
is  not  to  be  despised  if  a  scientific  method  of  rearing 
them  is  put  into  operation,  which  most  of  the  Greeks 
and  in  particular  the  people  of  Delos  have  made 
famous.  The  Greeks,  however,  since  they  desired 
height  of  body  and  determined  courage  in  the  fray, 
esteemed  most  highly  the  Tanagran  "  and  Rhodian 
breeds  and  likewise  the  Chalcidian  ^  and  Median " 
(called  by  the  ignorant  vulgar  Melian,'*  by  the  change 
of  one  letter).  We  take  most  pleasure  in  our  own  5 
native  breed ;  however,  we  lack  the  zeal  displayed  by 
the  Greeks  who  prepared  the  fiercest  birds  they  could 
find  for  contests  and  fighting.  Our  aim  is  to  establish 
a  source  of  income  for  an  industrious  master  of  a 
house,  not  for  a  trainer  of  quarrelsome  birds,  whose 
whole  patrimony,  pledged  in  a  gamble,  generally  is 
snatched  from  him  by  a  victorious  fighting  ^-cock. 

He,  therefore,  who  shall  be  minded  to  follow  our  6 
instructions,  should  consider  first  with  how  many  and 
what  kind  of  breeding-hens  he  ought  to  provide 
himself,  and  then  how  he  ought  to  look  after  and 
feed  them  ;  next,  at  what  seasons  of  the  year  he  ought 
to  reserve  the  eggs  which  they  produce ;  then  he 
should  arrange  for  their  setting  and  hatching,  and 
finally  take  thought  for  the  proper  rearing  of  the 

^  I.e.  from  the  island  of  Melos,  one  of  the  Cyclades. 
'  A  '  boxer.' 



operam  dare.     His  enim  curis  et  ministeriis  exercetur 
ratio  cohortalis,  quam  Graeci  vocant  6pvidorpo<j>iav. 

7  Parandi  autem  modus  est  ducentorum  capitum, 
quae  pastoris  unius  curam  dispendant  ^ :  dum  tamen 
anus  sedula  vel  puer  adhibeatur  custos  vagantium, 
ne  obsidiis  hominum,  aut  insidiatorum  ^  animalium 
diripiantur.  Mercari  porro  nisi  fecundissimas  aves 
non  expedit.  Eae  sint  rubicundae  vel  infuscae  ^ 
plumae,  nigrisque  pinnis  * :  ac  si  fieri  poterit,  omnes 
huius,  et  ab  hoc  proximi  coloris  eligantur.  Sin  aliter, 
vitentur  ^  albae  ;  quae  fere  cum  sint  molles  ac  minus 
vivaces,  tum  ne  fecundae  quidem  facile  reperi- 
untur :  ^  atque  etiam  conspicuae  propter  insigne 
candoris   ab   accipitribus   et   aquilis   saepius    abripi- 

8  untur.  Sint  ergo  matrices  robii  coloris  "^  quadratae, 
pectorosae,  magnis  capitibus,  rectis  rutilisque  cristu- 
lis,^  albis  auribus,  et  sub  hac  specie  quam  amplissi- 
mae,  nee  paribus  ungulis :  ^  generosissimaeque  ^^ 
creduntur,  quae  quinos  habent  digitos,  sed  ita  ne 
cruribus  emineant  transversa  calcaria.  Nam  quae 
hoc  virile  gerit  insigne,  contumax  ad  concubitum 
dedignatur  ^^  admittere  marem,  raroque  fecunda, 
etiam  cum  incubat,  calcis  aculeis  ova  perfringit. 

^  dispendeat  c  :   distendant  SAa. 

^  insidiatorum  8A  :  insidiosonim  ac. 

'  infuscae  SAc  :   fuscae  a. 

*  pinnis  SAc  :  pennis  a. 

^  vitentur  a  :  evitentur  c  :   viterbitentur  8 A. 

'  reperiantur  codd. 

'  robii  coloris  S  :  robusta  coloris  A  :  probi  coloris  ac. 

*  rectis  rutulisque  cristulis  c  :  rectis  rutilis  SA  :    rectilis 
(rectis  a^)  rutulisque  cristulis  a^. 

*  ungulis  ac  :   unguibus  <Syl. 

10  generosissimeque  ac  :   generosis  eque  8  :  generosis  seque 


BOOK  VIII.  11.  6-8 

chickens.  For  it  is  by  attention  to  these  points  and 
management  that  the  business  of  poultry-keeping, 
which  the  Greeks  call  6pvi6orpo(l>ia  (bird-rearing),  is 
carried  out. 

Two  hundred  head  are  the  limit  which  should  be  7 
acquired  fully  to  employ  the  care  of  one  person  to 
feed  them,  provided,  however,  that  an  industrious 
old  woman  or  a  boy  be  set  to  watch  over  the  fowls 
which  go  astray,  so  that  they  may  not  be  carried  off 
by  the  wiles  of  men  or  of  animals  which  lie  in  wait 
for  them.  Further  only  the  most  prolific  fowls 
should  be  bought.  They  should  have  red  or  darkish 
plumage  and  black  wings ;  and,  if  this  is  possible, 
they  should  be  chosen  of  the  latter  colour  all  over 
and  of  the  nearest  colour  to  it.  Failing  these  colours, 
white  hens  should  be  avoided ;  for,  while  they  are 
delicate  and  not  very  long-lived,  it  is  also  not  easy  to 
find  white  fowls  which  are  prolific :  also,  being  con- 
spicuous owing  to  their  remarkably  light  colour  they 
are  rather  often  carried  off  by  hawks  and  eagles.  Let  8 
your  brood-hens,  therefore,  be  of  a  red  colour,  square- 
built,  big-breasted,  with  large  heads,  straight,  red 
crests,  white  ears  ;  they  should  be  the  largest  obtain- 
able which  present  this  appearance  and  should  not 
have  an  even  number  of  claws.  Those  are  reckoned 
the  best-bred  which  have  five  toes  °  but  without  any 
cross-spurs  proj  ecting  from  their  legs ;  for  a  hen 
which  has  this  masculine  characteristic  is  refractory 
and  disdains  to  admit  the  male  to  intercourse 
and  is  rarely  prolific,  and,  when  she  does  sit, 
breaks  the  eggs  with  the  sharp  points  of  her 

"  I.e.  four  claws  and  one  spur  on  each  leg. 

dedignatur  Sac  :   dedignatam  A. 



9  Gallinaceos  mares  nisi  salacissimos  habere  non 
expedit.  Atque  in  his  quoque  sicut  in  feminis,  idem 
color,  idemque  numerus  unguium,  status  altior  quaeri- 
tur :  sublimes,  sanguineaeque,  nee  obliquae  cristae : 
ravidi,^  vel  nigrantes  oculi :  brevia  et  adunca  rostra : 
maximae  candidissimaeque  aures :  paleae  ^  ex  rutilo 
albicantes,  quae  velut  incanae  barbae  dependent : 
iubae  ^  deinde  variae,  vel  ex  auro  flavae,  per  colla 

10  cervicesque  in  humeros  diffusae :  turn  lata  et  muscu- 
losa  pectora,  lacertosaeque  similes  bracchiis  alae, 
tum  proeerissimae  caudae,  duplici  ordine,  singulis 
utrinque  prominentibus  pinnis  inflexae :  quinetiam 
vasta  femina  *  et  frequenter  horrentibus  plumis 
hirta :    robusta  crura,  nee  longa,  sed  infestis  velut 

11  sudibus  nocenter  armata.  Mares  ^  autem,  quamvis 
non  ad  pugnam  neque  ad  victoriae  laudem  prae- 
parentur,  maxime  tamen  generosi  probantur,  ut 
sint  elati,  alacres,  vigilaces,  et  ad  saepius  canendum 
prompti,  nee  qui  facile  terreantur :  nam  interdum 
resistere  debent,  et  protegere  coniugalem  gregem : 
quin  et  attoUentem  minas  serpentem,  vel  aliud 
noxium  animal  interficere. 

12  Talibus  autem  maribus  quinae  singulis  feminae 
comparantur.®  Nam  Rhodii  generis  aut  Medici 
propter  gravitatem  neque  patres  nimis  salaces,  nee 
fecundae  matres :  quae  tamen  ternae  singulis 
maritantur.  Et  cum  pauca  ova  posuerunt,  inertes 
ad  incubandum,  multoque   magis  ad  excludendum, 

1  ravidi  edd.  :   rabidi  c  :   rubidi  SA  :  'rubicundi  a. 

*  paleae  Aac  :   galeae  S. 

*  iubae  om.  A. 

*  femina  Aac  :   femini  8. 

*  mares  8Aac. 

*  comparantur  Aac  :   comparant  8. 


BOOK  VIII.  n.  9-12 

It  is  advisable  not  to  keep  any  but  the  most  salaci-  9 
ous  cock-birds  and  the  same  colour  as  in  hens,  and  the 
same  number  of  claws  is  looked  for  in  them,  but  a 
loftier  stature.  Their  crest  should  be  high,  blood-red 
and  not  crooked,  their  eyes  darkish  or  tending 
towards  black,  their  beaks  short  and  hooked,  their 
ears  very  large  and  white,  their  wattles  bright-red 
tending  towards  white  and  hanging  down  like  grey 
beards,  their  head-feathers  of  different  colours  or  gold 
shading  into  yellow  and  extending  over  their  throats 
and  necks  on  to  their  shoulders.  Their  chests  should  10 
be  broad  and  muscular,  their  wings  brawny  and  like 
arms,  and  their  tails  very  prominent  and  divided  into 
two  halves,  bending  over  with  a  single  projecting 
feather  on  each  side.  They  should  also  have  huge 
thighs,  thickly  covered  with  bristling  feathers ;  their 
legs  should  be  robust  but  not  long,  and  armed  for 
offence  with  what  may  be  described  as  stakes  ready 
for  the  attack.  These  male  birds,  though  they  are  11 
not  being  trained  for  fighting  and  the  glory  of 
winning  prizes,  are,  nevertheless,  esteemed  as 
well-bred  if  they  are  proud,  lively,  watchful  and 
ready  to  crow  frequently  and  not  easily  to  be 
frightened ;  for  on  occasion  they  have  to  act  on  the 
defensive  and  protect  their  flock  of  wives,  nay,  even 
to  slay  a  snake  which  rears  its  threatening  head  or 
some  other  hurtful  animal. 

For  such  male  birds  as  these  five  hens  each  are  12 
provided.  Of  the  Rhodian  and  Median  breeds  the 
father-birds  are  not  very  salacious  on  account  of  their 
heavy  build,  nor  are  the  mother-birds  very  prolific : 
however,  three  hens  are  mated  with  each  cock-bird. 
And  when  they  have  laid  a  few  eggs,  they  are  lazy  about 
sitting  on  them  and  much  more  so  about  hatching 



raro  fetus  suos  educant.  Itaque  quibus  cordi  est  ea 
genera  propter  corporum  speciem  possidere,  cum 
exceperunt    ova    generosarum,    vulgaribus    gallinis 

13  subiciunt,  ut  ab  his  exclusi  ^  pulli  nutriantur.  Tana- 
grici  plerumque  Rhodiis  ^  et  Medicis  amplitudine 
pares,  non  multum  moribus  a  vernaculis  distant,  sicut 
et  Chalcidici.  Omnium  tamen  horum  generum 
nothi  3  sunt  optimi  *  pulli,  quos  conceptos  ex  pere- 
grinis  maribus  nostrates  ediderunt.  Nam  et  pater- 
nam  speciem  gerunt,  et  salacitatem  fecunditatemque 

14  vernaculam  retinent.  Pumiles  ^  aves,  nisi  quem 
humilitas  earum  delectat,  nee  propter  fecunditatem, 
nee  propter  alium  reditum  nimium  probo,  tam  • 
hercule,  quam  nee  pugnacem  ac  '^  rixosae  ^  libidinis 
marem.  Nam  plerumque  ceteros  infestat,  et  non 
patitur  inire  feminas,  cum  ipse  pluribus  sufficere  non 

15  queat.  Impedienda  est  itaque  procacitas  eius 
ampullaceo  corio ;  quod  cum  in  orbiculum  formatum 
est,  media  pars  eius  rescinditur,  et  per  excisam 
partem  galli  pes  inseritur :  eaque  quasi  compede 
cohibentur  feri  mores.  Sed,  ut  proposui,  iam  de 
tutela  generis  universi  praecipiam. 

III.  Gallinaria  constitui  debent  parte  villae,  quae 
hibernum  spectat  orientem :  iuncta  sint  ea  furno  vel 
culinae,  ut  ad  avem  perveniat  fumus,  qui  est  huic 

1  exclusi  ac  :  excussi  S  :   excusi  A. 

*  Rhodiis  ac  :   Hrodiis  S  :   Hordiis  A.  '  noti  ac. 

*  post  optimi  add.  sunt  SA. 

^  pumiles  Ac  :  pumileas  S  :  humiles  a. 

*  probo  tam  c  :   probatam  Sa  :   -um  A. 
'  ac  serif  si :   nee  codd. 

*  rixose  a  :  risose  c  :  rixo  SA. 


BOOK  VIII.  II.  i2-in.  I 

them,  and  they  rarely  bring  up  their  own  oifspring. 
Those,  therefore,  whose  hearts  are  set  on  possessing 
these  breeds  on  account  of  their  fine  appearance, 
when  they  have  set  aside  the  eggs  of  the  well-bred 
hens,  put  them  under  ordinary  hens,  in  order  that 
the  chickens  when  they  are  hatched  may  be  brought 
up  by  the  latter.  Tanagran  fowls,  which  are  usually  13 
equal  in  size  to  the  Rhodian  and  Median,  do  not 
differ  greatly  from  our  native  fowls  in  disposition,  and 
the  same  is  true  of  the  Chalcidian.  But  of  all  these 
breeds  the  cross-bred  chickens  are  the  best,  which 
our  own  hens  have  produced  after  conceiving  them 
by  foreign  male  birds  ;  for  they  show  the  fine  appear- 
ence  of  their  fathers  and  their  own  native  salacious- 
ness  and  productivity.  I  do  not  highly  commend  14 
bantam-hens  either  for  their  fecundity  or  for  any  other 
return  which  they  give — unless  one  takes  a  pleasure 
in  their  low  stature— just  as  indeed  I  do  not  commend 
the  bantam-cock  either,  which  is  given  to  fighting 
and  whose  lust  makes  him  quarrelsome.  For  it 
generally  attacks  the  other  cock-birds  and  does  not 
allow  them  to  cover  the  hens,  though  it  cannot  itself 
suffice  for  a  large  number  of  hens.  Its  petulance,  15 
therefore,  must  be  checked  by  means  of  a  piece  of 
leather  from  an  old  flask,  of  which,  after  it  has  been 
formed  into  a  round  shape,  the  middle  part  is  cut 
away  and  the  cock's  foot  is  inserted  through  this 
cut-out  part,  and  by  this  kind  of  shackle  its  fierce 
disposition  is  restrained.  But,  as  I  proposed,  I  will 
now  give  directions  for  the  care  of  poultry  in  general. 

III.  Hen-houses  should  be  placed  in  the  part  of  the  now  to  ^  ^ 
farm  which  faces  the  rising  sun  in  winter  and  should  house. 
adjoin  the  oven  or  the  kitchen,  so  that  the  smoke, 
which  is  particularly  beneficial  to  this  kind  of  animal, 



generi  praecipue  salutaris.  Totius  autem  officinae, 
id  est  ornithonis,  tres  continuae  extruuntur  celiac, 
quarum,    sicuti    dixi,    perpetua    frons    orienti  ^    sit 

2  obversa.  In  ea  deinde  fronte  exiguus  detur  unus 
omnino  aditus  mediae  celiac ;  quae  ipsa  e  tribus 
minima  esse  debet  in  altitudinem  et  quoquoversus 
pedes  septem.  In  ea  singuli  ^  dextro  laevoque  pariete 
aditus  ad  utramque  cellam  faciendi  sunt,  iuncti 
parieti,  qui  est  intrantibus  adversus.  Huic  autem 
focus  applicetur  tarn  longe,  ut  nee  impediat  prae- 
dictos  aditus,  et  ab  eo  fumus  perveniat  in  utramque 
cellam :  eaeque  longitudinis  et  altitudinis  duodenos 
pedes    habeant,   nee   plus   latitudinis    quam   media. 

3  Sublimitas  dividatur  tabulatis,  quae  supra  se  quater- 
nos,  et  infra  septenos  liberos  pedes  habeant,  quoniam 
ipsa  singulos  occupant.  Utraque  tabulata  gallinis 
servire  debent,  et  ea  parvis  ab  oriente  singulis  illu- 
minari  fenestellis,  quae  et  ipsae  matutinum  exitum 
praebeant  avibus  ^  ad  cohortem,  nee  minus  vesper- 
tinum  introitum.  Sed  curandum  erit,  ut  semper 
noctibus  claudantur,  quo  tutius  aves  maneant.  Infra 
tabulata  maiores  fenestellae  *  aperiantur,  et  eae 
clatris  muniantur,  ne  possint  noxia  irrepere  animalia  : 
sic   tamen,    ut    illustria   sint    loca,    quo   commodius 

4  aditet  ^  aviarius,  qui  ^  subinde  debet  speculari  aut 
incubantes  aut  parturientes  fetus.  Nam  etiam  in 
iis  ipsis  locis  ita  crassos  parietes  aedificare  convenit, 

^  orienti  Schneider  :   orientem  coM. 

*  singuli  Sac  :   singula  A. 
^  avibus  ac  :   animoa  SA. 

*  fenestellae  SAa  :   fenestrae  c,  Schneider. 

*  aditet  Schneider  :   habitet  codd. 

*  qui  ac  :   quia  S  :   qua  A. 


BOOK  VIII.  III.  1-4 

may  reach  the  fowls.  Three  adjacent  cells  are  con- 
structed to  form  the  whole  building  or  poultry-house 
and,  as  I  have  said,  their  continuous  front  should 
face  the  east.  In  this  front  there  should  be  one  small  2 
entrance  provided  leading  into  the  middle  cell,  which 
in  itself  should  be  the  smallest  of  the  three,  being 
seven  feet  in  height  and  in  its  other  dimensions.  In 
this  cell  entrances  should  be  made  in  the  right  and  left 
party  walls,  one  leading  to  each  of  the  other  two  cells 
and  adjoining  the  wall  which  faces  those  who  enter  the 
central  cell.  To  this  wall  a  hearth  should  be  fixed 
of  such  a  length  as  not  to  block  the  entrances 
already  mentioned  and  to  allow  the  smoke  from  it  to 
penetrate  into  each  of  the  other  two  cells.  These 
latter  should  have  a  length  and  height  of  twelve  feet 
and  no  more  breadth  than  the  middle  cell.  The  3 
height  should  be  divided  up  by  lofts  with  four  un- 
occupied feet  above  them  and  seven  below,  since 
they  themselves  take  up  one  foot.  Both  lofts 
ought  to  be  used  to  accommodate  the  hens  and 
should  each  be  lighted  by  a  small  v^dndow  on  the 
east  side,  which  may  also  provide  the  birds  with  a 
means  of  exit  in  the  morning  into  the  poultry-yard 
and  a  means  of  entrance  in  the  evening ;  but  care 
must  be  taken  that  they  are  always  kept  closed  at 
night  that  the  fowls  may  remain  in  greater  safety. 
Below  the  lofts  larger  windows  should  be  opened  up  and 
secured  with  lattice-work,  that  harmful  animals  may  not 
be  able  to  creep  in, but  at  the  same  time  so  constructed 
that  the  interior  may  be  well  lighted,  so  that  the 
poultry-keeper,  who  ought  from  time  to  time  to  keep 
an  eye  upon  the  hens  when  they  are  sitting  and  hatch- 
ing their  young,  may  more  conveniently  visit  them. 
For  in  the  hen-houses  themselves  too  the  walls  should  4 



ut  excisa  per  ordinem  gallinarum  cubilia  recipiant : 
in  quibus  aut  ova  edantur,  aut  excludantur  pulli :  hoc 
enim  et  salubrius  et  elegantius  est,  quam  illud,  quod 
quidam  faciunt,  ut,  palis  in  parietes  vehementer  actis 

5  vimineos  qualos  superimponant.^  Sive  autem  parie- 
tibus  ita,  ut  diximus,  cavatis,  sive  qualis  ^  vimineis  ^ 
praeponenda  erunt  vestibula,  per  quae  *  matrices 
ad  cubilia  vel  pariendi  vel  incubandi  causa  per- 
veniant.     Neque   enim   debent  ipsis  nidis  involare,^ 

6  ne  dum  adsiliunt,  pedibus  ova  confringant.  Ascensus 
deinde  avibus  ad  tabulata  per  utramque  cellam  datur 
iunctis  parieti  modicis  asserculis,  qui  paulum  formatis 
gradibus  asperantur,  ne  sint  advolantibus  lubrici. 
Sed  ab  cohorte  forinsecus  praedictis  ^  fenestellis 
scandulae  similiter  iniungantur,  quibus  irrepant  aves 
ad  requiem  nocturnam.  Maxime  autem  curabimus 
ut  et  haec  aviaria  et  cetera,  de  quibus  mox  dicturi 
sumus,  intrinsecus  et  extrinsecus  '  poliantur  opera 
tectorio,  ne  ®  ad  ^  aves  feles  habeant  aut  coluber 
accessum,  et  aeque  noxiae  prohibeantur  pestes. 

7  Tabulatis  insistere  dormientem  avem  non  expedit, 
ne  suo  laedatur  stercore ;  quod  cum  pedibus  uncis 
adhaesit,  podagram  creat.  Ea  pernicies  ut  evitetur, 
perticae  dolantur  in  quadrum,  ne  teres  levitas  earum 
supersilientem  volucrem  non  recipiat.     Conquadratae 

^  superponant  a  :   -ent  SA  :   -at  c. 
2  qualis  c  :    qualem  SA  :   qualos  a. 

*  vimineis  c  :  -os  SAa. 

*  que  SAac. 

*  inbolare  8 A. 

*  praedictis  SAac. 

'  et  extrinsecus  ac  :   om.  SA. 

*  ne  a  :  neque  SAc. 

*  ad  om.  A. 


BOOK  VIII.  III.  4-7 

be  built  so  thick  as  to  allow  nesting-places  for  the  hens 
to  be  cut  out  of  them  in  a  row,  where  either  the  eggs 
may  be  laid  or  the  chickens  hatched ;  for  this  is  both 
healthier  and  neater  than  what  some  people  do  when 
they  forcibly  drive  pegs  into  the  walls  and  support 
wicker-work  baskets  on  them.  But  in  front  of  either  5 
the  walls  which  have  been  hollowed,  as  we  have 
described,  or  of  the  wicker-work  basket,  porches  must 
be  placed  through  which  the  breeding-hens  may  reach 
their  nests  for  the  purpose  of  either  laying  eggs  or 
sitting  on  them ;  for  they  ought  not  to  fly  into  the 
nests  themselves,  lest,  as  they  leap  into  them,  they 
break  the  eggs  with  their  feet.  Next  a  means  of  6 
ascent  for  the  hens  to  the  lofts  across  each  of  the 
cells  is  provided  by  attaching  to  the  wall  moderately 
sized  planks  which  are  roughened  a  little  by  having 
steps  made  on  them,  so  that  the  hens  may  not  find 
them  shppery  when  they  fly  on  to  them.  Similarly 
httle  ladders  should  be  attached  on  the  outside  lead- 
ing from  the  poultry-yard  to  the  little  windows 
mentioned  above,  by  which  the  birds  may  creep  in 
for  their  nightly  repose.  But  we  shall  take  particular 
care  that  these  poultry-houses  and  those  about  which 
we  shall  be  speaking  presently,  are  made  smooth, 
within  and  without,  with  plaster-work,  so  that  no  cat 
or  snake  may  have  access  to  the  fowls  and  that 
equally  hurtful  pests  may  be  kept  away. 

It  is  not  expedient  that  the  hen  should  rest  on  a  7 
loft's  floor  when  it  is  asleep,  lest  it  be  harmed  by 
its  OAvn  dung,  because  this,  if  it  has  adhered  to  its 
crooked  feet,  causes  gout.  That  this  calamity  may  be 
avoided,  perches  should  be  hewn  square  lest  their 
rounded  smoothness  should  fail  to  give  the  bird  a 
good  hold  when  it  springs  up.     After  being  squared 



deinde  foratis  duobus  adversis  parietibus  induuntur,^ 
ita  ut  a  tabulate  pedalis  altitudinis,  et  inter  se 
bipedalis  latitudinis  spatio  distent. 

8  Haec  erit  cohortalis  officinae  dispositio.  Ceterum 
cohors  ipsa,  per  quam  vagantur,  non  tarn  stercore, 
quam  uligine  careat.  Nam  plurimum  refert  aquam 
non  esse  in  ea  nisi  uno  loco,  quam  bibant,  eamque 
mundissimam :  nam  stercorosa  pituitam  concitat. 
Puram  tamen  servare  non  possis,  nisi  clausam  vasis  ^ 
in  hunc  usum  fabricatis.  Sunt  autem,  qui  aut  aqua 
replentur  aut  cibo  plumbei  canales,  quos  magis  utiles 

9  esse  ligneis  aut  fictilibus  ^  compertum  est.  Hi  super- 
positis  operculis  clauduntur,  et  a  lateribus  super 
mediam  partem  altitudinis  per  spatia  palmaria 
modicis  forantur  cavis,  ita  ut  avium  capita  possint 
admittere.  Nam  nisi  operculis  muniantur,  quan- 
tulumcunque  aquae  *  vel  ciborum  inest,  pedibus 
everritur.  Sunt  qui  a  superiore  parte  foramina  ipsis 
operculis  imponant ;  quod  fieri  non  oportet.  Nam  ^ 
supersiliens  avis  proluvie  ventris  cibos  et  aquam 

IV.  Cibaria  gallinis  praebentur  optima  pinsitum 
hordeum  et  vinacea  ^  nee  minus  cicercula,  tum  etiam 
milium,  aut  panicum :  sed  haec  ubi  vilitas  annonae 
permittit.  Ubi  vero  ea  est  carior,  excreta  tritici 
minuta  commode  dantur.  Nam  per  se  id  frumen- 
tum,  etiam  quibus  locis  vilissimum  est,  non  utiliter 
praebetur,  quia  obest  avibus.     Potest  etiam  lolium 

^  induuntur  a  :   induunt  SAc. 

*  vasi  a  :   vasis  c  :    basis  SA. 

*  ligneis  et  (aut  A)  fictilibus  S  :  ligneos  aut  fictiles  ac. 

*  aqtiae  om.  A. 

'  quam  SA  :  nam  a  :  tam  c.      •  vinacia  SA  :  vicia  ac. 

'  I.e.  chaff. 

BOOK  VIII.  III.  7-iv.  I 

the  poles  should  be  fixed  in  holes  in  two  walls  which 
face  one  another,  so  that  they  may  be  a  foot  in 
height  above  the  loft  floor  and  two  feet  in  breadth 
away  from  one  another. 

Such  will  be  the  arrangement  of  the  hen-house  in  8 
thepoultry-yard.  But  the  poultry-yard  itself,  through 
which  the  hens  wander,  should  be  free  not  so  much 
from  dung  as  from  moisture ;  for  it  is  extremely 
important  that  there  should  be  no  water  in  it  except 
in  one  place,  namely,  the  water  for  them  to  drink  and 
that  water  should  be  very  clean  (for  water  which  has 
dung  in  it  gives  fowls  the  pip),  yet  you  cannot  keep 
it  clean  unless  it  is  enclosed  in  vessels  made  for  the 
purpose.  But  there  are  leaden  troughs  which  are 
filled  with  either  water  or  food,  and  it  has  been  found 
that  they  are  more  useful  than  troughs  of  wood  or 
pottery.  These  are  closed  by  having  lids  placed  over  9 
them  and  are  pierced  with  small  holes  above  the 
middle  of  their  height  a  palm's  breadth  apart  from  one 
another  and  large  enough  to  admit  the  birds'  heads. 
For  if  they  are  not  provided  with  covers,  any  small 
quantities  of  water  or  food  that  is  inside  is  swept  out 
by  the  birds'  feet.  Some  people  make  holes  above 
in  the  top  part  of  the  covers  themselves  ;  this  should 
not  be  done,  for  the  bird  leaping  on  the  top  befouls 
the  food  and  water  with  its  excrement. 

IV.  The  best  foods  to  be  given  to  hens  are  bruised  How  to  feec 
barley  and  grape-husks,  likewise  chick-pea  and  also  *^^^' 
millet  and  panic-grass,  but  these  last  two  only  when 
the  low  price  of  cereals  permits.  When  cereals  are 
dearer,  small  refuse  "  from  wheat  is  a  convenient  food 
to  give  ;  for  this  grain  by  itself,  even  in  places  where 
it  is  very  cheap,  is  not  a  suitable  food  because  it  is 
injurious  to  fowls.     Boiled  darnel  can  also  be  put 



decoctum  obici,  nee  minus  furfures  modice  a  farina 
excreti :    qui  si  nihil  habent  farris,  non  sunt  idonei, 

2  nee  tantum  appetuntur  ieiunis.  Cytisi  folia  senuna- 
que  maxime  probantur,  et  sunt  huic  generi  gratis- 
sima :  neque  est  uUa  regio,  in  qua  non  possit  ^  huius 
arbusculae  copia  esse  vel  maxima.  Vinacea  quamvis 
tolerabiliter  pascant,  dari  non  debent,  nisi  quibus 
anni  temporibus  avis  fetum  non  edit :  nam  et  partus 

3  raros,  et  ova  faciunt  exigua.  Sed  cum  plane  post 
autumnum  cessant  a  fetu,  possunt  ^  hoc  cibo 
sustineri.  Attamen  quaecunque  dabitur  esca  per 
cohortem  vagantibus,  die  incipiente,  et  iam  in 
vesperum  declinato,^  bis  dividenda  est,  ut  et  mane 
non  protinus  a  cubili  latius  evagentur,  et  ante  crepus- 
culum  propter  cibi  spem  temporius  ad  officinam  re- 
deant,  possitque  *  numerus  capitum  saepius  recog- 
nosci.  Nam  volatile  pecus  facile  custodiam  pastoris 

4  Siccus  etiam  pulvis  et  cinis,  ubicunque  cohortem 
porticus  vel  tectum  protegit,  iuxta  parietes  re- 
ponendus  est,  ut  sit  quo  aves  se  perfundant.  Nam 
his  rebus  plumam  pinnasque  emundant :  si  modo 
credimus    Ephesio    Heraclito,    qui    ait    sues    caeno, 

5  cohortales  aves  pulvere  vel  cinere  ^  lavari.  Gallina 
post  pi-imam  emitti,  et  ante  horam  diei  undecimam 
claudi  debet :   cuius  vagae  cultus  hie,  quem  diximus, 

^  possit  ac  :   possint  jS^. 

^  possunt  edd  :   potest  SAac. 

^  declinato  SAac  :  doclinante  edd. 

*  possitque  ac  :   possintque  SA. 

^  cinere  om.  8 A. 

"  The    well-known    Ionian    philosopher    of   the   late    6th 
century  B.C. 

BOOK  VIII.  IV.  1-5 

before  them  and  likewise  bran  if  only  partly  separ- 
ated from  the  meal;  for  if  there  is  no  meal  with 
the  food,  it  is  not  suitable  nor  have  they  much 
appetite  for  it,  though  they  be  hungry.  The  leaves  2 
and  seeds  of  the  shrub-trefoil  are  very  highly 
approved  and  are  greatly  appreciated  by  fowls,  and 
there  is  no  region  in  which  it  is  not  possible  to 
find  a  very  great  abundance  of  this  shrub.  Grape- 
husks,  although  they  tolerate  them  as  food,  should 
not  be  given  to  fowls  except  at  times  of  year 
when  they  are  not  laying ;  for  they  cause  them  to 
lay  seldom  and  only  small  eggs.  But  when  they 
obviously  stop  laying  after  the  autumn,  they  can  be 
kept  on  this  food.  Whatever  food  is  to  be  given  3 
them  when  they  are  loose  in  the  poultry-yard  should 
be  distributed  in  two  parts,  one  when  day  is  beginning 
and  the  other  when  it  has  already  declined  towards 
evening,  so  that  in  the  morning  they  may  not  imme- 
diately wander  too  far  away  from  their  sleeping- 
quarters  and  that  they  may  return  before  dusk  to  the 
poultry-house  in  better  time  in  hopes  of  finding  food 
there,  and  that  the  number  of  head  may  be  vei-ified 
more  often.  For  winged  creatures  easily  delude  the 
watchfulness  of  the  man  who  looks  after  them. 

Dry  dust  and  ashes  should  be  placed  near  the  party  4 
walls  wherever  a  porch  or  a  roof  shelters  the  poultry- 
yard,  so  that  the  birds  may  have  the  means  to  sprinkle 
themselves  ;  for  it  is  with  these  that  they  clean  their 
feathers  and  wings,  if  we  believe  Heraclitus "  the 
Ephesian  who  says  that  pigs  wash  themselves  with 
mud,  farm-yard  fowls  with  dust  or  ashes.  A  hen  5 
ought  to  be  let  out  after  the  first  hour  of  the  day  and 
be  shut  up  again  before  the  eleventh  hour.  Its 
manner  of  life  when  it  is  let  loose  will  be  as  we  have 



erit :  nee  tamen  alius  clausae,  nisi  quod  ea  non 
emittitur  sed  intra  ornithonem  ter  die  pascitur  maiore 
mensura.  Nam  singulis  eapitibiis  quaterni  cyathi 
diurna  cibaria  sunt,   cum  vagis  ^   bini  praebeantur. 

6  Habeat  tamen  etiam  clausa  oportet  amplum  vesti- 
bulum,  quo  prodeat,  et  ubi  apricetur :  idque  sit 
retibus  munitum,  ne  ^  aquila  vel  accipiter  involet. 
Quas  impensas  et  curas,  nisi  locis,^  quibus  harum 
rerum  vigent  pretia,  non  expedit  adhiberi.  Anti- 
quissima  est  autem  cum  in  omnibus  pecoribus  tum 
in  hoc  fides  pastoris ;  qui  nisi  *  earn  domino  servat, 
nullus  ornithonis  quaestus  vincet  ^  impensas.  De 
tutela  satis  dictum  est:  nunc  reliquum  ordinem 

V.  Confecta  bruma  parere  *  fere  id  genus  avium 
consuevit.  Atque  earum  quae  sunt  fecundissimae, 
locis  tepidioribus  circa  calendas  lanuarias  ova  edere 
incipiunt ;    frigidis  autem  regionibus  eodem  mense 

2  post  idus.  Sed  cibis  idoneis  fecunditas  earum 
elicienda  est,  quo  maturius  partum  edant.  Optime 
praebetur  ad  satietatem  hordeum  semicoctum  :  nam 
et  maius  facit  ovorum  incrementum,  et  frequentiores 
partus.  Sed  is  "^  cibus  quasi  condiendus  est  inter- 
iectis  cytisi  foliis  ac  semine  eiusdem,  quae  ^  maxime 
putantur  augere  fecunditatem  avium.  Modus 
autem  cibariorum  sit,  ut  dixi,  vagis  binorum  cya- 
thorum   hordei.     Aliquid   tamen   admiscendum   erit 

^  post  vagis  add.  temi  vel  c, 

*  ne  om.  A, 

'  post  locis  add.  et  SAa. 

*  qui  nisi  Aac  :   quin  si  S. 

^  vincet  c  :   vigit  A  :   vinglt  a  :   vincit  S. 

*  parare  c  :    07n.  SAa. 
'  sed  is  ac  :   et  his  SA . 

*  post  quae  add.  utraque  ac. 

BOOK  VIII.  IV.  5-v.  2 

described,  and  it  will  be  no  different  when  it  is  shut 
up  except  that  it  is  not  allowed  to  go  out  but  is  kept 
within  the  hen-house  and  fed  three  times  a  day  with 
a  larger  quantity  of  food ;  for  the  daily  ration  is  four 
cyathi  per  head,  whereas  that  of  the  wandering  bird 
is  only  two  cyathi.  A  bird  which  is  shut  up,  how-  6 
ever,  should  have  a  spacious  portico  to  which  it  can 
go  out  and  bask  in  the  sun;  and  this  should  be 
protected  with  nets,  so  that  no  eagle  or  hawk  can 
fly  in.  It  is  only  worth  while  to  go  to  these  expenses 
and  to  take  these  precautions  in  places  where  the 
prices  of  hens  and  their  produce  are  high.  But  in 
the  keeping  of  fowls,  as  of  all  domestic  animals,  the 
most  important  thing  is  that  the  man  who  looks  after 
them  should  be  trustworthy,  for,  unless  he  is  faithful 
to  his  master,  the  profit  from  the  poultry-house  will 
not  surpass  the  cost.  Enough  has  now  been  said 
about  the  management  of  hens ;  we  will  now  pursue 
the  other  topics  in  order. 

V.  When  midwinter  is  over,  this  kind  of  bird  is  of  the 
generally  wont  to  lay.     In  warmer  places  the  most  and  setting 
prolific  hens   begin  laying   eggs   about  the   first  ofo^^ggs 
January,  but  in  colder  regions  after  the  13th  of  the  hen. 
same  month.     But  their  productivity  must  be  en-  2 
couraged  by  suitable  food  to  make  them  lay  earlier. 
The  best  food  to  give  them  is  their  fill  of  half-cooked 
barley  ;  for  it  both  increases  the  size  of  the  eggs  and 
makes  them  lay  more  often.     But  this  food  must  be 
seasoned,  as  it  were,  by  throwing  into  it  the  leaves 
and  seed  of  shrub-trefoil,  which  are  thought  greatly 
to  increase  the  productivity  of  birds.     The  quantity 
of  food,  as  I  have  said,  should  be  two  cyathi  of  barley 
per  hen  if  they  are  allowed  to  wander  freely,  but 
some  shrub-trefoil  should  be  mixed  with  it,  or,  if  this 



3  cytisi,  vel  si  id  non  fuerit,  viciae  aut  milii.  Curae 
autem  debebit  esse  custodi,  cum  parturient  aves,  ut 
habeant  quam  mundissimis  paleis  constrata  cubilia, 
eaque  ^  subinde  converrat,  et  alia  stramenta  quam 
recentissima  reponat.^  Nam  pulicibus,  atque  aliis 
similibus  ^  replentur,  quae  *  secum  afFert  avis,  cum 
ad  idem  cubile  revertitur.  Assiduus  autem  debet 
esse  eustos  et  speculari  parientes,^  quod  se  facere 
gallinae  testantur  crebris  singultibus  interiecta  voce 

4  acuta.  Observare  itaque  dum  edant  ova,  et  *  con- 
festim  circumire  oportebit  cubilia,  ut  quae  nata  sunt 
recolligantur,  notenturque  quae  quoque  die  sint 
edita,  et  quam  recentissima  supponantur  glucienti- 
bus :  sic  enim  appellant  rustici  aves  eas  quae  volunt 
incubare ;  cetera  vel  reponantur,  vel  aere  mutentur. 
Aptissima  porro  sunt  ad  excludendum  recentissima 
quaeque.     Possunt  tamen   etiam  requieta   supponi, 

6  dum  ne  vetustiora  sint  quam  dierum  decem.  Fere 
autem  cum  primum  partum  consummaverunt  gallinae, 
incubare  cupiunt  ab  idibus  lanuariis,  quod  facere  non 
omnibus  permittendum  est ;  quoniam  quidem  no- 
vellae  magis  edendis,  quam  cxcludendis  ovis  utiliores 
sunt :   inhibeturque  cupiditas  incubandi  '  pinnula  per 

6  nares  traiecta.^  Veteranas  igitur  aves  ad  banc  rem 
eligi  oportebit,  quae  iam  saepius  id  fecerint ;  mores- 
que  earum  maxime  pernosci,  quoniam  aliae  melius 

1  eaque  ac  :  que  S :  quae  A. 
^  reponat  ac  :  reponant  SA. 
'  post  similibus  add.  animalibus  ac. 

*  quae  om.  SA. 

*  speculari  parientes  ac  :   specularientes  SA. 

*  observare  itaque  dum  edant  ova  et  ac  :  observare  dum 
edant  ova  itaque  dum  et  S  :  observare  idum  edant  ova 
itaque  dum  et  A. 

"  incubandi  ac  :  incubando  8A. 


BOOK  \lir.  V.  2-6 

is  not  available,  vetch  or  millet.  The  keeper  will  3 
have  to  take  care  that  the  hens,  when  they  are  breed- 
ing, have  their  nests  strewn  with  the  cleanest  possible 
straw,  and  he  must  sweep  them  out  from  time  to  time 
and  put  in  other  litter  which  is  as  fresh  as  possible. 
For  the  nests  become  full  of  fleas  and  other  similar 
creatures  which  the  hen  brings  with  it  when  it  returns 
to  the  same  nest.  The  keeper  ought  also  to  be  con- 
tinually on  the  look-out  for  hens  which  are  laying,  a 
fact  to  which  they  bear  witness  by  frequent  cackling 
interrupted  by  shrill  cries.  He  will  have  to  watch  until  4 
they  produce  eggs  and  then  immediately  go  round 
the  nests  so  that  the  eggs  which  have  been  laid  may 
be  collected  and  a  record  taken  to  show  the  number 
which  have  been  laid  each  day  and  that  the  freshest 
possible  eggs  may  be  put  under  the  clucking  hens, 
for  this  is  what  country-folk  call  those  birds  which 
wish  to  sit.  The  rest  should  either  be  stored  or  else 
turned  into  money.  Furthermore,  the  freshest  eggs 
are  most  suitable  for  hatching ;  those,  however, 
which  have  been  kept  for  some  time  can  also  be  set, 
provided  that  they  are  not  more  than  ten  days  old. 
Hens  which  have  completed  their  first  clutch  of  5 
eggs  generally  want  to  sit  from  January  the  13th 
onwards ;  but  they  must  not  all  be  allowed  to  do 
so,  since  young  pullets  are  more  useful  for  laying 
eggs  than  for  hatching  them,  and  their  desire  to  sit  is 
checked  by  passing  a  small  feather  through  their 
nostrils.  Veteran  fowls,  therefore,  will  have  to  be  6 
chosen  for  the  task  of  sitting,  which  have  already 
done  so  frequently,  and  their  disposition  must  be  fully 
known  since  some  hens  are  better  at  hatching  the 

per  nares  traiecta  ac  :  per  nasi  et  a  S  :  per  nasia  et  a  ^. 



excludunt,  aliae  editos  pullos  commodius  educant.^ 
At  e  contrario  quaedam  et  sua  et  aliena  ova  com- 
minuunt  atque  consumunt,  quod  facientem  protinus 
submovere  conveniet.^ 

7  Pulli  autem  duarum  aut  trium  avium  exclusi,^  dum 
adhuc  teneri  sunt,  ad  unam,  quae  sit  melior  nutrix, 
transferri  debent,  sed  primo  quoque  die,  dum  mater 
suos  et  alienos  propter  similitudinem  dignoscere  non 
potest.  Verumtamen  servare  oportet  modum.  Ne- 
que  enim  debet  maior  esse  quam  triginta  capitum. 
Negant  *  enim  hoc  ampliorem  gregem  posse  ab  una 

8  nutriri.  Numerus  ovorum,  quae  subiciuntur,  impar 
observatur,^  nee  semper  idem.  Nam  primo  tempore, 
id  est  mense  lanuario,  quindecim,  nee  unquam  plura 
subici  debent :  Martio,  xix,^  nee  his  pauciora :  unum 
et  viginti  Aprili : '  tota  deinde  aestate  usque  in 
calendas  Octobris  totidem.^  Postea  supervacua  est 
huius  rei  cura,  quod  frigoribus  exclusi  pulli  plerum- 

9  que  intereunt.  Plerique  tamen  etiam  ab  aestivo 
solstitio  non  putant  bonam  pullationem,  quod  ab  eo 
tempore  etiam  si  facilem  educationem  habent,  iustum 
tamen  non  capiunt  incrementum.     Verum  suburbanis 

^  educant  a  :  educent  SAc. 

^  convenient  S  :   conveniet  a  :  conveniunt  A  :   convenit  c. 

'  exclusi  edd.  :   excusi  SA  :   excussi  ac. 

*  negant  Aa  :   necant  S  :   negat  c. 

*  impar  observatur  om.  S. 

*  Martis  xix  edd.  :   Maio  vni  (aut  novem)  SAac. 

'  unum  et  viginti  Aprili  edd.  :  undecim  Aprili  SAa  :  unde 
cum  Aprili  c. 

*  totidem  edd.  :   tredecim  (aut  xiii)  SAac. 


BOOK  VIII.  V.  6-9 

chickens  and  others  are  more  suitable  for  bringing 
them  up  when  they  have  been  hatched.  Some  hens, 
on  the  other  hand,  break  and  consume  both  their  own 
and  other  hens'  eggs ;  any  hen  which  does  this  will 
have  to  be  got  rid  of  immediately. 

The  chickens  of  two  or  three  hens,  when  they  have  7 
been  hatched  and  are  still  very  young,  should  be 
transferred  to  one  mother,  whichever  is  the  best  nurse  ; 
but  this  must  always  be  done  the  very  first  day  while 
the  mother,  owing  to  their  similarity,  is  unable  to 
distinguish  her  own  young  and  those  of  other  hens.  A 
limit,  however,  must  be  observed,  which  ought  not  to 
be  more  than  thirty  head ;  for  it  is  said  that  a  larger 
flock  than  this  cannot  be  cared  for  by  a  single  hen.  8 
The  rule  is  observed  of  putting  an  uneven  number  of 
eggs  under  a  hen,  but  it  is  not  always  the  same 
number.  At  the  first  setting,  that  is,  in  the  month  of 
January,  fifteen  eggs,  and  never  more,  ought  to  be 
set,  in  March  nineteen  and  never  less :  in  April, 
twenty-one,  and  the  same  number  throughout  the 
summer  until  October  Ist.**  After  this  date  any 
attention  given  to  the  matter  of  hatching  is  use- 
less, because,  owing  to  the  cold,  the  chickens 
generally  die  as  soon  as  they  are  hatched.  Most  9 
people,  however,  do  not  think  that  it  is  good  to  hatch 
chickens  after  the  summer  solstice,  because  from  that 
time  onwards,  even  though  it  is  easy  to  rear  them, 
they  never  come  to  their  proper  growth ;   but  in  the 

"  It  is  clear  that  the  numbers  of  eggs  which  should  be  put 
under  hens  at  various  times  of  year  are  wrong  in  the  MSS, 
according  to  which  fifteen  should  be  set  in  January,  nine  in 
May,  eleven  in  April  and  thirteen  in  the  summer.  This  is 
quite  illogical,  since  obviously  more  eggs  can  be  given  to  a  hen 
to  sit  upon  in  warm  than  in  cold  weather.  The  readings 
generally  adopted  by  the  editors  give  the  required  sense. 



locis,  ubi  a  matre  pulli  non  exiguis  pretiis  veneunt, 
probanda  est  aestiva  educatio. 

Semper  autem,  cum  supponuntur  ova,  considerari 
debet,  ut  luna  crescente  a  decima  usque  ad  quintam- 
decimam  id  fiat.  Nam  et  ipsa  suppositio  per  hos  fere 
dies  est  commodissima ;  et  sic  administrandum  est, 
ut    rursus    cum    excluduntur    pulli,    luna    crescat. 

10  Diebus  quibus  animantur  ova,  et  in  speciem  volu- 
crum  conformantur,  ter  septenis  opus  est  gallinaceo 
generi.  At  pavonino  ^  et  anserino,  paulo  amplius 
ter  novenis.  Quae  si  quando  fueririt  supponenda 
gallinis,  prius  eas  incubare  decem  diebus  fetibus 
alienigenis  patiemur.  Tum  demum  sui  generis 
quattuor  ova,  nee  plura  quam  quinque  fovenda  I'e- 
cipient.     Sed  et  haec  quam  maxima  :  nam  ex  pusillis 

11  aves  minimae  ^  nascuntur.  Cum  deinde  quis  volet 
quam  plurimos  mares  excludi,  longissima  quaeque  et 
acutissima  ova  subiciet :  et  rursus  cum  feminas, 
quam  rotundissima.  Supponendi  autem  consuetude 
tradita  est  ab  iis,  qui  religiosius  haec  administrant, 
eiusmodi.  Primum  quam  secretissima  cubilia  legunt,^ 
ne  incubantes  matrices  ab  aliis  avibus  inquietentur : 
deinde  antequam  consternant  ea,  diligenter  emun- 
dant,  paleasque,  quas  substraturi  sunt,  sulfure  et 
bitumine  atque  ardente  teda  perlustrant,  et  expiatas 

*  pavonino  ac  :   pavone  SA. 

*  minimae  scripsi :   minima  SA  :   minutae  ac. 
'  legunt  SA  :  eligunt  ac. 


BOOK  VIII.  V.  9-11 

neighbourhood  of  towns,  where  chickens  are  sold  at  a 
high  price  straight  from  their  mother's  care,  summer 
rearing  is  to  be  approved. 

When  eggs  are  being  put  under  a  hen,  care  should 
always  be  taken  that  this  is  done  when  the  moon  is 
increasing,  namely,  from  the  tenth  to  the  fifteenth 
day  of  the  month  ;  for  the  actual  placing  of  the  eggs 
is  most  convenient  somewhere  about  this  time,  and  it 
is  necessary  to  arrange  that  the  moon  is  increasing 
again  when  the  chickens  are  hatched.  It  takes  10 
twenty-one  days  for  the  eggs  to  become  quickened 
and  take  on  the  form  of  birds  in  the  case  of  farm-yard 
poultry,  but  for  peacocks  and  geese  rather  more  than 
twenty-seven  days  are  required.  If  ever  it  should 
be  necessary  to  put  the  eggs  of  the  two  latter  species 
under  ordinary  hens,  we  shall  allow  them  to  sit  first 
for  ten  days  on  the  eggs  of  these  alien  birds,  and  then 
they  will  be  given  four  eggs  of  their  own  kind  to  sit 
upon,  and  never  more  than  five.  These  must  be  as 
large  as  possible ;  for  from  undersized  eggs  only  very 
small  birds  are  produced.  Next,  when  anyone  wishes  11 
as  many  male  chickens  as  possible  to  be  hatched,  he 
will  set  the  longest  and  most  pointed  eggs ;  if,  on  the 
other  hand,  he  wants  female  chickens,  he  should  set 
the  roundest  eggs.  The  following  is  the  usual 
method  of  placing  eggs  as  handed  down  by  those 
who  are  most  scrupulous  in  the  way  they  manage 
such  matters.  First  of  all  they  choose  the  most  retired 
nesting-boxes,  so  that  the  brooding  hens  may  not  be 
disturbed  by  other  fowls ;  then,  before  they  strew 
anything  in  them,  they  cleanse  them  carefully  and 
purify  the  chaff  which  they  are  going  to  put  under 
the  hens  with  sulphur  and  bitumen  and  a  burning 
torch,  and  when  they  have  thus  purged  it  they  throw 



cubilibus    iniciunt,    ita    factis    concavatis    nidis,    ne 
advolantibus  aut  desilientibus  evoluta  decidant  ova, 

12  Plurimi  etiam  infra  cubilium  stramenta  graminis 
aliquid  et  ramulos  lauri,  nee  minus  alii  eapita  cum 
elavis  ferreis  subieiunt :  quae  cuncta  remedio  credun- 
tur  esse  adversus  tonitrua,  quibus  vitiantur  ova, 
puUique    semiformes    interimuntur    antequam    toti 

13  partibus  suis  consummentur.  Servat  autem  qui 
subicit,^  ne  singula  ova  ^  in  cubili  manu  compo- 
nat,^  sed  totum  ovorum  numerum  in  alveolum 
ligneum  conferat,  deinde  universum  leniter  in  prae- 

14  paratum  nidum  transfundat.  Incubantibus  autem 
gallinis  iuxta  ponendus  est  cibus,  ut  saturae  studio- 
sius  nidis  immorentur,  neve  longius  evagatae  re- 
frigerent  ova,  quae  quamvis  pedibus  ipsae  conver- 
tant,*  aviarius  tamen  cum  desilierint  matres,  circumire 
debet,^  ac  manu  versare,  ut  aequaliter  calore  concepto 
facile  animentur,  quin  etiam  si  qua  unguibus  laesa 
vel  fracta  sunt,  ut  removeat.  Idque  cum  fecerit 
duodeviginti  diebus,^  die  undevigesimo  animadvertat 
an  pulli  rostellis  ova  pertuderint,  et  auscultetur,  si 
pipiant.     Nam    saepe    propter    crassitudinem    puta- 

15  minum  ''  erumpere  non  queunt.  Itaque  haerentes 
pullos  manu  eximere  oportebit,  et  matri  fovendos 
subicere,  idque  non  amplius  triduo  facere.  Nam  post 
unum  et  vigesimum  diem  silentia  ova  carent  animali- 

^  subicit  acA^ :    qui  subl  A' :   quis  iibi  S. 

*  ova  om.  SAac. 

'  componat  ac  :   componant  SA, 

*  quamvis  pedibus  ipse  convertant  ac  :  quam  ipso  convert 
iS  :   quam  ipsa  confer©  A. 

'  debent  SAac. 

*  duodeviginti  diebua  om.  ac. 

'  putaminum  ac  :   putaminarum  SA. 

BOOK  VIII.  V.  11-15 

it  into  the  nest-boxes,  making  the  nest  hollow  so  that 
the  eggs  may  not  roll  out  and  fall  when  the  hens  fly 
in  or  leap  down.  Very  many  people  also  lay  a  little  12 
grass  under  the  litter  in  the  nest-boxes  and  small 
branches  of  bay  and  also  fasten  underneath  heads  of 
garlic  with  iron  nails,  all  of  which  things  are  regarded 
as  preservatives  against  thunder  by  which  the  eggs 
are  spoilt  and  the  half-formed  chickens  killed  before 
they  can  reach  complete  perfection  in  all  their  parts. 
The  man  who  places  the  eggs  is  careful  not  to  place  13 
them  one  by  one  in  the  nest-box  by  hand,  but  should 
collect  the  complete  number  in  a  wooden  basin  and 
gently  pour  the  whole  clutch  into  the  nest  ready 
prepared.  Food  must  be  placed  near  the  hens  when  14 
they  are  sitting,  so  that,  being  well  satisfied,  they 
may  be  more  eager  to  remain  on  their  nests  and  may 
not  wander  too  far  away  and  let  the  eggs  grow  cold. 
Though  the  hens  themselves  turn  the  eggs  with  their 
feet,  the  keeper  of  the  poultry,  when  the  hens  have 
leaped  down,  should  go  round  and  turn  the  eggs  by 
hand,  so  that  they  may  easily  be  quickened,  receiving 
heat  equally  all  over,  and  also  that  he  may  remove 
any  eggs  which  have  been  damaged  or  broken  by  the 
hen's  claws.  After  doing  this  for  eighteen  days,  on 
the  nineteenth  he  should  look  and  see  whether  the 
chickens  have  broken  through  the  eggs  with  their 
little  beaks  and  listen  whether  they  are  peeping; 
for  often,  because  of  the  thickness  of  the  shells,  they 
cannot  break  their  way  out.  He  will,  therefore,  15 
have  to  remove  with  his  hand  the  chickens  which  are 
stuck  in  the  shell  and  put  them  under  their  mother 
to  be  kept  warm,  and  he  should  do  this  for  not  more 
than  three  days,  for  after  the  twenty-first  day  the 
eggs  which  are  silent  have  no  living  creature  in  them 



bus :  eaque  removenda  sunt,  ne  incubans  inani  spe 
diutius  detineatur  ^  efFeta.  Pullos  autem  non 
oportet  singulos,  ut  quisque  natus  sit,  tollere,  sed  uno 
die   in  cubili   sinere   cum  matre,   et   aqua  ciboque 

16  abstinere,  dum  omnes  excludantur.  Postero  die, 
cum  grex  fuerit  effectus,  hoc  modo  deponatur.^ 
Cribro  viciario,  vel  etiam.  loliario,  qui  iam  fuerit  in 
usu,  pulli  superponantur,  deinde  puleii  ^  surculis 
fumigentur.      Ea    res    videtur    prohibere    pituitam, 

17  quae  celerrime  teneros  interficit.  Post  haec  cavea 
cum  matre  claudendi  sunt,  et  farre  hordeaceo  cum 
aqua  incocto,  vel  adoreo  farre  vino  resperso  modice 
alendi.  Nam  maxime  cruditas  vitanda  est :  et  ob 
hoc  iam  tertia  die  cavea  cum  matre  continendi  sunt, 
priusque  quam  emittantur  ad  recentem  cibum,  singuli 
tentandi,  ne  quid  hesterni  habeant  in  gutture.  Nam 
nisi    vacua     est    ingluvies,     cruditatem     significat, 

18  abstinerique  debent,  dum  concoquant.  Longius 
autem  non  est  permittendum  teneris  evagari,  sed 
circa  caveam  continendi  sunt,  et  farina  hordeacea 
pascendi  dum  corroborentur :  cavendumque  ne  a 
serpentibus  adflentur,  quarum  odor  tarn  pestilens 
est,  ut  interimat  universos.  Id  vitatur  saepius  in- 
censo  cornu  cervino,  vel  galbano,  vel  muliebri  capillo  : 
quorum    omnium    fere    nidoribus    praedicta    pestis 

^  retineatur  SAc  :   detineatur  a. 
*  deponatur  SAa  :   deponitur  c  edd, 
'  pulei  codd.  :  pulegii  edd. 

"  Mentha  pulegiiim. 
*  See  note  on  p.  260. 


BOOK  VIII.  V.  15-18 

and  must  be  removed,  so  that  the  hen  may  not  be  kept 
sitting  any  longer  after  the  hatching  is  over,  deluded 
by  vain  hope.  Chickens  should  not  be  removed  one 
by  one  as  they  are  hatched  but  should  be  allowed  to 
remain  in  the  nest  for  one  day  with  their  mother  and 
should  be  kept  without  water  or  food  until  they  are 
all  hatched.  On  the  next  day,  when  the  brood  is  16 
complete,  it  should  be  brought  down  from  the  nest 
in  the  following  manner.  The  chickens  should  be 
placed  in  a  sieve  made  of  vetch  or  darnel,  which 
has  already  been  in  use,  and  they  should  then  be 
fumigated  with  sprigs  of  pennyroyal " ;  this  seems 
to  prevent  the  pip,  which  very  quickly  kills  them 
when  they  are  young.  After  this  they  must  be  17 
shut  up  in  a  coop  with  their  mother  and  given  a 
moderately  large  feeding  of  boiled  barley-flour  with 
v/ater  or  flour  of  two-grained  wheat  sprinkled  with 
wine.  For  above  all  things  indigestion  must  be 
avoided,  and  so  on  the  third  day  they  should  be 
kept  in  the  coop  with  their  mother  and  before  they 
are  let  out  for  fresh  food,  they  should  each  be  ex- 
amined separately  to  see  if  they  still  have  any  of  the 
previous  day's  food  in  their  gorge ;  for  if  the  crop  is 
not  empty,  this  is  a  sign  of  indigestion  and  they 
ought  to  be  kept  away  from  food  until  digestion  has 
taken  place.  While  they  are  very  young,  chickens  18 
should  not  be  allowed  to  wander  too  far  but  should 
be  kept  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  coop  and  fed  on 
barley-meal  until  they  are  strong,  and  care  must  be 
taken  that  they  are  not  breathed  upon  by  snakes, 
whose  odour  is  so  pestilential  that  it  kills  them  all  off. 
This  is  prevented  by  frequently  burning  hart's-horn 
or  galbanum  ^  or  women's  hair ;  by  the  fumes  from 
all  these  things  the  aforesaid  pest  is  generally  kept 



19  submovetur.  Sed  et  curandum  erit,  ut  tepide  ha- 
beantur.  Nam  nee  calorem  nee  frigus  sustinent. 
Optimumque  est  intra  officinam  clauses  haberi  cum 
matre,  et  post  quadragesimum  diem  potestatem 
vagandi  fieri.  Sed  primis  quasi  infantiae  diebus 
pertractandi  sunt,  plumulaeque  sub  cauda  clunibus  ^ 
detrahendae,  ne  stercore  coinquinatae  durescant  et 

20  naturalia  praecludant.  Quod  quamvis  caveatur, 
saepe  tamen  evenit,  ut  alvus  exitum  non  habeat. 
Itaque  pinna  pertunditur,  et  iter  digestis  cibis 

Saepe  etiam  iam  ^  validioribus  factis,  atque  ipsis 
matribus  etiam  vitanda  pituitae  ^  pernicies  erit. 
Quae  ne  fiat,  mundissimis  vasis  et  quam  purissimam 
praebebimus  aquam :  nee  minus  gallinaria  semper 
fumigabimus,    et    emundata    stercore    liberabimus. 

21  Quod  si  tamen  pestis  permanserit,  sunt  qui  micas  * 
alii  tepido  madefaciunt  oleo  et  ^  faucibus  inserant. 
Quidam  hominis  urina  tepida  rigant  ora,  et  tamdiu 
comprimunt,  dum  eas  amaritudo  cogat  per  nares 
emoliri  pituitae  nauseam.^  Uva '  quoque,  quam 
Graeci  aypiav  aracfivXriv  vocant,  cum  cibo  mixta  pro- 
dest ;  8  vel  eadem  pertrita,  et  cum  aqua  potui  data. 

22  Atque  haec  remedia  mediocriter  laborantibus  adhi- 
bentur.  Nam  si  pituita  circumvenit  oculos,  et  iam 
cibos  avis  respuit,  ferro  rescinduntur  genae,  et  coacta 
sub  oculis  sanies  omnis  exprimitur  :  atque  ita  paulum 

^  clunibus  a  :   crunibus  SA. 

^  saepo  etiam  iam  SA  :  saepe  iam  etiam  a  :  sed  etiam  iam  c. 

'  pituitae  om.  SA. 

*  micas  SA  :  spicas  ac. 

*  madefaciant  oleo  et  SA  :   madefactas  oleo  ac. 

*  nauseam  edd.  :   nausa  SA  :   nausea  ac. 
'  uva  edd.  :   aqua  SA  :  una  ac. 

*  prodest  ac  :   prodent  SA . 

BOOK  VIII.  V.  18-22 

away.  Care  will  also  have  to  be  taken  that  they  are  19 
kept  moderately  warm  ;  for  they  do  not  bear  extreme 
heat  or  cold.  It  is  best  that  they  should  be  kept  shut 
up  in  the  hen-house  with  their  mother  and  be  given 
full  liberty  to  wander  abroad  only  after  forty  days. 
But  in  the  first  days  of  what  may  be  called  their  in- 
fancy they  should  be  held  in  the  hands  and  the  little 
feathers  under  their  tails  should  be  plucked  from  their 
buttocks,  lest  they  become  befouled  with  dung  and 
grow  hard  and  so  block  the  natural  passages.  It  often  20 
happens,  however,  in  spite  of  the  precautions  taken, 
that  the  bowels  have  no  exit ;  a  perforation  is,  there- 
fore, made  and  a  passage  thus  opened  for  the  digested 

Often  too  when  the  chickens  have  already  grown 
stronger  they  will  have  to  avoid  the  fatal  disease  of 
the  pip,  as  also  will  their  mothers.  To  prevent  it, 
we  shall  give  them  the  purest  possible  water  in  the 
cleanest  possible  vessels,  and  we  shall  also  frequently 
fumigate  the  hen-houses  and  keep  them  cleansed 
from  dung.  Some  people,  if  the  pestilence  persists,  21 
moisten  morsels  of  garlic  with  warm  oil  and  insert 
them  in  their  throats.  Others  wet  their  mouths 
with  warm  human  urine  and  keep  them  closed  until 
the  bitter  taste  of  the  urine  forces  them  to  expel 
through  their  nostrils  the  nauseous  matter  produced 
by  the  pip.  The  berry  also,  which  the  Greeks  call 
the  "  wild  grape,"  is  beneficial  mixed  with  their  food, 
or  else  pounded  up  and  given  them  in  water  to  drink. 
These  remedies  are  given  only  to  those  who  are  suffer-  22 
ing  just  to  a  slight  degree ;  if  the  pip  surrounds  the 
eyes  and  the  fowl  now  rejects  its  food,  its  cheeks  are 
cut  with  a  lancet  and  all  the  diseased  matter  collected 
under   the   eyes   is   pressed   out,   and   then   a  little 


VOL.  II.  N 


23  triti  salis  vulneribus  infricatur.^  Id  porro  vitium 
maxime  nascitur  cum  frigore  et  penuria  cibi  laborant 
aves  :  item  cum  per  aestatem  consistens  in  cohortibus 
aqua  potatur :  ^  item  cum  ficus  aut  uva  immatura  nee 
ad  satietatem  permissa  est,  quibus  scilicet  cibis 
abstinendae  sunt  aves :  eosque  ut  fastidiant  efficit 
uva  labrusca  de  vepribus  immatura  lecta,  quae  cum 
farre  triticeo  ^  minuto  cocta  obicitur  esurientibus, 
eiusque  sapore  ofFensae  aves  omnem  aspernantur 
uvam.  Similis  ratio  est  etiam  caprifici,  quae  dococta 
cum  cibo  praebetur  avibus,  et  ita  fici  fastidium  creat. 

24  Mos  quoque,  sicut  in  ceteris  pecudibus,  eligendi 
quamque  optimam  et  deteriorem  vendendi,  servetur  * 
etiam  in  hoc  genere,  ut  ^  per  autumni  tempus  omni- 
bus annis,  cum  fructus  earum  cessat,  numerus  quoque 
minuatur.  Submovebimus  autem  veteres,  id  est, 
quae  trimatum  excesserunt :  item  quae  ®  aut  parum 
fecundae,  aut  parum  bonae  "^  nutrices  sunt,  et  prae- 
cipue  quae  ova  vel  sua  vel  aliena  consumunt  :  nee 
minus,  quae  velut  mares  ^  cantare  atque  etiam 
calcare  ^  coeperunt :  item  serotini  pulli,  qui 
ab  solstitio  nati  capere  iustum  incrementum  non 
potuerunt.  In  masculis  autem  non  eadem  ratio 
servabitur;      sed    tamdiu    custodiemus    generosos, 

25  quamdiu  feminas  implere  potuerint.  Nam  rarior  est 
in  his  avibus  mariti  bonitas.     Eodem  quoque  tempore 

^  infricatur  c  :  infricantur  Aa  :  infriantur  S. 

^  cohortibus  aqua  potatur  ac  :    cohortibus  fuit  aqua  SA. 

'  ordeo  triticeo  ac :  hordeo  tritico  A  :  hordeo  trittico  8. 

*  -post  servetur  add.  ne  SA. 

*  ut  om.  SA. 

*  itemque  aut  parum  S. 
'  parum  bonae  om.  SA. 

'  velut  mares  ac  :  vel  mane  SA . 


BOOK  VIIL  V.  22-25 

pounded  salt  is  rubbed  into  the  wounds.  Further,  23 
this  disease  chiefly  arises  when  the  fowls  are  suffering 
from  the  cold  and  from  poor  feeding,  and  also  when, 
during  the  summer,  water  standing  in  the  poultry- 
yard  is  drunk,  and,  again,  when  they  are  allowed  to 
eat  figs  and  unripe  grapes  and  not  to  take  their  fill 
of  them,  foods  from  which  fowls  should  certainly  be 
kept  away.  A  method  of  making  them  loathe  them 
is  to  pick  the  wild  grapes  from  the  bushes  while  they 
are  still  unripe  and  put  them  before  them  when  they 
are  hungry  cooked  with  fine  wheat-meal,  for  being 
disgusted  by  the  taste  the  birds  refuse  every  kind  of 
grape.  A  similar  method  can  be  employed  also  with 
the  wild-fig,  which  being  cooked  with  their  food  and 
given  to  the  birds,  creates  a  distaste  for  figs  also.  A  24 
practice  too,  which  is  employed  for  all  other  live- 
stock, of  choosing  the  better  and  selling  the  worse 
should  be  observed  also  in  the  case  of  poultry,  in 
order  that  annually  during  the  autumn,  when  they 
cease  to  be  productive,  their  number  may  be 
diminished.  We  shall  get  rid  of  the  old  hens,  that  is, 
those  which  are  more  than  three  years  old,  also  those 
which  are  not  very  prolific  or  are  not  very  good  nurses, 
and,  above  all,  those  which  eat  their  own  and  other 
hens'  eggs,  likewise  also  those  which  are  beginning 
to  crow  like  cocks  or  even  to  strut  about,  and  also 
late-born  chickens,  which  have  been  hatched  from  the 
solstice  onwards  and  could  not  reach  their  full  growth. 
The  same  system  will  not  be  observed  for  the  cock-birds, 
but  we  shall  keep  those  which  are  well-bred  as  long  as 
they  can  impregnate  the  hens ;  for  good  quality  in  a  25 
mating  male  is  rather  rare  among  these  birds.     Also  at 

*  atque  etiam  calcare  om.  8A  :  atque  calcare  a  :  aut  etiam 
calcare  c. 



cum  parere  desinent  aves,  id  est,  ab  idibus  Novem- 
bribus  pretiosiores  cibi  subtrahend!  sunt,  et  vinacea 
praebenda,  quae  satis  commode  pascunt,  adiectis 
interdum  tritici  excrementis. 

VI.  Ovorum  quoque  longioris  temporis  custodia 
non  aliena  est  huic  curae :  quae  commode  servantur 
per  hiemem,  si  paleis  obruas,  aestate,  si  furfuribus. 
Quidam  prius  trito  sale  sex  horis  adoperiunt :  deinde 
eluunt,  atque  ita  paleis  aut  furfuribus  obruunt. 
Nonnulli  solida,  multi  etiam  fresa  faba  coaggerant : 
alii  salibus  integris  adoperiunt :    alii  muria  tepefacta 

2  durant.  Sed  omnis  sal,^  quemadmodum  non  patitur 
putrescere,  ita  minuit  ova,  nee  sinit  plena  permanere  : 
quae  res  ementem  deterret.  Itaque  ne  in  muriam 
quidem  qui  demittunt,  integritatem  ovorum  con- 

VII.  Pinguem  quoque  facere  gallinam,  quamvis 
fartoris,  non  rustici  sit  officium,  tamen  quia  non  aegre 
contingit,  praecipiendum  putavi.  Locus  ad  banc 
rem  desideratur  maxime  calidus,  et  minimi  luminis, 
in  quo  singulae  caveis  angustioribus  vel  sportis  in- 
clusae  pendeant  aves,  sed  ita  coarctatae,  ne  versari 

2  possint.  Varum  habeant  ex  utraque  parte  foramina : 
unum,  quo  caput  exseratur;  alterum,  quo  cauda 
clunesque,  ut  et  cibos  capere  possint  et  eos  digestos 
sic  edere,  ne  stercore  coinquinentur.     Substernatur 

^  omnis  sal  ac  :  omnea  sails  S :  omnes  es  sails  A^ :  omne 
sal  A*. 


BOOK  VIII.  V.  25-vii.  2 

the  time  when  the  hens  cease  to  lay,  that  is,  from  the 
13th  of  November,  the  more  expensive  food  must  be 
withheld  and  grape-husks  be  supplied,  which  form 
quite  a  suitable  diet,  if  refuse  from  wheat  is  added 
from  time  to  time. 

VI.  The  keeping  of  eggs  over  a  longer  period  is  also  Of  eggs. 
germane  to  the  subject  which  we  are  now  considei*- 

ing.  In  winter  they  are  conveniently  preserved  if 
you  bury  them  in  chaff,  in  summer  if  you  put  them 
in  bran.  Some  people  cover  them  first  for  six  hours 
with  pounded  salt ;  next  they  wash  them  and  then 
bury  them  in  chaff  or  bran.  Some  people  cover  them 
with  a  heap  of  whole  beans,  many  with  a  heap  of 
bruised  beans  ;  others  bury  them  in  unpounded  salt : 
others  harden  them  in  lukewarm  brine.  But  salt  in  2 
any  form,  although  it  does  not  allow  the  eggs  to  rot, 
shrinks  them  and  prevents  them  from  remaining 
full :  and  this  is  a  deterrent  to  the  purchaser.  Thus 
even  those  who  plunge  the  eggs  in  brine  do  not  com- 
pletely preserve  their  original  condition. 

VII.  Although  it  is  the  business  of  the  poulterer  On  fattening 
rather  than  of  the  farmer  to  fatten  hens,  yet,  since  it    *"*' 

is  not  a  difficult  task,  I  thought  that  I  ought  to  give 
directions  on  the  subject.  A  spot  is  required  for  this 
purpose  which  is  very  warm  and  has  very  little  light, 
where  the  birds  may  be  hung,  shut  up  each  separately 
in  rather  narrow  coops  or  plaited  cages  and  confined 
in  so  close  a  space  that  they  cannot  turn  round. 
They  should,  however,  have  holes  on  either  side,  one  2 
through  which  they  can  put  out  their  head  and  the 
other  through  which  they  can  put  out  their  tail  and 
hind-quarters,  so  that  they  may  be  able  both  to  take 
their  food  and  also  get  rid  of  it  when  it  has  been 
digested  and  so  may  not  be  befouled  with  dung. 



autem  mundissima  palea,  vel  molle  fenum,  id  est, 
cordum.  Nam  si  dure  cubant,  non  facile  pinguescunt. 
Pluma  omnis  e  capite  et  sub  alis  atque  clunibus  de- 
tergetur :  illic,  ne  pediculum  creet ;  hie,  ne  stercore 
loca  naturalia  exulceret. 

3  Cibus  autem  praebetur  hordeacea  farina,  quae  cum 
est  ^  aqua  conspersa  et  subacta,  formantur  ofFae, 
quibus  aves  saginantur.^  Eae  ^  tamen  primis  diebus 
dari  parcius  debent,  dum  plus  concoquere  consues- 
cant.  Nam  cruditas  vitanda  *  est  maxime,  tantum- 
que  praebendum,  quantum  digerere  possint :  neque 
ante  recens  admovenda  est,  quam  tentato  gutture 

4  apparuerit  nihil  veteris  escae  remansisse.  Cum 
deinde  satiata  est  avis,  paululum  deposita  cavea  ^ 
dimittitur,  sed  ita  ne  vagetur,  sed  potius,  si  quid  est 
quod  eam  stimulet  aut  mordeat,  rostro  persequatur. 
Haec  fere  communis  est  cura  farcientium.  Nam  illi 
qui  volunt  ^  non  solum  opimas,  sed  etiam  teneras  aves 
efficere,  mulsea  recente '  aqua  praedicti  generis 
farinam  conspergunt,  et  ita  farciunt :  nonnulli  tribus 
aquae  partibus  unam  boni  vini  miscent,  madefactos- 
que  triticeo  pane  obesant  avem ;  quae  prima  luna 
(quoniam    id    quoque    custodiendum    est)    saginari 

5  coepta,  vicesima  pergliscit.  Sed  si  fastidiet  cibum, 
totidem  diebus  minuere  oportebit,  quot  iam  farturae 

1  est  om.  8a. 

*  saginantur  edd.  :   salivatur  codd. 
'  haec(?)  A  :   eae  ac  :  ita  S. 

*  vitanda  A^ac  :   cnidanda  SA^. 

*  deposita  cavea  ac  :   -ae  -ae  8 A. 

*  volunt  ac  :   colunt  8 A. 

'  mulsea  recente  ac  :  multa  regenti  8  :   multa  recentia  A. 

BOOK  VIII.  VII.  2-5 

Very  clean  chaff  should  be  spread  under  them  or 
soft  hay,  that  is,  hay  of  the  second  crop ;  for  if  their 
bed  is  hard  they  do  not  easily  fatten.  All  the 
feathers  should  be  cleared  away  from  their  heads 
and  under  their  wings  and  hind-quarters,  from 
the  head  and  wings  so  that  they  may  not  breed  lice, 
and  from  their  hind-quarters  so  that  sores  may  not 
be  caused  by  dung  in  the  private  parts. 

Barley-meal  is  given  as  food,  which,  sprinkled  with  3 
water  and  kneaded,  is  formed  into  pellets  with  which 
the  birds  are  crammed.  They  should,  however,  be 
given  somewhat  sparingly  for  the  first  few  days,  until 
they  become  accustomed  to  digest  more  of  this  food  ; 
for  indigestion  niust  above  all  things  be  avoided  and 
only  as  much  given  them  as  they  can  assimilate ;  nor 
ought  fresh  food  be  put  before  them  until  it  is 
apparent,  from  feeling  the  crop,  that  none  of  the  old 
food  has  remained  behind.  Then,  when  the  bird  has  4 
had  its  fill,  the  coop  is  lowered  a  little  and  the  bird  is 
let  out,  not  in  order  that  it  may  wander  at  will  but 
rather  that  it  may  pursue  with  its  beak  anything  that 
stings  or  bites  it.  The  latter  is  the  common  pre- 
caution taken  by  fatteners  of  birds :  but  those  who 
wish  to  make  the  birds  not  only  plump  but  also  tender, 
sprinkle  meal  of  the  kind  already  mentioned  with 
fresh  honey-water  and  then  cram  them  with  it. 
Some  people  mix  one  part  of  good  wine  with  three 
parts  of  water  and  fatten  the  bird  with  wheaten- 
bread  soaked  in  it.  If  the  process  of  cramming  is 
begun  at  the  new  moon  (for  this  date  too  should  be 
observed),  the  fowl  is  quite  fat  by  the  twentieth  day : 
but,  if  it  takes  a  dislike  to  its  food,  you  will  have  to  5 
lessen  the  amount  for  the  same  number  of  days  as  the 
cramming  has  already  proceeded,  but  only  provided 



processerint :  ita  tamen,  ne  tempus  omne  opimandi 
quintam  et  vicesimam  lunam  superveniat.  Anti- 
quissimum  est  autem  maximam  quamque  avem 
lautioribus  epulis  destinare.  Sic  enim  digna  merces 
sequitur  operam  et  impensam. 

VIII.  Hac  eadem  ratione  palumbos  columbosque 
cellares  pinguissimos  facere  contingit :  neque  est 
tamen  in  columbis  farciendis  tantus  reditus,  quantus 
in  educandis.  Nam  etiam  horum  possessio  non 
abhorret  a  cura  boni  rustici.  Sed  id  genus  minore 
tutela  pascitur longinquis  regionibus,  ubi  liber  egressus 
avibus  permittitur :  quoniam  vel  summis  turribus, 
vel  editissimis  aedificiis  assignatas  sedes  frequentant 
patentibus  fenestris,  per  quas  ad  requirendos  cibos 

2  evolitant.  Duobus  tamen  aut  tribus  mensibus 
acceptant  conditiva  cibaria,  ceteris  se  ipsas  pascunt 
seminibus  agrestibus.  Sed  hoc  suburbanis  locis 
facere  non  possunt,  quoniam  intercipiuntur  variis 
aucupum  insidiis.  Itaque  clausae  intra  tectum  pasci 
debent,  nee  in  piano  villae  loco,  nee  in  frigido :  sed 
in    edito    fieri    tabulatum    oportet,    quod    aspiciat 

3  hibernum  meridiem.  Eiusque  parietes,  ne  iam  dicta 
iteremus,  ut  in  ornithone  praecepimus,  continuis 
cubilibus  excaventur :  vel  si  non  ita  competit,  paxillis 
adactis  tabulae  superponantur,  quae  vel  locula- 
menta,^  quibus  nidificent  aves,  vel  fictilia  columbaria 
recipiant,  praepositis  vestibulis,  per  quae  ad  cubilia 

^  loculamenta  c  :  locum  lamenta  SAa. 
•  I.e.  duo  south. 

BOOK  VIII.  vii.  5-viii.  3 

that  the  whole  period  of  fattening  does  not  go  beyond 
the  twenty-fifth  day  of  the  lunai-  period.  It  is  very  im- 
portant that  all  the  biggest  fowls  should  be  reserved 
for  the  more  sumptuous  feasts ;  for  thus  a  worthy 
recompense  attends  one's  trouble  and  expense. 

VIII.  The  same  method  is  successfully  employed  to  Pigeona. 
make  wood-pigeons  and  house-pigeons  that  live  in 
dovecots  very  plump  ;  there  is,  however,  not  so  much 
profit  in  cramming  pigeons  as  in  just  rearing  them  ;  for 
mere  possession  of  them  is  not  unworthy  of  the  atten- 
tion of  a  good  farmer.  The  feeding  of  this  kind  of 
bird  too  requires  less  supervision  in  distant  parts  of 
the  country  where  they  can  be  allowed  free  egress, 
for  they  frequent  the  haunts  assigned  to  them  on  the 
tops  of  towers  or  on  very  lofty  buildings  with  ever- 
open  windows  through  which  they  fly  forth  to  seek 
their  food.  Nevertheless  for  two  or  three  months  2 
in  the  year  they  welcome  food  from  the  store-house, 
while  during  the  other  months  they  feed  themselves 
on  seeds  picked  up  in  the  fields.  But  in  regions  near 
a  city  they  cannot  do  this  because  they  are  caught 
by  the  various  snares  of  the  bird-catchers.  They 
ought,  then,  to  be  shut  up  and  fed  under  cover ;  and 
on  the  farm  they  should  not  be  kept  in  a  part  of  the 
farm-house  which  is  level  with  the  ground  or  cold, 
but  a  loft  should  be  constructed  for  them  in  an  elevated 
position  to  face  the  midday  sun  in  winter  ; "  and,  that  3 
we  may  not  repeat  the  instructions  already  given,  the 
walls,  as  we  described  in  speaking  of  the  hen-house, 
should  be  hollowed  to  form  a  row  of  sleeping-places  : 
or,  if  this  is  not  convenient,  pegs  should  be  driven 
into  the  walls  and  boards  placed  upon  them  to  hold 
lockers,  in  which  the  hens  may  nest,  or  earthenware 
dovecots  with  porches  in  front  of  them  through  which 



perveniant.     Totus    autem    locus    et    ipsae    colum- 
barum  celiac  poliri  debent  albo  tectorio,  quoniam  eo 

4  colore  praecipue  delectatur  hoc  genus  avium.  Nee 
minus  extrinsecus  levigari  parietes,^  maxime  circa 
fenestram :  et  ea  sit  ita  posita,  ut  maiore  parte  hi- 
berni  diei  solem  ^  admittat,  habeatque  appositam 
satis  amplam  caveam  retibus  emunitam,  quae  ex- 
cludat  accipitres,  et  recipiat  egredientes  ad  aprica- 
tionem  columbas,  nee  minus  in  agros  emittat  matrices, 
quae  ovis  vel  pullis  incubant,  ne  quasi  gravi  perpetuae 

6  custodiae  servitio  contristatae  senescant.  Nam  cum 
paulum  circa  aedificia  volitaverint,  exhilaratae  re- 
creantur,  et  ad  fetus  suos  vegetiores  redeunt, 
propter  quos  ne  longius  quidem  evagari  aut  fugere 

Vasa,  quibus  aqua  praebetur,  similia  esse  debent 
gallinariis,  quae  colla  bibentium  admittant,  et 
cupientes  lavari  propter  angustias  non  recipiant. 
Nam  id  facere  eas  nee  ovis  nee  pullis,  quibus  plerum- 

6  que  incubant,  expedit.  Ceterum  cibos  iuxta  parie- 
tem  conveniet  spargi,  quoniam  fere  partes  ^  eae 
columbarii  carent  stercore.  Commodissima  cibaria 
putantur  vicia,  vel  ervum,  tum  etiam  lenticula, 
miliumque  et  lolium,  nee  minus  excreta  tritici,  et  si 
qua  sunt  alia  legumina,  quibus  etiam  gallinae  aluntur. 
Locus  autem  subinde  converri  et  emundari  debet. 
Nam   quanto  est  cultior,  tanto  laetior  avis  conspici- 

^  parietes  Ac  :   paries  S  :  parientes  a. 
2  solem  a  :  solis  SA  :  om.  c. 

*  quiartesaeae  S :  qui  artesae  A  :  quoniam  fere  partes  a : 
quam  fere  parietes  c. 


BOOK  VIII.  viii.  3-6 

they  may  reach  their  sleeping-quarters.  The  whole 
place  and  the  pigeon-cells  themselves  ought  to  be 
finished  off  with  white  plaster,  since  birds  of  this  kind 
take  a  special  pleasure  in  that  colour ;  also  the  walls  4 
ought  to  be  made  smooth  outside,  particularly  round 
the  window,  which  should  be  so  placed  as  to  admit 
the  sun  for  the  greater  part  of  a  winter's  day  and 
should  have  adjoining  it  a  fairly  large  pen,  protected 
by  nets  to  keep  out  hawks,  which  may  accommodate 
the  doves  when  they  come  out  to  bask  in  the  sun ; 
through  this  also  the  mother-birds,  which  are  sitting 
on  their  eggs  or  their  squabs,  can  be  let  out  into  the 
fields,  so  that  they  may  not  become  prematurely  aged 
through  the  depression  caused  by  the  grievous 
servitude  of  perpetual  imprisonment ;  for  when  they  5 
have  fluttered  about  a  little  round  the  farm-buildings, 
they  are  exhilarated  and  refreshed  and  return  in- 
vigorated to  their  young,  for  whose  sake  they  make 
no  attempt  to  wander  far  afield  or  escape  by  flight. 

The  vessels  in  which  water  is  provided  should  be 
like  those  used  for  fowls,  so  constructed  as  to  admit 
the  necks  of  those  which  drink  from  them  and  too 
narrow  to  allow  the  entrance  of  those  which  wish  to 
wash  in  them ;  for  to  do  so  is  not  good  either  for  the 
eggs  or  the  young,  sitting  on  which  they  spend 
most  of  their  time.  It  will  be  found  a  good  plan  that  6 
their  food  should  be  scattered  near  the  wall,  since 
generally  those  parts  of  the  dove-house  are  free  from 
dung.  Vetch  or  bitter-vetch  and  next  in  order  lentils 
and  millet  and  darnel  are  considered  to  be  the  most  suit- 
able foods,  likewise  the  refuse  from  wheat,  also  any 
other  kinds  of  pulse  on  which  hens  too  are  fed.  The 
place  ought  to  be  swept  and  cleaned  out  from  time  to 
time;    for  the  better  it  is  looked  after,  the  more 


tur,  eaque  tarn  fastidiosa  est,  ut  saepe  sedes  suas 
perosa,  si  detur  avolandi  potestas,  relinquat.^  Quod 
frequenter   in    his    regionibus,    ubi    liberos    habent 

7  egressus,  accidere  solet.  Id  ne  fiat,  vetus  est 
Democriti  praeceptum.  Genus  accipitris  tinnun- 
culum  2  vocant  rustici,  qui  ^  fere  in  aedificiis  nidos 
facit.  Eius  pulli  singuli  fictilibus  ollis  conduntur, 
spirantibusque  opercula  superponuntur,  et  gypso  lita 
vasa  in  angulis  columbariis  suspenduntur :  *  quae 
res  avibus  amorem  loci  sic  conciliat,  ne  unquam 

Eligendae  vero  sunt  ad  educationem  neque  vetulae, 
nee  nimium  novellae,^  sed  corporis  maximi :  curan- 
dumque,  si  fieri  possit,  ut  pulli,  quemadmodum  exclusi 
sunt,  nunquam  separentur.  Nam  fere  si  sic  maritatae  ^ 

8  plures  educant  fetus.  Sin  aliter,  certe  nee  alieni 
generis  '  coniungantur,  ut  Alexandrinae  et  Cam- 
panae.^  Minus  enim  impares  suas  ^  diligunt,  et  ideo 
nee  multum  ineunt,  nee  saepius  fetant.  Plumae 
color  non  semper,  nee  omnibus  idem  probatus  est : 
atque   ideo   qui   sit   optimus,   non   facile   dictu    est. 

9  Albus,  qui  ubique  volgo  conspicitur,  a  quibusdam 
non  nimium  laudatur;  nee  tamen  vitari  debet  in  his, 
quae  clauso  ^^  continentur.     Nam  in  vagis   maxime 

1  relinquat  ac  :  relinquant  8 A . 

*  tinnunculum  edd.  :   titiunculum  codd. 
'  qui  add.  edd. 

*  suspenduntur  c  :   superponuntur  SAa. 

*  nee  nimium  novellae  om.  8 A. 

*  sic  maritate  ac  :   si  marite  SA. 

'  alieni  generis  8a  :   aliendi  generis  A  :   alienigene  c. 

*  alexandrina  campane  SA  :  alexandrine  nee  campane 

*  impares  suas  Ursinua  :   pares  suos  codd, 
1"  clauso  Aac  :  cluso  8. 

BOOK  VIII.  VIII.  6-9 

cheerful  is  the  appearance  of  the  bird,  and  so  squeam- 
ish is  it  that  it  often  takes  a  dislike  to  its  own  home 
and  abandons  it  if  it  is  given  the  oppoi-tunity  to  fly 
away.  This  is  wont  to  happen  often  in  districts 
where  the  birds  are  allowed  free  egress.  For  the  7 
prevention  of  such  an  escape,  there  is  an  ancient 
precept  of  Democritus.  There  is  a  kind  of  hawk 
which  the  country-folk  call  a  ttnnunculus  (kestrel)  and 
which  generally  makes  its  nest  in  buildings.  The 
young  of  this  bird  are  enclosed  separately  in  earthen- 
ware pots,  and  while  they  are  still  breathing,  lids  are 
put  over  the  pots  which  are  smeared  with  plaster  and 
hung  up  in  the  corners  of  the  pigeon-houses.  This 
induces  in  the  birds  such  a  love  for  the  place  that  they 
never  desert  it. 

For  the  rearing  of  the  young  chicks  female  birds 
must  be  chosen  which  are  neither  old  nor  too  young, 
but  they  should  be  very  large,  and  care  must  be 
taken  that,  if  possible,  the  chicks  should  never  be 
separated  but  be  kept  together  as  they  were  hatched ; 
for  if  this  principle  is  observed  in  mating  them,  they 
generally  rear  larger  broods.  If  this  is  not  done,  at  8 
any  rate  birds  of  diflPerent  breeds,  for  example  the 
Alexandrine  and  the  Campanian,  should  not  be 
mated ;  for  they  feel  less  affection  for  hen-birds  unlike 
themselves  and  so  have  little  intercourse  with  them 
and  do  not  often  produce  offspring.  The  same 
colour  of  plumage  is  not  approved  always  or  by 
everybody ;  it  is,  therefore,  not  easy  to  say  which 
is  the  best.  White,  which  is  generally  to  be  seen  9 
everywhere,  is  not  very  highly  commended  by 
some  people ;  it  should  not,  however,  be  avoided 
for  birds  which  are  kept  in  confinement,  but  for 
those  which  wander   freely  it   is  much   to    be   con- 



est    improbandus,    quod    eum    facillime    speculatur 

Fecunditas  autem,  quamvis  longe  minor  sit  quam 
est  gallinarum,  maiorem  tamen  refert  quaestum. 
Nam  et  octies  anno  pullos  educat,  si  est  bona  matrix ; 
et  pretiis  eorum  dominicam  ^  complent  arcam,  sicut 
eximius  auctor  M.  Varro  nobis  affirmat,  qui  prodidit 
etiam    illis    severioribus    temporibus    paria    singula 

10  milibus  singulis  sestertiorum  solita  venire. ^  Nam 
nostri  pudet  seaculi,  si  credere  volumus,  inveniri  qui 
quaternis  milibus  nummorum  binas  aves  mercentur. 
Quamquam  vel  hos  magis  tolerabiles  putem,  qui 
oblectamenta  deliciarum  possidendi  habendique 
causa  gravi  aere  et  argento  pensent,  quam  illos  qui 
Ponticum  Phasim  et  Scythica  stagna  Maeotidis 
eluant.3  lam  nunc  Gangeticas  et  Aegyptias  aves 
temulenter  eructant. 

11  Potest*  tamen  etiam  in  hoc  aviario,  sicut  dictum 
est,  sagina  exerceri.  Nam  si  quae  steriles  aut  sordidi 
coloris  interveniunt,  similiter  ut  gallinae  farciuntur, 
Pulli  vero  facilius  sub  matribus  pinguescunt,  si  iam 
firmis,  prius  quam  subvolent,  paucas  detrahas  pinnas, 
et  obteras  crura,  ut  uno  loco  quiescant,  praebeasque 
copiosum    cibum  ^    parentibus,^    quo    et    se    et    eos 

12  abundantius  alant.     Quidam  leviter  obligant  crura, 

^  dominicam  SAac  :   domini  edd. 

*  venire  edd.  :   veniri  codd. 
'  eluant  edd.  :   heluat  codd. 

*  potest  ac  :  pontes  SA. 

*  copiosum  cibum  ac  :  copiosus  cibum  S  :  copiosus  cibus 

*  parentibus  A  :   parientibus  Sac. 

"  R.R.,  7.  10. 

*  The  Rion,  flowing  into  the  Black  Sea  from  the  east. 


BOOK  VIII.  viii.  9-12 

demned,    because    it    is    very    easily    espied    by    a 

Fecundity  in  pigeons,  though  it  is  much  less  than 
in  hens,  yet  brings  in  greater  profit ;  for  a  pigeon,  if 
it  is  a  good  breeder,  rears  eight  broods  in  the  year, 
and  so  pigeons  fill  the  coffers  of  their  owners  with 
the  prices  which  their  young  command,  as  that 
excellent  writer  Marcus  Varro  "  assures  us,  who  has 
recorded  that,  even  in  those  more  austere  times,  a 
single  pair  used  to  be  sold  for  1,000  sesterces.  It  10 
makes  us  blush  for  the  present  generation,  if  we  are 
willing  to  believe  that  people  can  be  found  to  pay 
4,000  nummi  for  a  pair  of  birds,  though  I  should  regard 
those  people  who  pay  great  sums  in  copper  and 
silver  for  the  pleasure  which  their  pets  give  them 
merely  because  they  own  and  possess  them,  as  less 
insufferable  than  those  who  clear  of  all  their  birds  the 
river  Phasis  ^  in  Pontus  and  the  pools  of  Lake 
Maeotis  "  in  Scythia ;  nay,  they  are  now  in  their 
drunkenness  belching  forth  birds  brought  from  the 
Ganges  and  from  Egypt. 

Nevertheless,  the  fattening  process  can  also  be  11 
carried  out  in  this  pigeon-house,  as  has  already  been 
said;  for  if  any  barren  or  badly-coloured  pigeons 
occur,  they  are  crammed  in  the  same  manner  as 
hens.  Young  pigeons  indeed  are  more  easily  fat- 
tened under  their  mothers'  care,  if  when  they  are 
already  strong  but  before  they  begin  to  fly,  you  pull 
out  a  few  of  their  wing-feathers  and  crush  their  legs, 
that  they  may  remain  quiet  in  one  spot,  and  give 
plenty  of  food  to  the  parent-birds  with  which  they 
may  feed  themselves  and  their  young  more  abund- 
antly.   Some  people  bind  their  legs  loosely  together,  12 

*  The  Sea  of  Azov  in  South  Russia. 


quoniam  si  frangantur,  dolorem,  et  ex  eo  maciem 
fieri  putant.  Sed  nihil  ista  res  pinguitudinis  efficit. 
Nam  dum  vincula  exerere  conantur,  non  conquies- 
cunt :  et  hac  quasi  exercitatione  corpori  nihil  adici- 
unt.  Fracta  crura  non  plus  quam  bidui,  aut  sum- 
mum  tridui  dolorem  afferunt,  et  spem  tollunt 

IX.  Turturum  educatio  supervacua  est :  quoniam 
id  genus  ^  in  ornithone  nee  parit  nee  excludit.  Vola- 
tura  ita  ut  capitur,  farturae  destinatur  :  eoque  leviore 
cura,  quam  ceterae  aves  saginatur :  verum  non 
omnibus  temporibus.^  Nam  per  hiemem,  quamvis 
adhibeatur  opera,  difficulter  crescit,^  et  tamen,  quia 
maior  est  turdi  copia,  pretium  turturum  minuitur. 

2  Rursus  aestate  vel  sua  sponte,  dummodo  sit  facultas 
cibi,  pinguescit.  Nihil  enim  aliud,  quam  obicitur 
esca,  sed  praecipue  milium :  nee  quia  tritico  vel  aliis 
frumentis  minus  crassescat ;  *  verum  quod  semine 
huius  maxime  delectatur.^  Hieme  tamen  ofFae  panis 
vino  madefactae,  sicut  etiam  palumbos,  celerius 
opimant  quam  ceteri  cibi. 

3  Receptacula  non  tanquam  columbis  loculamenta, 
vel  cellulae  cavatae  efficiuntur,^  sed  ad  lineam  mutuh 
per  parietem  defixi  tegeticulas  cannabinas  accipiunt, 
praetentis  retibus,  quibus  prohibeantur  volare  :   quo- 

^  id  genus  ac  :  ingenuus  8 A. 

^  temporibus  07n.  SA. 

'  crescit  SA  :  gliscit  ac. 

*  crassescat  SA  :   -ant  a. 

*  (ielectatur  SA  :  -antur  ac. 

*  efliciunt  Aac  :   fiunt  S. 

BOOK  VIII.  VIII.  12-ix.  3 

because  they  think  that  if  they  are  broken,  pain, 
and  consequently  emaciation,  is  caused ;  but  doing 
so  does  not  contribute  at  all  to  their  fattening,  for, 
while  they  are  trying  to  get  rid  of  their  bonds,  they 
are  never  at  rest,  and  by  this  kind  of  exercise,  as  it 
were,  they  add  nothing  to  their  bulk.  Broken  legs 
cause  pain  for  not  more  than  two  or  at  most  three 
days  and  deprive  them  of  all  hope  of  wandering 

IX,  The  rearing  of  turtle-doves  is  of  no  benefit,  Turtie- 
because  this  kind  of  bird  neither  lays  eggs  nor  hatches  °^^' 
its  young  in  an  aviary.  A  flight  of  them  is  ready  for 
cramming  in  the  condition  in  which  it  is  caught,  and 
can  on  this  account  be  crammed  with  less  trouble 
than  any  other  bird,  not,  however,  at  every  time  of 
year.  For  in  the  winter,  in  spite  of  all  the  trouble 
spent  upon  them,  it  is  difficult  to  make  them  grow, 
and  yet  the  price  of  turtle-doves  is  lessened  owing 
to  the  greater  abundance  of  thrushes.  During  the  2 
summer,  on  the  other  hand,  the  turtle-dove  grows 
fateven  of  its  own  accord,  provided  it  has  easymeans  of 
getting  food.  Indeed  it  is  only  a  question  of  putting 
food  in  its  way,  especially  millet,  not  that  it  grows 
less  fat  on  wheat  or  other  cereals  but  because  it 
takes  the  greatest  pleasure  in  millet-seed.  In  winter, 
however,  pellets  of  bread  soaked  in  wine  fatten 
turtle-doves  as  well  as  wood-pigeons  more  quickly 
than  any  other  food. 

People  do  not  construct  either  pigeon-boxes  or  3 
hollow  cells  as  receptacles  for  turtle-doves  as  for 
wood-pigeons,  but  brackets  are  fixed  in  a  row  along  a 
wall  and  hold  small  hempen  mats  with  nets  spread 
in  front  of  them,  so  that  the  birds  are  prevented 
from  flying  about,  because,  if  they  do  so,  they  lose 



niam  si  id  faciant,  corpori  detrahunt.  In  his  assidue 
pascuntur  milio  aut  tritico,  sed  ea  semina  dart  nisi 
sicca  non  oportet.     Satiatque  semodius  cibi  in  diebus 

4  singulis  vicenos  et  centenos  turtures.  Aqua  semper 
recens  et  quam  mundissima  vasculis,  qualibus 
columbis  atque  gallinis,  praebetur;  tegeticulaeque 
emundantur,  ne  stercus  urat  pedes,  quod  tamen  et 
ipsum  diligenter  reponi  debet  ad  cultus  agrorum 
arborumque,  sicut  et  omnium  avium,  praeterquam 
nantium.  Huius  avis  aetas  ad  saginam  non  tam 
vetus  est  idonea  quam  novella.  Itaque  circa  messem, 
cum  iam  confirmata  est  pullities,  eligitur. 

X.  Turdis  maior  opera  et  impensa  praebetur,  qui 
omni  quidem  rure,  sed  salubrius  in  eo  pascuntur,  in 
quo  capti  sunt.  Nam  difficulter  in  aliam  regionem 
transferuntur,  quia  caveis  clausi  plurimi  despondent : 
quod  faciunt  etiam  cum  eodem  momento  temporis  a 
rete  in  aviaria  coniecti  sunt.  Itaque  ne  id  accidat, 
veterani  debent  intermisceri,  qui  ab  aucupibus  in 
hunc  usum  nutriti  quasi  allectores  sint  captivorum, 
maestitiamque  eorum  mitigent  intervolando.  Sic 
enim  consuescent  et  aquam  et  cibos  appetere  feri,  si 

2  mansuetos  id  facere  viderint.  Locum  aeque  muni- 
tum  et  apricum,  quam  columbi  desiderant :  sed  in  eo 
transversae  perticae  perforatis  parietibus  adversis 
aptantur,  quibus  insideant,  cum  satiati  cibo  requi- 


BOOK  VIII.  IX.  3-x.  2 

bulk.  Here  they  are  constantly  fed  with  millet  or 
wheat ;  but  the  grain  must  not  be  given  them  unless 
it  is  dry.  Half  a  modius  of  food  every  day  easily 
satisfies  a  hundred  and  twenty  turtle-doves.  The  4 
purest  possible  water  is  always  provided  in  vessels 
such  as  are  used  for  pigeons  and  hens.  The  mats 
are  kept  clean  so  that  the  dung  does  not  burn  their 
feet,  and  the  dung  should  itself  be  carefully  set  aside 
for  the  cultivation  of  the  fields  and  trees,  as  also  that 
of  all  birds  except  those  which  swim.  This  bird  is 
not  so  suitable  for  cramming  when  it  is  old  as  when 
it  is  young,  and  so  the  choice  is  made  about  harvest- 
time  when  the  young  brood  has  already  gained 

X.  Still  more  labour  and  expense  is  spent  on  Thrushes. 
thrushes,  which  are  kept  in  every  country  district, 
but,  with  greater  advantage  to  their  health,  in  that 
in  which  they  have  been  caught;  for  there  are 
difficulties  about  moving  them  elsewhere,  because, 
when  they  are  shut  up  in  cages,  most  of  them  become 
despondent;  indeed  they  do  so  when  they  are  in- 
stantaneously hurled  from  the  net  into  the  aviaries. 
So,  to  prevent  this,  some  old  thrushes  ought  to  be 
mixed  with  them  which,  having  been  brought  up  by 
the  fowlers  for  this  purpose,  may  serve  as  decoys  for 
the  captives  and  may  mitigate  their  distress  by 
flying  in  among  them.  For  in  this  way  wild  birds 
will  become  used  to  seeking  both  their  water  and 
their  food  when  they  have  seen  the  tame  birds  doing 
so.  They  require  a  place  as  well  protected  and  as  2 
sunny  as  wood-pigeons  need,  but  transverse  poles  are 
fixed  in  it  fitted  into  holes  pierced  in  the  walls  which 
face  one  another,  on  which  they  may  perch  when 
they  have  had  their  fill  of  food  and  wish  to  rest. 


escere  volunt.     Eae  perticae  non  altius  a  terra  debent 
sublevari,  quam  hominis  statura  patitur,  ut  a  stante 

3  contingi  possint.  Cibi  ponuntur  fere  partibus  his 
ornithonis,  quae  super  se  ^  perticas  non  habent,  quo 
mundiores  permaneant.  Semper  autem  arida  ficus 
diligenter  pinsita  et  permixta  polline  praeberi  debet, 

4  tam  large  quidem  ut  supersit.  Hanc  quidam  man- 
dunt,  et  ita  obiciunt.  Sed  istud  in  maiore  numero 
facere  vix  expedit,  quia  nee  parvo  conducuntur  qui 
mandant,  et  ab  his  ipsis  aliquantum  propter  iucundi- 
tatem  consumitur.  Multi  varietatem  ciborum,  ne 
unum  fastidiant,  praebendam  putant ;    ea  est,  cum 

5  obiciuntur  myrti  et  lentisci  semina ;  item  oleastri  et 
ederaceae  baccae,^  nee  minus  arbuti.^  Fere  enim 
etiam  in  agris  ab  eiusmodi  volucribus  haec  appetun- 
tur,  quae  in  aviariis  *  quoque  desidentium  ^  detergent 
fastidia,  faciuntque  avidiorem  volaturam,  quod 
maxime  expedit.  Nam  largiore  cibo  celerius  pingue- 
scit.  Semper  tamen  etiam  canaliculi  milio  repleti 
apponuntur,    quae    est    firmissima    esca.     Nam    ilia 

6  quae  supra  diximus,  pulmentariorum  vice  dantur. 
Vasa,  quibus  recens  et  munda  praebeatur  aqua,  non 
dissimilia  sint  gallinariis. 

Hac  ^  impensa  curaque  M.  Terentius  ternis  saepe 
denariis  singulos  emptitatos  '  esse  significat  avorum 

*  se  ac  :   om.  SA. 

*  edoracee  bace  ac  :   herecee  vace  SA. 
'  arbuti  edd.  :   arbusti  codd. 

*  in  aviariis  rejietit  S. 

*  desidentium  ac  :    sidentur  SA. 

*  hac  ac :   hanc  SA. 

'  emptitatos  Sa  :  entitatos  A  :  eptitatos  c. 

<•  Varro,  R.Ii.,  III.  2.  15. 


BOOK  VIII.  X.  2-6 

These  poles  ought  not  to  be  raised  higher  from  the 
ground  than  a  man's  height  allows,  so  that  they  may 
be  within  his  reach  when  he  is  standing  up.  The  3 
food  is  usually  placed  in  those  parts  of  the  aviary 
which  have  no  perches  above  them,  so  that  it  may 
remain  more  clean.  Dried  figs,  carefully  crushed  and 
mixed  with  fine  flour,  ought  always  to  be  provided, 
so  abundantly  indeed  that  some  is  left  over.  Some 
people  chew  a  fig  and  then  offer  it  to  the  thrushes ;  4 
but  it  is  scarcely  expedient  to  do  this  where  the 
number  of  thrushes  is  large,  because  people  to  chew 
the  figs  cost  a  good  deal  to  hire  and  themselves  eat 
an  appreciable  quantity  because  of  the  pleasant  taste. 
Many  people  think  that  a  variety  of  food  ought  to  be 
provided,  lest  the  thrushes  take  a  dislike  to  a  single 
food.  This  variety  consists  in  putting  before  themi 
seeds  of  myrtle  and  mastic,  also  wild  olive  and  ivy 
berries  and  likewise  the  fruit  of  the  strawberry-tree,  5 
for  these  are  the  things  for  which  this  kind  of  bird 
generally  seeks  in  the  fields,  and  so  they  do  away 
with  the  distaste  for  food  which  they  feel  in  their 
idle  captivity  in  the  aviaries  and  make  the  bird 
population  there  more  voracious,  which  is  a  great 
advantage ;  for  the  more  they  eat  the  quicker  they 
get  fat.  Little  troughs,  however,  full  of  millet  are 
always  placed  near  them  since  it  is  the  most  solid  part 
of  their  diet ;  for  the  foods  which  we  have  mentioned 
above  are  given  them  as  relishes.  Vessels  for  the  6 
supply  of  fresh,  clean  water  should  be  not  unlike  those 
for  poultry. 

Thanks  to  the  expenditure  in  this  way  of  money 
and  care,  so  Marcus  Terentius  informs  us,*  these 
birds  were  often  bought  for  three  denarii  a  piece  in 
our  grandfathers'  time,  when  those  who  celebrated 



temporibus,  quibus  qui  triumphabant  populo  * 
dabant  epulum.  At  nunc  aetatis  nostrae  luxuria^ 
cotidiana  fecit  haec  pretia :  propter  quae  ne  rusticis 
quidem  contemnendus  sit  hie  reditus. 

Atque  ea  genera,  quae  intra  saepta  villae  cibantur, 
fere  persecuti  sumus.  Nunc  de  his  dicendum  est, 
quibus  etiam  exitus  ad  agrestia  pabula  dantur. 

XI.  Pavonum  educatio  magis  urbani  ^  patris- 
familiae,  quam  tetrici  rustici  curam  poscit.  Sed  nee 
haec  tamen  aliena  est  agricolae  captantis  undique 
voluptates  acquirere,  quibus  solitudinem  ruris  eblan- 
diatur.  Harum  autem  decor  avium  etiam  exteros 
nedum  dominos  oblectat.  Itaque  genus  alitum 
nemorosis  et  parvulis  insulis,  quales  obiacent  Italiae, 
facillime  continetur.  Nam  quoniam  nee  sublimiter 
potest  nee  per  longa  spatia  volitare,  tum  etiam  quia 
furis  ac  noxiorum  animalium  rapinae  metus  non  est, 
sine  custode  tuto  vagatur,  maioremque  pabuli  partem 
2  sibi  acquirit.  Feminae  quidem  sua  sponte  tanquam 
servitio  liberatae  studiosius  pullos  enutriunt :  nee 
curator  aliud  facere  debet,  quam  ut  diei  certo  tem- 
pore, signo  dato,  iuxta  villam  gregem  convocet,  et 
exiguum  hordei  concurrentibus  obiciat,  ut  nee  avis 
esuriat,  et  numerus  advenientium  recognoscatur, 

^  populo  Aac  :   populos  S. 

2  luxuria  Sc  :   luxoriae  A  :  luxurio  a, 

'  urbani  c  :  urbanis  SAa, 


BOOK  VIII.  X.  6-xi.  2 

triumphs  gave  a  feast  to  the  people.  But  at  the 
present  day  luxury  has  made  this  their  everyday 
price ;  wherefore  this  source  of  income  must  not  be 
despised  even  by  farmers. 

We  have  now  dealt  in  general  with  those  kinds 
of  birds  which  are  fed  within  the  precincts  of 
the  farm ;  we  must  now  speak  of  those  which  are 
also  given  freedom  to  seek  their  food  in  the 

XI.  The  rearing  of  peafowl  calls  for  the  attention  Peafowl. 
of  the  city-dwelling  householder  rather  than  of  the 
surly  countryman ;  yet  it  is  not  alien  to  the  business 
of  the  farmer  who  aims  at  the  acquisition,  from  every 
source,  of  pleasure  with  which  he  beguiles  the  loneli- 
ness of  country  life  ;  and  the  elegance  of  these  birds 
delights  even  strangers,  much  more  their  owners. 
This  breed  of  birds,  therefore,  can  be  easily  kept  on 
the  small  wooded  islands  which  lie  off  the  coast  of 
Italy ;  for  since  they  cannot  fly  high  or  over  long 
distances  and  since  too  on  these  islands  there  is  no 
fear  of  their  being  carried  off  by  a  thief  or  by 
harmful  animals,  they  can  safely  wander  about 
without  anyone  to  look  after  them  and  acquire  most 
of  their  food  for  themselves.  The  hen-birds,  finding  2 
themselves  as  it  were  released  from  bondage,  of  their 
own  accord  bring  up  their  young  with  unusual  devo- 
tion, and  the  man  in  charge  of  them  should  have 
nothing  to  do  except,  at  a  fixed  time  of  day,  to  give 
the  signal  and  summon  the  flock  to  the  neighbour- 
hood of  the  farm  and  throw  down  a  small  quantity 
of  barley  before  them  as  they  run  to  meet  him,  so 
that  the  birds  may  not  be  hungry  and  that  the 
number  may  be  verified  of  those  who  come  to  his 



3  Sed  huius  possessionis  rara  conditio  est.  Quare 
xnediterraneis  locis  ^  maior  adhibenda  cura  est : 
eaque  sic  administretur.  Herbidus  silvestrisque  ager 
planus  sublimi  clauditur  ^  maceria,  cuius  tribus  late- 
ribus  porticus  applicantur,  et  in  quarto  duae  celiac, 
ut  sit  altera  custodis  habitatio,  atque  altera  stabulum 
pavonum.  Sub  porticibus  deinde  per  ordinem  fiunt 
arundinea  saepta  in  modum  cavearum,  quales  ^ 
columbarii  tectis  superponuntur.  Ea  saepta  dis- 
tinguuntur  velut  clatris  intercurrentibus  calamis,  ita 

4  ut  ab  utroque  latere  singulos  aditus  habeant.  Stabu- 
lum autem  carere  debet  uligine,  cuius  in  solo  per 
ordinem  figuntur  breves  paxilli,*  eorumque  partes 
summae  lingulas  edolatas  habent,  quae  transversis 
foratis  perticis  inducantur.^  Hae  porro  quadratae 
perticae,  paxillis  superponuntur,  ut  avem  recipiant 
adsilientem.  Sed  idcirco  sunt  exemptiles,  ut  cum 
res  exigit,  a  paxillis  deductae  ^  liberum  aditum  con- 
verrentibus  stabulum  praebeant. 

5  Hoc  genus  avium,  cum  trimatum  explevit,  optime 
progenerat.  Siquidem  tenerior  aetas,  aut  sterilis, 
aut  parum  fecunda  est.  Masculus  pavo  gallina- 
ceam  salacitatem  habet,  atque  ideo  quinque  feminas 
desiderat.  Nam  si  unam  vel  alteram  fetam  saepius 
compressit,  vix  dum  concepta  in  alvo  vitiat  ova,  nee 
ad  partum  '  sinit  perduci :    quoniam  immatura  geni- 

locis  ac  :   om.  SA . 

clauditur  a  :    cluditur  SAc. 

quales  iS'^  :    qualis  ac  :    qualia  Schneider, 

paxilli  ac  :  taxilli  SA. 

inducantur  ac  :   induantur  SA, 

deductae  Aac  :   eductae  S. 

ad  partum  «c  ;  partum  A  :  parte  S, 


BOOK  VIII.  XI.  3-5 

But  the  possession  of  these  birds  is  a  rare  circum-  3 
stance  and  so  an  unusual  amount  of  care  must  be 
exercised  in  inland  districts,  and  the  following  pro- 
cedure must  be  followed.  A  flat  piece  of  land  covered 
with  grass  and  trees  is  enclosed  with  a  high  fence  to 
three  sides  of  which  galleries  are  attached,  while  on 
the  fourth  side  there  are  two  huts,  one  for  the 
dwelling-place  of  the  custodian,  the  other  as  a 
peacock-house.  Then  in  the  galleries  enclosures  are 
made  with  reeds  in  a  row  to  form  coops  such  as  are 
placed  on  the  roofs  of  a  pigeon-house.  These  en- 
closures are  separated  from  one  another  by  barriers 
as  it  were  of  reeds  which  run  between  them,  so 
arranged  as  to  have  one  entrance  on  either  side.  The  4 
peacock-house  ought  to  be  entirely  free  from  damp, 
and  in  the  floor  short  stakes  are  fixed  in  a  row,  the 
tops  of  which  have  carefully  hewn  tenons  for  insertion 
into  holes  made  in  the  transverse  perches.  More- 
over, these  perches  which  are  placed  on  the  top  of 
the  stakes  are  cut  square,  so  that  they  may  give  a 
foothold  to  a  bird  when  it  leaps  onto  them,  but  they 
are  made  so  as  to  be  removable  in  order  that,  when  it 
is  necessary,  they  may  be  detached  from  the  stakes 
and  give  free  access  to  those  who  are  sweeping  out  the 

This  kind  of  fowl,  when  it  has  completed  its  first  5 
three  years,  breeds  excellently,  but  at  a  tenderer  age 
it  is  either  sterile  or  not  very  prolific.  The  male  bird 
has  the  salaciousness  of  the  farmyard  cock  and  so 
requires  five  hens ;  for  if  it  frequently  covers  one  or 
two  of  them  that  have  been  laying,  it  spoils  eggs 
which  are  hardly  yet  formed  in  the  womb  and  does 
not  allow  them  to  be  bi'ought  to  birth,  since  they  fall 
out  of  the  genital  parts  while  they  are  still  immature. 



6  talibus  locis  excidunt.  Ultima  parte  hiemis  conci- 
tantibus  libidinem  cibis  utriusque  sexus  accendenda 
venus  est.  Maxima  facit  ad  banc  rem,  si  favilla  levi 
torreas  fabam,  tepidamque  des  ieiunis  quinto  quoque 
die.  Nee  tamen  excedas  modum  sex  cyathorum 
in  singulas  aves.  Haec  cibaria  non  omnibus  pro- 
rrtiscue  ^  spargenda  sunt,  sed  in  singulis  saeptis,  quae 
arundinibus  contexi  oportere  proposueram,  portione  ^ 
servata  quinque  feminarum  et  unius  maris,  ponenda 
sunt  cibaria,  nee  minus  aqua,  quae  sit  idonea  potui. 

7  Quod  ubi  factum  est,  mares  sine  rixa  ^  diducuntur  * 
in  sua  quisque  saepta  cum  feminis,  et  aequaliter 
universus  grex  pascitur.  Nam  etiam  in  hoc  genere 
pugnaces  inveniuntur  masculi,  qui  et  a  cibo  et  a  coitu 
prohibent  minus  validos,  nisi  sint  hac  ratione  separati. 
Fere  autem  locis  apricis  ineundi  cupiditas  exercet 
mares,  cum  Favonii  spirare  coeperunt,  id  est  tempus 

8  ab  idibus  Februariis  ante  Martium  mensem.  Signa 
sunt  extimulatae  libidinis,  cum  semetipsum  veluti 
mirantem  caudae  gemmantibus  pinnis  protegit : 
idque  cum  facit,  rotare  dicitur. 

Post  admissurae  tempus  confestim  matrices  custo- 
diendae  sunt,  ne  alibi  quam  in  stabulo  fetus  edant : 
saepiusque  digitis  loca  feminarum  tentanda  sunt. 
Nam  in  promptu  gerunt  ova,  quibus  iam  partus 
appropinquat.     Itaque  includendae  sunt  incipientes,^ 

9  ne  extra  clausum  fetum  edant :  maximeque  tem- 
poribus  his,  quibus  parturiunt,  pluribus  stramentis 

promiscue  a  :   promisee  SA  :   perraixtae  c. 

proposueram  portione  ac :  om.  SA. 

sine  rixa  ac  :  om.  SA. 

diducuntur  S  :   deducuntur  Aac. 

incipientes  SAac  :   incientes  Ursinus,  Schneider, 


BOOK  VIII.  XI.  5-9 

In  the  last  part  of  the  winter  the  desires  of  both  sexes  6 
must  be  kindled  by  foods  which  excite  lust.  The 
best  means  to  this  end  is  to  toast  some  beans  over 
embers  which  are  not  very  hot  and  give  them  while 
still  warm  to  the  fowls  every  fifth  day  on  an  empty 
stomach  ;  but  you  should  not  go  beyond  six  cyathi  to 
each  bird.  This  food  must  not  be  scattered  pro- 
miscuously to  all  of  them  together  but  must  be 
placed  in  each  of  the  enclosures,  which  I  had  suggested 
should  be  made  of  reeds  woven  together,  a  portion 
having  been  set  aside  for  five  hens  and  a  cock  and 
likewise  water  which  should  be  suitable  for  drinking. 
When  this  has  been  done  the  male  birds  are  driven,  7 
without  quarrelling,  each  into  its  own  enclosure 
together  with  their  hens,  and  the  food  is  equally 
distributed  over  the  whole  flock.  For  even  among 
birds  of  this  kind  pugnacious  males  are  found  which 
try  to  deprive  those  which  are  weaker  than  them- 
selves of  food  and  sexual  intercourse,  if  they  are  not 
kept  apart  in  this  way.  Generally  in  sunny  places, 
when  the  west  winds  begin  to  blow,  that  is,  from  the 
13th  of  February  until  the  month  of  March,  a  desire 
for  sexual  intercourse  torments  the  male  birds.  It  8 
is  a  sign  that  a  peacock's  lust  is  excited  when  it 
covers  itself  with  its  bejewelled  tail-feathers  and 
seems  to  be  admiring  itself;  when  it  does  so,  it  is  said 
to  be  "  forming  a  wheel." 

After  the  mating  season  the  laying  hens  must 
immediately  be  watched  carefully  lest  they  lay  their 
eggs  anywhere  except  in  the  peacock-house,  and 
the  parts  of  the  females  must  often  be  felt  with  the 
fingers,  for,  when  the  time  for  laying  is  at  hand,  they 
carry  their  eggs  in  readiness.  When  they  begin  to  9 
lay  they  must  be  shut  up,  so  that  they  may  not 



exaggerandum  est  aviarium,  quo  tutius  integri  fetus 
excipiantur.  Nam  fere  pavones,  cum  ad  noctumam 
requiem  venerunt,  praedictis  perticis  insistentes 
enituntur  ova,  quae  quo  propius  ac  mollius  deci- 
derint,  illibatam  servant  integritatem.  Quotidie 
ergo  diligenter  mane  temporibus  feturae  stabula 
circumeunda  erunt,  et  iacentia  ova  colligenda.  Quae 
quanto  recentiora  gallinis  subiecta  sunt,  tanto  com- 
modius    excluduntur :  ^    idque    fieri    maxime    patris- 

10  familias  rationi  conducit.  Nam  feminae  pavones, 
quae  non  incubant,  ter  anno  fere  partus  edunt :  at 
quae  fovent  ova,  totum  tempus  fecunditatis  aut 
excludendis  aut  ^  etiam  educandis  pullis  consumunt. 
Primus  est  partus  quinque  fere  ovorum ;    secundus 

11  quattuor;  tertius  aut  trium  aut  duorum.  Neque  est 
quod  committatur,  ut  Rhodiae  aves  pavoninis  in- 
cubent,  quae  ne  suos  quidem  fetus  commode 
nutriunt.  Sed  veteres  maximae  quaeque  gallinae 
vernaculi  generis  eligantur :  ^  eaeque  novem  diebus  a 
primo  lunae  incremento,  novenis  ovis  incubent,  sint- 
que     ex    his    quinque    pavonina,    cetera    gallinacei 

12  generis.  Decimo  deinceps  die  omnia  gallinacea  sub- 
trahantur,  et  totidem  recentia  eiusdem  generis 
supponantur,  ut  trigesima  luna,  quae  est  fere  nova, 
cum    pavoninis    excludantur.     Sed    custodis    curam 

^  excuduntur  SAa  :   excluduntur  c. 

*  excludendis  aut  edd.  :   excudendis  aut  ac  :   oni.  SA. 

*  eligantur  ac  :   religantur  SA, 


BOOK  VIII.  XI.  9-12 

produce  their  eggs  outside  the  enclosure.  Above  all 
during  the  seasons  in  which  they  lay,  the  peacock- 
house  must  be  piled  high  with  more  straw,  the  better 
to  ensure  that  the  eggs  are  delivered  intact.  For 
usually  peahens,  having  come  to  seek  rest  at  night, 
lay  their  eggs  while  they  are  roosting  on  the  perches, 
which  have  already  been  described,  and  when  the 
eggs  have  fallen  from  a  lesser  height  and  more  softly, 
they  keep  their  soundness  unimpaired.  Every  day, 
therefore,  during  the  period  of  laying  you  will  have 
to  go  carefully  round  the  peacock-houses  in  the  early 
morning  and  collect  the  eggs  which  are  lying  about, 
and  the  fresher  they  are  when  they  are  set  under  the 
hen,  the  better  are  the  prospects  of  a  good  hatch, 
and  that  this  should  be  done  is  very  much  to  the  house- 
holder's advantage.  For  peahens  which  do  not  sit  10 
generally  produce  three  lots  of  eggs  during  the  year, 
but  those  which  sit  spend  the  whole  period  of  their 
productivity  in  either  hatching  or  even  rearing  their 
young.  The  first  laying  generally  consists  of  five 
eggs,  the  second  of  four,  and  the  third  of  either  three 
or  two.  There  is  no  reason  for  making  the  mistake  11 
of  letting  Rhodian  hens  incubate  peahens'  eggs, 
since  they  do  not  even  bring  up  their  own  offspring 
properly ;  but  the  biggest  veteran  farmyard-fowls  of 
our  native  breed  should  be  chosen  and  should  be  put 
to  sit  upon  nine  eggs,  five  of  which  should  be  pea- 
hen's and  the  rest  ordinary  hen's  eggs,  nine  days 
after  the  moon's  first  increase.  Then  on  the  tenth  12 
day  all  the  hen's  eggs  should  be  removed  and  the 
same  number  of  fresh  eggs  of  the  same  kind  sub- 
stituted, that  they  may  be  hatched  out  with  the 
peahen's  eggs  on  the  thirtieth  day  which  is  about 
new  moon.     But  it  must  not   escape  the  keeper's 



non  efFugiat  observare  desilientem  matricem,  saepius- 
que  ad  cubile  pervenire,  et  pavonina  ova,  quae 
propter  magnitudinem  difficilius  a  gallina  moventur, 
versare  manu  :  idque  quo  diligentius  faeiat,  una  pars 
ovorum  notanda  est  atramento,  quod  signum  habebit 

13  aviarius,^  an  a  gallina  conversa  sint.  Sed,  ut  dixi, 
meminerimus  cohortales  quam  maximas  ad  hanc  rem 
praeparari.  Quae  si  mediocris  habitus  sunt,  non 
debent  amplius  quam  terna  pavonina  et  sena  generis 
sui  fovere.  Cum  deinde  feeerit  pullos,  ad  aliam 
nutrieem  gallinacei  debebunt  transferri,  et  subinde 
qui  nati  fuerint  pavonini  ad  unam  congregari,  donee 

14  quinque  et  viginti  capitum  grex  efficiatur.  Sed  cum  ^ 
erunt  editi  pulli,  similiter  ut  gallinacei  prime  die  non 
moveantur :  postero  die  cum  educatrice  trans- 
ferantur  in  caveam :  primisque  diebus  alantur 
hordeaceo  farre  vino  resperso,  nee  minus  ex  quolibet 
frumento  cocta  pulticula,  et  refrigerata.  Post  paucos 
deinde  dies  huic  ^  cibo  adiciendum  erit  concisum 
porrum  Tarentinum,  et  caseus  mollis  vehementer 
expressus ;  nam  serum  nocere  pullis  manifestum  est. 

15  Locustae  quoque  pedibus  ademptis  utiles  cibandis 
pullis  habentur,  atque  his  pasci  debent  usque  ad 
sextum  mensem :  postmodum  satis  est  hordeum  de 
manu  praebere.  Possunt  autem  post  quintum  et 
trigesimum  diem  quam  nati  sunt,  etiam  in  agrum 

habiarius  S.  *  cum  ac  :  om.  SA. 

*  huic  ac  :  hie  S  :  hoc  A. 


BOOK  VIII.  XI.  12-15 

attention  to  mark  the  mother-hen  when  she  leaps 
down  and  to  visit  the  nest-box  frequently  and  with 
his  hand  to  turn  the  peahen's  eggs,  which  on  account 
of  their  size  are  more  difficult  for  the  farmyard-hen 
to  move  ;  and  so  that  he  may  carry  out  this  task  with 
greater  care,  one  side  of  the  eggs  should  be  marked 
with  ink  and  the  poultry-man  will  then  have  a  means 
of  knowing  whether  the  eggs  have  been  turned  by 
the  hen.  But,  as  I  have  said,  we  must  remember  that  13 
farmyard  hens  of  the  greatest  possible  size  are  pro- 
vided for  this  purpose  ;  and  if  they  are  of  only  moder- 
ate build,  they  ought  not  to  sit  upon  more  than  three 
peahen's  eggs  and  six  of  their  own  kind.  When  the 
hen  has  hatched  the  chickens,  the  farmyard  chickens 
will  have  to  be  transferred  to  another  nurse,  and  any 
young  peafowls  which  are  hatched  from  time  to  time 
should  be  collected  round  one  nurse  until  a  flock  of 
twenty-five  head  is  made  up.  But  when  the  young  14 
peafowls  are  hatched  out,  on  the  first  day,  like  farm- 
yard chickens,  they  should  not  be  moved,  but  on  the 
following  day  they  should  be  transferred  to  a  coop 
with  the  hen  that  is  to  bring  them  up,  and  during  the 
first  days  they  should  be  fed  on  barley-meal  sprinkled 
with  wine  and  with  gruel  made  from  any  kind  of 
cereal  and  allowed  to  grow  cold.  Then  after  a  few 
days  a  Tarentine  leek  cut  up  small  should  be  added 
to  their  diet  and  soft  cheese  which  has  been  pressed  out 
with  great  force,  for  whey  is  obviously  harmful  to 
chickens.  Locusts  too,  whose  feet  have  been  re-  15 
moved,  are  regarded  as  useful  for  feeding  the 
peachicks  and  they  ought  to  eat  them  until  the  sixth 
month ;  afterwards  it  is  enough  to  give  them  barley 
from  the  hand.  After  the  thirty-fifth  day  following 
their  birth  they  may  even  be  quite  safely  taken  out 



satis  tuto  educi,  sequiturque  grex  velut  matrem 
gallinam  singultientem.  Ea  cavea  clausa  ^  fertur  in 
agrum  a  pastore,  et  emissa  ligato  pede  longa  linea 
custoditur,  ad  quam  ^  circumvolant  puUi.  Qui  cum 
ad  satietatem  pasti  sunt,  reducuntur  in  villam  perse- 

16  quentes,  ut  dixi,  nutricis  singultus,^  Satis  autem 
convenit  inter  auctores,  non  debere  alias 
gallinas,  quae  pullos  sui  generis  educant,  in  eodem 
loco  pasci.  Nam  cum  conspexerunt  pavoninam 
prolem,  sues  pullos  diligere  desinunt,  et  immaturos 
relinquunt,  perosae  videlicet,  quod  nee  magnitudine, 
nee  specie  pavoninis  pares  sint.  Vitia  quae  gallinaceo 
generi  *  nocere  Solent,  eadem  has  aves  infestant : 
sed  nee  remedia  traduntur  alia,  quam  quae  gallinaceis 
adhibentur.  Nam  et  pituita  et  cruditas,  et  si  quae 
aliae  sunt  pestes,  iisdem  remediis,  quae  proposuimus, 

17  prohibentur.  Septimum  deinde  mensem  cum  ex- 
cesserunt,  in  stabulo  cum  ceteris  ad  nocturnam 
requiem  debent  includi.  Sed  erit  curandum,  ne 
humi  maneant.  Nam  qui  sic  cubitant,  tollendi  sunt, 
et  supra  perticas  imponendi,  ne  frigore  laborent. 

XII.  Numidicarum  eadem  est  fere  quae  pavonum 
educatio.  Ceterum  silvestres  gallinae,  quae  rusticae 
appellantur,  in  servitute  non  fetant :  et  ideo  nihil  de 
his  praecipimus,  nisi  ut  cibus  ad  satietatem  prae- 
beatur,  quo  sint  conviviorum  epulis  aptiores. 

1  ea  cavea  clausa  ac  :  ex  causam  causaque  SA. 

*  ad  quam  ac  :   aquam  SA. 
^  singultus  ac  :   singuli  SA. 

*  gallinaceo  generi  ac  :  gallinacei  generis  SA. 


BOOK  VIII.  XI.  15-X11.  I 

into  a  field,  and  the  flock  follows  the  clucking  hen  as 
though  it  were  their  mother.  The  latter  is  shut  up 
in  a  coop  and  taken  out  to  the  field  by  the  man  who 
feeds  them,  and  when  it  is  let  out  it  is  secured  by  a 
long  line  attached  to  its  foot.  The  chicks  flutter 
round  it  and,  when  they  have  eaten  their  fill,  they  are 
brought  back  to  the  farm,  following  the  clucking  of 
their  foster-mother,  as  I  have  already  described. 
The  authorities  are  pretty  well  agreed  that  the  other  16 
hens  which  are  bringing  up  chickens  of  their  own 
kind  ought  not  to  be  fed  in  the  same  place  ;  for  when 
they  have  seen  the  little  peachicks,  they  cease  to  care 
for  their  own  chickens  and  abandon  them  before  they 
reach  maturity,  evidently  hating  them  because  they  do 
not  equal  the  little  peachicks  either  in  size  or  in  beauty. 

The  same  diseases  as  usually  harm  fai*myard  fowls 
attack  these  birds  also,  and  no  remedies  are  applied 
to  them  other  than  those  which  are  administered  to 
ordinary  cocks  and  hens ;  for  the  pip  and  indigestion 
and  any  other  plagues  which  occur  are  checked  by  the 
same  remedies  as  we  have  prescribed.  When  they  17 
have  passed  the  seventh  month,  they  should  be  shut 
up  with  the  others  in  the  peacock-house  for  their 
night's  rest ;  but  care  will  have  to  be  taken  that  they 
do  not  remain  on  the  ground.  Those  who  go  to  sleep 
in  this  position  must  be  picked  up  and  placed  on  the 
perches,  so  that  they  may  not  suffer  from  the  cold. 

XII.  The   rearing   of  guinea-fowls   is   almost   the  Guinea- 
same  as  that  of  peacocks.     But  woodland  hens,  which  fP^gtic''^ 
are  called  "  rustic  "-fowls,  do  not  breed  in  captivity,  cocks. 
and,  therefore,  we  have  no  instructions  to  give  about 
them  except  that  they  must  be  given  their  fill  of  food, 
so  that  they  may  be  better  suited  for  feasts  to  which 
guests  are  invited. 

VOL.  H.  O 


XIII.  Venio  nunc  ad  eas  aves,  quas  Graeci  vocant 
a/JicfyL^LOVs,  quia  non  tantum  terrestria,  sed  aquatilia 
quoque  desiderant  pabula,  nee  magis  humo  quam 
stagno  consueverunt.  Eiusque  generis  anser  praeci- 
pue  rusticis  gratus  est,  quod  nee  maximam  curam 
poscit,  et  solertioreni  eustodiam  quam  eanis  praebet. 

2  Nam  clangore  prodit  insidiantem,  sicut  etiam 
memoria  tradidit  in  obsidione  Capitolii,  cum  ad- 
ventum^  Gallorum  voeiferatus  est,  canibus  silentibus.^ 
Is  autem  non  ubique  haberi  potest,  ut  existimat 
verissime  Celsus,  qui  sic  ait :  anser  neque  sine  aqua, 
nee  sine  multa  herba  facile  sustinetur,  neque  utilis 
est  locis  consitis,  quia  quicquid  rerum  ^  contingere 

3  potest,  carpit.  Sicubi  vero  flumen  aut  lacus  est, 
herbaeque  copia,  nee  nimis  iuxta  satae  fruges,  id 
quoque  genus  *  nutriendum  est.  Quod  etiam  nos 
facere  censemus,  non  quia  magni  sit  fructus,  sed  quia 
minimi  oneris.  Attamen  praestat  ex  se  pullos  atque 
plumam,  quam  non,  ut  in  ovibus  lanam,  semel 
demetere,  sed  bis  anno,  vere  et  autumno  vellere  licet. 
Atque  ob  has  quidem  causas,  si  permittit  locorum 
conditio,  vel  paucos  utique  oportet  educare,  singulis- 
que  maribus  ternas  feminas  destinare.  Nam  propter 
gravitatem  plures  inire  non  possunt.  Quinetiam 
intra  cohortem,   ut   protecti  sint,   secretas   singulis 

^  adventum  SAac  :  adventu  edd, 
*  silentibus  ac  :  om.  8 A. 
^  rerum  SA  :  tenerum  ac. 


BOOK  VIII.  XIII.  1-3 

XIII.  I  now  come  to  those  birds  which  the  Greeks  Amphibious 
call "  amphibious,"  because  they  require  not  only  food 
produced  from  the  earth  but  also  that  which  comes 
from  the  water,  and  have  accustomed  themselves 
quite  as  much  to  standing  water  as  to  the  land.  Of 
this  type  of  bird  the  goose  is  particularly  acceptable 
to  farmers,  because  it  does  not  demand  very  much 
attention  and  keeps  watch  more  cleverly  than  a  dog, 
since  by  its  cackling  it  betrays  the  presence  of  any-  2 
one  who  is  lying  in  wait,  just  as  (so  history  has  in- 
formed us)  when  during  the  siege  of  the  Capitol  it 
was  the  goose  which  loudly  announced  the  approach 
of  the  Gauls  while  the  dogs  kept  silence.  The 
goose,  however,  cannot  be  kept  everywhere,  an 
opinion  which  Celsus  expresses  with  much  truth 
when  he  says  :  "  A  goose  cannot  easily  be  maintained 
v/ithout  plenty  of  water  and  plenty  of  grass  and  is  not 
profitable  in  closely  planted  land  because  it  plucks 
at  anything  which  it  can  reach ;  but  wherever  there  3 
is  a  river  or  a  lake  and  an  abundance  of  grass  and 
there  are  not  sown  crops  too  near  at  hand,  this  kind 
of  bird  also  should  be  reared."  We,  furthermore,  are 
in  favour  of  keeping  geese  not  because  it  brings  a 
large  profit  but  because  it  gives  very  little  trouble. 
Yet  it  produces  goslings  and  feathers  ;  the  latter 
you  may  gather  not  merely  once  a  year,  like  wool 
from  sheep,  but  you  can  pluck  twice,  in  spring  and 
in  autumn.  Indeed  for  these  reasons,  if  local  con- 
ditions permit,  you  should  rear  at  any  rate  a  few 
geese  and  assign  three  female  birds  to  one  male ;  for 
because  of  their  weight  they  cannot  couple  with 
more.  Moreover,  so  that  they  may  have  protection, 
separate  goose  pens  should  be  made  for  each  inside 

*  id  quoque  genus  ac  :  om.  SA. 



haras  faceret  oportet,^  in  quibus  cubitent  et  fetus 
ubi  edant. 

XIV.  Qui  vero  greges  nantium  possidere  student, 
chenoboscia  ^  constituunt,^  quae  turn  demum  vige- 
bunt,  si  fuerint  ordinata  ratione  tali.  Cohors  ab  omni 
cetero  pecore  secreta  clauditur  alta  novem  pedum 
maceria,  porticibusque  circumdata,  ita  ut  in  aliqua 
parte  sit  cella  custodis.  Sub  porticibus  deinde 
quadratae  harae  ^  caementis  vel  etiam  laterculis 
extruuntur :  quas  singulas  satis  est  habere  quoquo- 
versus  pedes  ternos,  et  aditus  singulos  firmis  ostiolis 
munitos  :   quia  per  fetui'am  diligenter  claudi  debent. 

2  Extra  villam  deinde  non  longe  ab  aedificio  si  est 
stagnum  vel  flumen,  alia  non  quaeratur  aqua :  sin 
aliter,  lacus  piscinaque  manu  fiant,  ut  sint  quibus 
inurinare  possint  aves.  Nam  sine  isto  primordio  non 
magis  quam  sine  terreno  recte  vivere  queunt.^ 
Palustris  quoque,*  sed  herbidus  ager  destinetur, 
atque  alia  pabula  conserantur,  ut  vicia,  trifolium, 
faenum  Graecum,  sed  praecipue  genus  intubi,  quod 
aeptv  '  Graeci  appellant.  Lactucae  quoque  in  hunc 
usum  semina  vel  maxime  serenda  sunt,  quoniam  et 
mollissimum  est  olus,  et  libentissime  ab  his  avibus 
appetitur.     Turn  etiam  puUis  utilissima  est  esca, 

3  Haec  cum  praeparata  sunt,  curandum  est,  ut  mares 
feminaeque  quam  amplissimi  corporis  et  albi  coloris 

^  quinetiam — oportet  Schneider  :  quin  et  etiam  in  rutectis 
circa  chortem  secretis  angulis  haras  (aras  A)  facere  <S^  :  quin 
etiam  intra  cohortem  protecti  sint  secretis  anglis  haras 
facere  a :  intra  cohortem  pretecti  secretis  angulis  raras 
facere  c. 

^  chenoboscia  nam  A  :  XHNOBOC  nam  S  :  om.  ac. 

'  statuunt  A. 

*  harae  Aa  :  are  c  :   habere  S. 

*  quemit  ac  :  nequeunt  SA.  *  quodque  S. 


BOOK  VIII.  XIII.  3-xiv.  3 

the  poultry-yard  "  in  which  they  can  rest  and  where 
they  can  lay  their  eggs. 

XIV.  Those  who  desire  to  possess  flocks  of  swimming  The  housing 
birds  establish  goose-pens,  which  then  will  flourish  of  geeS."^ 
only  if  they  are  arranged  in  the  following  manner. 
A  yard  remote  from  any  other  livestock  is  enclosed 
by  a  wall  nine  feet  high  and  surrounded  by  porticos 
so  arranged  that  the  keeper's  hut  may  be  in  some 
part  of  them.  Then  under  the  porticos  square  pens 
are  built  of  unhewn  stones  or  even  small  bricks.  It  is 
enough  if  each  pen  measures  three  feet  each  way  and 
has  a  single  entrance  fitted  with  strong  little  doors, 
because  the  pens  ought  to  be  kept  shut  when  the 
geese  are  laying  or  sitting.  If  there  is  a  pool  or  river  2 
outside  the  farm  and  not  far  from  the  building,  no 
other  water  need  be  looked  for ;  otherwise  a  lake 
and  fish-pond  should  be  artificially  constructed,  so 
that  the  geese  may  have  water  into  which  to  dive ; 
for  they  can  no  more  live  properly  without  the 
element  of  water  than  they  can  without  the  element 
of  earth.  A  marshy  field  too  which  is  also  grassy 
should  be  set  aside  for  them,  and  other  foods  be  sown 
such  as  vetch,  trefoil,  fenugreek  and  above  all  the 
kind  of  endive  which  the  Greek  call  serisfi  Lettuce 
seeds  in  particular  should  also  be  sown  for  this  pur- 
pose, since  it  is  a  very  tender  vegetable  and  is  also 
much  sought  after  by  these  birds ;  also  it  is  a  very 
useful  food  for  goslings. 

Having  made  all  these  preparations,  you  must  take  3 
care  that  the  male  and  female  birds  which  you  choose 
are  of  the  largest  possible  size  and  of  a  white  colour ; 

"  The  text  here  is  uncertain  but  the  meaning  is  clear. 
»  Dioscorides,  II.  132. 

'  aepiv  edd. :  caepim  8  :   cepi  A  :  om.  ac. 



eligantur.  Nam  est  aliud  genus  varium,  quod  a  fero 
mitigatum  domesticum  factum  est.  Id  neque  aeque 
fecundum    est,  nee    tam    pretiosum :    propter    quod 

4  minime  nutriendum  est.  Anseribus  admittendis 
tempus  aptissimum  est  a  bruma ;  mox  ad  pariendum, 
et  ad  incubandum  a  Calen.  Februariis  vel  Martiis 
usque  ad  solstitium,  quod  fit  ultima  parte  mensis 
lunii.  Ineunt  autem  non,  ut  priores  aves,  de  quibus 
diximus,  insistentes  humi :  nam  fere  in  flumine  aut 
piscinis  id  faciunt :  singulaeque  ter  anno  pariunt,  si 
prohibeantur    fetus     suos     excudere,^    quod    magis 

5  expedit,  quam  quurft  ipsae  suos  fovent.  Nam  et  a 
gallinis  melius  enutriuntur,  et  longe  maior  grex 
efficitur.  Pariunt  autem  singulis  fetibus  ova,  primo 
quina,  sequenti  quaterna,  novissimo  terna :  quern 
partum  nonnulli  permittunt  ipsis  matribus  educare, 
quia  reliquo  tempore  anni  vacaturae  sunt  a  fetu. 
Minime  autem  concedendum  est  feminis  extra 
saeptum  parere,  sed  cum  videbuntur  sedem  quaerere, 
comprimendae  sunt  atque  tentandae.  Nam  si 
appropinquant  partus,   digito   tanguntur  ova,   quae 

6  sunt  in  prima  parte  locorum  genitalium.  Quam- 
obrem  perduci  ad  haram  debent,  includique  ut  fetum 
edant :  idque  singulis  semel  fecisse  satis  est,  quoniam 
unaquaeque  recurrit  eodem,  ubi  primo  peperit. 
Sed  novissimo  fetu  cum  volumus  ipsas  incubare, 
notandi  erunt  uniuscuiusque  partus,  ut  suis  matribus 

^  oxcudore  codd.  :   excludere  edd. 

BOOK  VIII.  XIV.  3-6 

for  there  is  another  kind  which  is  of  various  colours 
and,  originally  wild,  has  been  tamed  and  become  a 
domestic  bird,  but  it  is  not  so  prolific  and  commands 
a  lower  price,  and  so  should  certainly  not  be  reared.  4 
The  most  suitable  time  for  coupling  geese  is  from  the 
height  of  winter  onwards,  and  then  for  laying  eggs 
and  sitting  on  them  from  the  first  of  February  or 
March  until  the  summer  solstice,  which  falls  in  the 
last  part  of  the  month  of  June.  They  couple  not 
standing  on  the  ground,  like  the  birds  of  whom  we 
dealt  before,  but  generally  in  a  river  or  pond  ;  and 
each  hen-bird  lays  a  clutch  of  eggs  three  times  a  year 
if  prevented  from  hatching  them  out,  which  is  a  better 
plan  than  if  they  sit  on  their  own  eggs  ;  for  the  young  5 
are  better  reared  by  ordinary  hens  and  also  the 
result  is  a  much  larger  flock.  At  each  laying  they 
produce  the  following  numbers  of  eggs,  at  the  first 
five,  at  the  next  four  and  at  the  last  three.  Some 
people  allow  the  geese  themselves  to  rear  the  last 
clutch,  because  for  the  rest  of  the  year  they  will  be 
taking  a  holiday  from  laying.  The  female  birds 
must  not  on  any  account  be  allowed  to  lay  outside 
the  enclosure,  but,  when  they  seem  to  be  looking  for 
a  nesting-place,  they  must  be  stopped  and  must  be 
examined  ;  for  if  they  are  near  laying,  the  eggs,  which 
are  in  the  nearest  part  of  the  genital  organs,  can  be 
felt  with  the  finger.  Wherefore  they  ought  to  be  6 
taken  to  the  goose-pen  and  shut  up  there  so  that  they 
may  lay  their  eggs ;  and  it  is  enough  to  have  done 
this  once  with  each  of  them  since  every  one  of  them 
returns  to  the  place  where  it  first  laid  an  egg.  But, 
after  the  last  laying,  when  we  wish  the  geese 
themselves  to  sit,  the  eggs  of  each  Avill  have  to  be 
marked  so  that  they  may  be  put  under  those  which 



subiciantur:  quoniam  negatur  anser  aliena  ex- 
cudere  ova,  nisi  subiecta  sua  quoque  habuerit. 
Supponuntur  autem  gallinis  huius  generis  ova,  sicut 
pavonina,   plurima   quinque,   paucissima  tria :    ipsis 

7  autem  anseribus  paucissima  vii,  plurima  xv.  Sed 
custodiri  debet,  ut  ovis  subiciantur  herbae  urticarum, 
quo  quasi  remedio  medicantur,  ne  noceri  possit 
excusis  ^  anserculis,  quos  enecant  urticae,  si  teneros 
pupugerint.  Pullis  autem  formandis  excudendisque 
triginta  diebus  opus  est,  cum  sunt  frigora :  nam 
tepidis  XXV  satis  est.     Saepius  tamen  anser  trigesimo 

8  die  nascitur,  Atque  is  dum  exiguus  est,  decern 
primis  diebus  pascitur  in  hara  clausus  ^  cum  matre : 
postea  cum  serenitas  permittit,  producitur  in  prata, 
et  ad  piscinas.  Cavendumque  est,  ne  aut  aculeis 
urticae  compungatur,  aut  esuriens  mittatur  in 
pascuum :  sed  ante  concisis  intubis  vel  lactucae  foliis 
saturetur.  Nam  si  est  adhuc  parum  firmus  indigens 
ciborum  pervenit  in  pascuum,  fruticibus  aut  solidi- 
oribus  herbis  obluctatur  ita  pertinaciter,  ut  collum 
abrumpat.  Milium  quoque  aut  etiam  triticum 
mixtum  cum  aqua  recte  praebetur.  Atque  ubi 
paulum  se  confirmavit,  in  gregem  coaequalium 
compellitur,   et  hordeo   alitur :    quod  et  matricibus 

9  praebere  non  inutile  est.  Pullos  autem  non  expedit 
plures  in  singulas  haras  quam  vicenos  adici ;  nee 
rursus  omnino  cum  maioribus  includi,  quoniam  vali- 

^  excusis  edd.  :   excussis  codd. 
*  clausus  ac  :   clauaum  SA. 


BOOK  VIII.  XIV.  6-9 

laid  them ;  for  it  is  said  that  a  goose  does  not  hatch 
another's  eggs  unless  she  has  some  of  her  own  also 
beneath  her.  Goose  eggs,  like  those  of  peahens, 
are  put  under  ordinary  hens,  the  maximum  numbers 
being  five  and  the  minimum  three,  whereas  a  mini- 
mum of  seven  and  a  maximum  of  fifteen  are  put 
under  the  geese  themselves.  But  care  must  be  7 
taken,  when  stalks  of  nettle  (which  are  used  as  a 
remedy  to  cure  disease)  are  placed  under  the  eggs, 
that  they  may  not  possibly  hurt  the  goslings  when 
they  are  hatched ;  for  nettles  kill  them  if  they  sting 
them  when  they  are  quite  young.  Thirty  days  are 
required  for  the  forming  and  hatching  of  the  goslings 
when  the  weather  is  cold ;  for  when  it  is  warm, 
twenty-five  days  are  enough,  but  more  often  the 
gosling  is  hatched  on  the  thirtieth  day.  While  it  is  8 
quite  small,  for  the  first  ten  days  it  is  shut  up  with 
its  mother  in  the  pen  and  fed  there ;  afterwards, 
when  calm  weather  allows,  it  is  taken  out  into  the 
meadows  and  to  the  ponds.  Care  must  be  taken 
that  it  is  not  stung  by  the  prickles  of  the  nettle  or 
sent  out  hungry  to  pasture,  but  that  it  has  had  its 
fill  beforehand  of  chopped  endive  or  lettuce  leaves ; 
for  if  it  is  still  not  very  strong  and  arrives  hungry  at 
the  pasture-ground,  it  struggles  so  persistently  with 
shrubs  or  the  tougher  plants  that  it  breaks  its  neck. 
It  is  also  well  to  provide  it  with  millet  or  even  wheat 
mixed  with  water.  When  it  has  become  a  little 
stronger,  it  is  driven  out  to  join  a  flock  of  birds  of  its 
own  age  and  fed  on  barley,  the  provision  of  which  for 
laying  geese  also  is  not  without  advantage.  It  is  not  9 
expedient  to  assign  more  than  twenty  goslings  to  each 
goose-pen,  nor,  again,  must  they  be  shut  up  at  all 
with  birds  older  than  themselves,  since  the  stronger 



dior  enecat  infirmum.  Cellas,  in  quibus  incubitant, 
siccissimas  esse  oportet,  substratasque  habere  paleas : 
vel  si  eae  non  sunt,  crassissimum  ^  quodque  ^  faenum. 
Cetera  eadem,  quae  in  aliis  generibus  pullorum 
servanda  sunt,  ne  coluber,  ne  vipera,  felesque,  aut 
etiam  mustela  possit  aspirare :  quae  fere  pernicies 
ad  internecionem  prosternunt  teneros. 

10  Sunt  qui  hordeum  maceratum  incubantibus  appo- 
nant,  nee  patiantur  matrices  saepius  nidum  relinquere. 
Deinde  pullis  excusis  primis  quinque  diebus  polentam 
vel  maceratum  far,^  sicut  pavonibus  obiciunt.  Non- 
nulli  etiam  viride  nasturtium  consectum  minutatim 
cum  aqua  praebent,  eaque  eis  est  esca  iucundissima.* 
Mox  ubi  quattuor  mensium  facti  sunt,  farturae 
maximus  quisque  destinatur,  quoniam  tenera  aetas 
praecipue  habetur  ad  hanc  rem  aptissima :    et  est 

11  facilis  harum  avium  sagina :  ^  nam  praeter  polentam 
et  pollinem  ter  die  nihil  sane  aliud  dari  necesse  est, 
dummodo  large  bibendi  potestas  fiat,  nee  vagandi 
facultas  detur,  sintque  calido  et  tenebricoso  loco : 
quae  *  res  ad  creandas  adipes  multum  conferunt. 
Hoc    modo    duobus    mensibus    pinguescunt    etiam 

^  crassissimum  SA  :  gratissimum  ac. 

'  quodque  edd.  :    quoque  codd. 

^  maceratum  far  ac  :  carata  fari  S :  caratam  farris  A. 


BOOK  VIII.  XIV.  9-1 1 

kills  the  weaker.  The  coops  in  which  they  sleep 
must  be  very  dry  and  have  chaff  spread  on  the  floor, 
or,  if  this  is  not  available,  the  coarsest  possible  hay. 
For  the  rest,  the  same  precautions  must  be  taken  as 
for  other  kinds  of  young  birds  to  prevent  a  grass-snake 
or  a  viper  or  a  cat  or  even  a  weasel  from  being  able 
to  catch  them ;  for  these  pestilential  creatures 
generally  lay  them  low  and  destroy  them  while  they 
are  young  and  tender. 

Some  people  put  barley  soaked  in  water  by  the  side  10 
of  geese  which  are  sitting  and  do  not  allow  them  to 
leave  the  nest  too  often  ;  then,  when  the  goslings  have 
been  hatched,  for  the  first  five  days  they  put  before 
them  pearl-barley  or  meal  soaked  in  water,  as  they 
also  give  to  peahens.  Others  give  them  green  cress 
cut  up  very  small  with  water — a  food  which  is  very 
agreeable  to  them.  Then  Avhen  they  have  become 
four  months  old,  all  the  biggest  goslings  are  set  aside 
for  fattening,  since  a  tender  age  is  regarded  as 
especially  suitable  for  this  process.  Indeed  the 
cramming  of  these  birds  is  an  easy  matter;  for  11 
besides  pearl-barley  and  wheat-flour  three  times  a 
day,  absolutely  nothing  else  need  be  given  them, 
provided  that  they  have  facilities  for  drinking 
freely  and  are  not  allowed  to  wander  about  and 
are  kept  in  a  warm,  shady  place ;  for  all  these 
precautions  contribute  greatly  to  the  formation  of 
fat.  In  this  manner  even  the  older  birds  grow 
fat  in  two  months,  for  the  tenderest  young  brood 

*  iocundissima  ac  :  iucundissimum  SA. 

*  sagina  c  :  saginam  SAa. 

*  tenebricoso  loco  quae  Ac  :    tenebroso   a :    tenebricosolo 
quoque  S. 



maiores.     Nam  tenerrima  pullities  ^  saepe  xl  diebus 
opima  2  redditur. 

XV.  Nessotrophii  cura  similis,  sed  maior  impensa 
est.  Nam  clausae  pascuntur  anates,  querquedulae, 
boscides,  phalerides,^  similesque  volucres,  quae  stagna 
et  paludes  rimantur.  Locus  planus  eligitur,  isque 
munitur  sublimiter  pedum  quindecim  maceria : 
deinde  clatris  superpositis,  vel  grand!  macula  retibus 
contegitur,  ne  aut  evolandl  sit  potestas  domesticis 
avibus,  aut  aquilis  vel  accipitribus  involandi.  Sed  ea 
tota  maceries  opere  tectorio  levigatur  extra  intraque, 

2  ne  feles,  aut  viverra  perrepat.  Media  ^  deinde  parte 
nessotrophii  lacus  defoditur  in  duos  pedes  altitu- 
dinis,  spatiumque  longitudini  ^  datur  et  latitudini 
quantum  loci  ^  conditio  permittit. 

3  Ora  lacus  ne  corrumpantur  violentia  restagnantis 
undae,  quae  semper  influere  debet,  opere  signino 
consternuntur,  eaque  non  in  gradus  oportet  erigi, 
sed  paulatim  clivo  subsidere,  ut  tamquam  e  litore 
descendatur  in  aquam.  Solum  autem  stagni  per 
circuitum,  quod  sit  instar  modi  totius  duarum  partium, 
lapidibus  inculcatis  ac  '  tectorio  muniendum  est,  ne 
possit  herbas  evomere,  praebeatque  nantibus  aquae  * 

^  pinguescunt  etiam  maiores.  Nam  tenerrima  pullities 
Schneider :  pinguescunt  etiara  patriminam  pullities  SA  : 
pinguescunt  etiam  propter  nimiam  pullutiem  (polliciem  c)  a. 

^  opima  edd.  :   optima  codd. 

'  phalerides  edd.  :   plargides  S  :   philagrides  ac  :   om.  A. 

*  media  ac  :   medio  SA. 

*  longitudini  edd.  :  longitudinis  codd. 

*  loci  ac  :  locis  SA. 
'  ac  ac  :   ad  SA. 

*  ad  quam  a  :  aquae  c  :   aquam  S  :  ad  aquam  A. 

"  The  text  of  this  passage  is  undoubtedly  corrupt. 
Schneider's  restoration  certainly  gives  the  right  sense,  since 

BOOK  VIII.  XIV.  ii-xv.  3 

is  often  brought  to  a  plump  condition  in  forty- 

XV.  A  place  for  rearing  ducks  requires  similar  Ducks. 
attention  but  is  more  costly.  For  mallard,  teal, 
pochard  and  coots  and  similar  birds,  which  root 
about  in  pools  and  marshes,  can  be  kept  in  captivity. 
A  level  space  is  chosen  and  is  provided  with  a  wall 
fifteen  feet  high;  then  it  is  covered  in  by  having 
lattice-work  or  nets  of  a  large  mesh  placed  over  it, 
so  that  there  may  be  no  opportunity  for  the  tame 
birds  to  fly  away  or  for  eagles  or  hawks  to  fly  in. 
The  whole  of  the  wall  is  made  smooth  by  plastering  2 
it  inside  and  outside,  so  that  no  cat  or  ferret  may  creep 
through  it.  Then  in  the  middle  of  the  duck-yard  a 
pond  is  dug,  two  feet  deep,  and  as  much  space  is 
assigned  to  its  length  and  width  as  the  local  conditions 

The  edges  of  the  pond  are  paved  with  plaster,  so  3 
that  they  may  not  be  damaged  by  the  violence  of  the 
water  when  it  overflows  (for  it  ought  to  be  always 
running  in),  and  they  should  not  be  raised  in  the 
form  of  steps  but  should  slope  down  gradually,  so 
that  there  may  be  an  easy  descent  as  if  from  the 
shore  into  the  water.  The  floor  of  the  pond  along 
the  circumference  to  the  extent  of  aljout  two- thirds  of 
its  whole  dimension  must  be  constructed  with  stones 
well  rammed  down  and  plaster,  so  that  it  may  not  be 
able  to  put  forth  any  vegetation  and  may  keep  the 
surface  of  the  water  clear  for  the  fowls  which  swim 

the  passage  is  imitated  by  Palladius,  R.R.,  Chapter  XXX  : 
melius  jAnguescimt  in  ienera  aetate.  Polenta  dabitur  in  die  ter. 
Large  vagari  liceniia  prohibetur.  Loco  obscuro  claudentur  et 
calido.  Sic  maiores  etiam  secundo  mense  pinguescunt ;  nam 
parvuli  saefe  die  irigesimo. 



4  puram  superficiem.  Media  rursus  terrena  pars  esse 
debet,  ut  colocasiis  conseratur,  aliisque  familiaribus 
aquae  ^  viridibus,  quae  inopacant  avium  receptacula. 
Sunt  enim  quibus  cordi  est  vel  in  silvulis  tamaricum, 
aut  scirporum  frutectis  immorari.  Nee  ob  banc 
tamen  eausam  totus  locus  silvulis  occupetur,  sed  ut 
dixi,  per  circuitum  vacet,  ut  sine  impedimento,  cum 
apricitate  ^  diei  gestiunt  aves,  nandi  velocitate  con- 

5  certent.  Nam  quemadmodum  desiderant  esse  quo  ^ 
irrepant,  et  ubi  delitescentibus  fluvialibus  *  animali- 
bus  insidientur,  ita  oifenduntur,  si  non  sunt  libera 
spatia,  qua  permeent.  Extra  lacum  deinde  per 
vicenos  undique  ^  pedes  gramine  ripae  vestiantur : 
sintque  post  hunc  agri  modum  circa  maceriam  lapide 
fabricata  et  expolita  tectoriis  pedalia  in  quadratum 
cubilia,  quibus  innidificent  aves :  eaque  contegantur 
intersitis  buxeis  aut  myrteis  fruticibus,  qui  non 
excedant  altitudinem  parietum. 

6  Statim  deinde  perpetuus  canaliculus  humi  de- 
pressus  construatur,  per  quem  quotidie  mixti  cum 
aqua  cibi  decurrant :  sic  enim  pabulatur  ^  id  genus 
avium.  Gratissima  est  esca  terrestris  leguminis 
panicum  et  milium,  necnon  et  hordeum :  sed  ubi 
copia  est,  etiam  glans  ac  vinacea  praebentur.  Aqua- 
tilis  autem  cibi  si  sit  facultas,  datur  cammarus,  et 

^  atque  SAac. 

2  apricitate  ac  :   apricitatem  SA. 

*  quo  edd.  :   qui  codd. 

*  fluvialibus  SA  :   fluviaticis  ac. 

*  undique  ac  :   undequi  SA. 

*  pabulatur  Aac  :  ambulatur  8. 

"  Nelumbium  apecioaum,  a  plant  of  the  lily  kind  which  grows 
in  the  lakes  and  marshes  of  Egypt. 

BOOK  VIII.  XV.  3-6 

upon  it.  On  the  other  hand,  the  middle  part  of  the  4 
pond  should  be  made  of  earth,  so  that  it  may  be  sown 
with  the  Egyptian  bean  "  and  other  green  stuff  which 
generally  grows  in  the  water  and  provides  shade  for  the 
haunts  of  the  waterfowl.  Some  of  them  take  pleasure 
in  lingering  in  little  plantations  of  tamarisk  and  thickets 
of  club-rushes.  Nevertheless  the  whole  space  should 
not  fortius  reason  be  occupied  by  little  plantations,  but, 
as  I  have  said,  should  be  left  free  all  round  the 
circumference,  so  that,  as  they  are  cheered  by  a 
day  of  sunshine,  the  water  fowl  may  vie  with  one 
another  to  see  which  swims  the  fastest.  For  just  as  5 
they  require  to  be  where  there  are  holes  into  which 
they  can  creep  and  where  they  can  lie  in  wait  for 
fresh-water  creatures  which  are  in  hiding,  so  they  are 
displeased  if  there  are  no  open  spaces  in  which  they 
can  roam  freely.  The  banks  of  the  pond  should  be 
clothed  with  grass  to  a  distance  of  twenty  feet  all 
round  and  beyond  this  space  round  the  wall  there 
should  be  nest-boxes  one  foot  square  made  of  stone 
and  covered  with  a  smooth  layer  of  plaster  in  which 
the  birds  may  lay  their  eggs.  These  nest-boxes 
should  be  protected  by  bushes  planted  between 
them  of  box  and  myrtle  which  should  not  exceed  the 
walls  in  height. 

Next  a  continuous  channel  should  be  constructed,  6 
sunk  into  the  ground,  along  which  the  food  may  be 
carried  down  every  day  mingling  with  the  water,  for 
this  is  how  birds  of  this  kind  get  their  food.  The 
foods  grown  on  dry  land  which  they  like  best  are 
panic-grass  andmillet  and  also  barley ;  but,  where  there 
is  abundance  of  them,  acorns  and  grape-husks  are  also 
provided.  If  there  is  food  which  grows  in  the  water 
available,  they  are  given  fresh-water  crayfish  and  small 



rivalis    alecula,    vel    si    qua   sunt   incrementi    parvi 
fluviorum  animalia. 

7  Tempora  concubitus  eadem  quae  ceterae  silvestres 
alites  observant  Martii,  sequentisque  mensis :  per 
quos  festucae  ^  surculique  in  vivariis  ^  passim  spar- 
gendi  sunt,  ut  colligere  possint  aves,  quibus  nidos 
construant.  Sed  antiquissimum  est,  cum  quis  nesso- 
trophion  constituere  volet,  ut  praedictarum  avium 
circa  paludes,  in  quibus  plerumque  fetant,  ova 
coUigat,  et  cohortalibus  gallinis  subiciat.  Sic  enim 
excussi  educatique  pulli  deponunt  ingenia  silvestria, 
clausique  vivariis  haud  dubitanter  progenerant. 
Nam  si  modo  captas  aves,  quae  consuevere  libero  ^ 
victu,  custodiae  tradere  velis,  parere  cunctantur  in 
servitute.  Sed  de  tutela  nantium  volucrum  satis 
dictum  est. 

XVI.  Verum  opportune,  dum  meminimus  aquati- 
lium  animalium,  ad  curam  pervenimus  piscium, 
quorum  reditum  quamvis  alienissimum  agricul- 
toribus  putem  (quid  enim  tarn  contrarium  est,  quam 
terrenum  fluido  ?),  tamen  non  omittam :  nam  et  ha- 
rum  studia  rerum  maiores  nostri  celebraverunt,  adeo 
quidem,  ut  etiam  dulcibus  aquis  marinos  clauderent  * 
pisces,  atque  eadem  cura  mugilem  scarumque  ^ 
nutrirent,   qua   nunc   muraena    et    lupus    educatur. 

2  Magni  enim  aestimabat  vetus  ilia  Romuli  et  Numae 
rustica  progenies,  si  urbanae  vitae  comparetur 
villatica,  nulla  parte  copiarum  defici.     Quamobrem 

^  festucae  ac  :   fetu  SA . 

*  vivariis  S  :   aviariis  Aac. 
'  consuevere  libero  om.  SA. 

*  dulcibus  aquis  marinos  clauderent  edtl. :  dulcibus  aquibus 
a  fluviatilis  cludent  <S^  :  duabus  aquis  fluviales  clauderent 
a  :   dulcibus  aquis  fluviales  clauderent  c. 


BOOK  VIII.  XV.  6-xvi.  2 

pickled  river-fish  and  any  other  river  animals  which 
grow  only  to  a  small  size. 

They  observe  the  same  seasons  for  coupling  as  other  7 
wild  birds,  namely,  March  and  the  following  month. 
During  these  months  stalks  and  twigs  should  be 
scattered  about  everywhere  in  the  bird-pens,  so  that 
the  birds  may  be  able  to  collect  them  and  use  them  to 
build  their  nests.  But  it  is  most  important,  when 
anyone  wishes  to  establish  a  place  for  rearing  ducks, 
to  collect  the  eggs  of  the  said  fowls  in  the  region  of 
the  marshes,  where  they  usually  lay,  and  set  them 
under  farm-yard  hens.  For  when  they  are  hatched 
and  reared  in  this  way  they  lay  aside  their  wild  nature 
and  undoubtedly  breed  shut  up  in  the  bird-pens. 
If  you  want  to  hand  over  to  custody  birds  which  have 
only  just  been  caught  and  have  been  used  to  a  life  of 
liberty,  they  are  slow  to  begin  to  lay  in  captivity. 
But  enough  has  now  been  said  about  the  care  of  fowls 
which  swim. 

XVI.  In  dealing  with  aquatic  animals  we  come  in  Fishes. 
due  course  to  the  management  of  fishes,  the  profitable 
nature  of  which,  though  I  regard  it  as  far  removed 
from  the  business  of  farmers — for  what  things  are  so 
contrary  to  one  another  as  dry  land  and  water  ? — I 
will  nevertheless  not  pass  over.  Our  ancestors  carried 
their  zeal  for  this  pursuit  to  such  a  pitch  that  they  even 
imprisoned  salt-water  fish  in  fresh  water  and  fed  the 
grey  mullet  and  parrot  wrasse  with  the  same  care  with 
which  the  lamprey  and  the  sea-pike  are  now  reared. 
The  country-bred  descendants  of  Romulus  and  Numa  2 
of  old  prided  themselves  greatly  on  the  fact  that,  if 
life  on  the  farm  were  compared  with  that  in  the  town, 
it  did  not  fall  short  of  it  in  abundance  of  any  kind ; 

*  squalumque  SAa  :   scalumque  c. 



non  solum  piscinas,  quas  ipsi  construxerant,  fre- 
quentabant :  sed  etiam  quos  rerum  natura  lacus 
fecerat,  convectis  marinis  seminibus  replebant.  Inde 
Velinus,  inde  etiam  Sabatinus,  item  Volsiniensis,  et 
Ciminius  lupos  auratasque  procreaverunt,  ac  si  qua 
sunt   alia   piscium   genera   dulcis   undae   tolerantia. 

3  Mox  istam  curam  sequens  aetas  abolevit,  et  lautitiae 
locupletum  maria  ipsa  Neptunumque  clauserunt,  ut  ^ 
iam  turn  avorum  ^  memoria  cii'cumferretur  Marcii 
Philippi  velut  urbanissimum,  quod  erat  luxuriosi  ^ 
factum  atque  dictum.  Nam  is  forte  Casini  cum  apud 
hospitem  cenaret,  appositumque  e  vicino  flumine 
lupum  degustasset  atque  expuisset,  improbum 
factum  dicto  prosecutus  :  Peream,  inquit,  nisi  piscem 

4  putavi.  Hoc  igitur  periurium  multorum  subtiliorem 
fecit  gulam,  doctaque  et  erudita  palata  fastidire 
docuit  fluvialem  lupum,  nisi  quern  Tiberis  adverse 
torrente  defatigasset.  Itaque  Terentius  Varro : 
Nullus  est,  inquit,  hoc  saeculo  nebulo,^  ac  minthon,^ 
qui  non  iam  dicat,  nihil  sua  interesse,  utrum  eiusmodi 

5  piscibus,  an  ranis  frequens  habeat  vivarium.  Ac 
tamen  iisdem  temporibus,  quibus  banc  memorabat 
Varro  luxuriem,  maxime  laudabatur  severitas  Catonis, 
qui  nihilo  minus  et  ipse  tutor  Luculli  grandi  acre 

1  lit  edd.  :   et  ac  :   om.  SA . 

*  avorum  ac  :   quorum  8 A. 

'  luxuriosi  scripsi :   luxuriose  SAa  :   luxuriosissime  c. 

*  nebulus  ac  :   nebullus  SA. 
5  minthon  ac  :  mintho  SA. 

'  The  Lago  di  Piedi  di  Luco  in  Umbria. 
^  The  Lago  Bracciano  about  35  miles  N.W.  of  Rome. 
«  The  Lago  di  Bolseno  about  70  miles  N.W.  of  Rome. 
"*  The  Lago  di  Vico  near  Viturbo  about  45  miles  N.W.  of 


BOOK  VIII.  XVI.  2-5 

they,  therefore,  not  only  stocked  the  fish-ponds  which 
they  had  themselves  constructed,  but  also  filled  the 
lakes  which  nature  had  formed,  with  fish-spawn 
brought  from  the  sea.  Hence  the  Veline "  and 
Sabatine  ^  lakes,  also  the  Volsinian  "  and  Ciminian  <* 
lakes  produced  basse  and  gilt-head,  and  all  the  fishes 
to  be  found  anywhere  which  can  live  in  fresh  water. 
Then  an  age  followed  which  abandoned  this  method  3 
of  keeping  fish  and  the  extravagance  of  the  wealthy 
enclosed  the  vexy  seas  and  Neptune  himself,  so  that 
within  the  memory  of  our  grandfathers  the  action 
and  speech  of  Marcius  Philippus  *  M^as  on  everyone's 
lips  as  being  very  witty,  whereas  it  was  the  action 
and  speech  of  a  luxurious  man.  For  once  when  he 
happened  to  be  dining  at  a  friend's  house  at  Casinum,/ 
and  after  having  tasted  a  pike  from  a  neighbouring 
river  which  was  set  before  him  had  spit  it  out,  he 
followed  this  opprobrious  action  with  the  words : 
"  Plague  take  me  if  I  did  not  think  that  it  was  a 
fish."  This  oath  caused  many  people  to  put  more  4 
refinement  into  their  gluttony  and  has  taught  learned 
and  educated  palates  to  loathe  the  basse  unless 
it  were  one  which  had  been  wearied  by  struggling 
against  the  current  of  the  Tiber.  Therefore  Terentius 
Varro  says :  9  There  is  no  paltry  or  foppish  fellow  in 
these  days  who  does  not  now  declare  that  he  cares  not 
whether  he  has  a  fish-pond  crowded  with  this  sort  of 
fish  or  with  frogs.  Yet  in  the  very  times  to  which  5 
Varro  ascribed  this  luxury,  the  austerity  of  Cato  was 
highly  commended,  who,  nevertheless,  himself  as  the 
guardian  of  Lucullus  sold  his  ward's  fish-ponds  for  the 

*  This  story  is  borrowed  from  Varro,  R.R.  III.  3.  9. 

/  The  modem  Monte  Cassino  in  the  north  of  Campagna. 

»  Loc.  cit. 



sestertium  ^  milium  quadringentorum  piscinas  pu- 
pilli  sui  venditabat.  lam  enim  celebres  erant 
deliciae  popinales,  cum  ad  mare  deferrentur^  vivaria, 
quorum  studiosissimi,  velut  ante  devictarum  gentium 
Numantinus  et  Isauricus,  ita  Sergius  Orata,  et 
Licinius  Muraena  captorum  piscium  laetabantur 

6  Sedquoniam  sic  mores  occalluere,  non  ut  haec  usita- 
ta,  verum  ut  maxime  laudabilia  et  honesta  iudicaren- 
tur,nos  quoque  ne  videamur  tot  seculorum  seri  castiga- 
tores,  hunc  etiam  quaestum  villaticum  patrisfamilias 
demonstrabimus.  Qui  sive  insulas,^  sive  maritimos 
agros  mercatus,*  propter  exilitatem  soli,  quae  plerum- 
que   litori  vicina   est,  fructus   terrae  percipere   non 

7  poterit,^  ex  mari  reditum  constituat.  Huius  autem 
rei  quasi  primordium  est,  naturam  loci  contemplari, 
quo  piscinas  facere  constitueris.  Non  enim  omnibus 
litoribus  omne  genus  piscium  haberi  potest.  Limosa 
regio  planum  educat  piscem,  velut  soleam,  rhombum, 
passerem.  Eadem  quoque  maxime  idonea  est  con- 
chyliis :  ^    purpurarum    muricibus,    turn    concharum 

8  ostreis,'  pectunculis,  balanis,  vel  sphondylis.^  At 
arenosi  gurgites  pianos   quidem  non  pessime,^  sed 

^  sestertium  Aac  :  sestertiis  S. 

*  defertur  SA  :   deferantur  ac. 

'  insulas  ac  :   in  insula  S^.     ''  mercatus  a  :   mercatur  5^. 

*  precipere  non  potuerit  ac  :  percipuerit  ut  SA. 

*  conchiliis  ac  :   conciliis  SA. 

'   Warmington :    muricibus  et  ostreis,  purpurarumque  turn 
conchariam  prior,  edd. 

*  pectuncuii,  balani  vel  sphondili  codd. 

*  pessime  a  :  spessime  S  :  spissime  A  :   prozime  c. 

"  Scipio  Africanus  Minor.     *  P.  Servilius  Vatia. 

'  According  to  Pliny,  IX.  §  168,  Sergius  Orata  established 
the  first  oyster-beds  at  Baiae  near  Naples. 

BOOK  VIII.  XVI.  5-8 

immense  sum  of  400,000  sesterces.  For  culinary 
delicacies  were  already  in  great  demand  when  fish- 
ponds were  made  to  communicate  with  the  sea  and, 
just  as  at  an  earlier  date  Numantinus  <*  and  Isauricus  ^ 
rejoiced  in  names  taken  from  conquered  nations, 
so  Sergius  Orata  (goldfish)  "  and  Licinius  Muraena 
(lamprey),*^  who  made  fish-ponds  their  chief  interest, 
rejoiced  in  the  names  of  the  fish  they  had  captured. 

But  since  men's  moral  sense  has  become  so  blunted  6 
that  such  behaviour  is  reckoned  not  only  as  customary 
but  also  as  highly  laudable  and  honourable,  we  too, 
lest  we  should  seem  to  be  only  out-of-date  critics  of 
so  many  past  generations,  will  show  that  the  fish- 
pond is  also  a  source  of  profit  which  the  head  of  a 
household  can  gain  from  his  country  estate.  He  who 
has  bought  either  islands  or  land  near  the  sea  and  is 
unable,  owing  to  the  poverty  of  the  soil  which  is 
generally  found  near  the  coast,  to  gather  the  fruits 
of  the  earth,  should  establish  a  source  of  revenue 
from  the  sea.  The  first  step  in  this  direction  is  to  7 
examine  the  nature  of  the  ground  where  you  have 
decided  to  construct  your  fish-ponds,  for  every  kind  of 
fish  cannot  be  kept  on  every  coast.  A  muddy  stretch 
of  shore  is  the  place  for  rearing  flat  fish,  such  as  the 
sole,  the  turbot  and  the  flounder ; «  it  is  also 
very  suitable  for  testaceous  animals  :  of  purple- 
producing  shell-fish,  the  true  purple  fish ;  and 
also,  of  other  molluscs,  the  oyster,  small  scallops, 
barnacles  or  sphondyliJ  But  the  sandy  whirlpools  are  8 
not  bad  feeding-grounds  for  flat-fish — better, however, 

**  Licinius  Muraena  according  to  Pliny  [loc.  cit.  §  170) 
invented  fish-ponds  for  all  sorts  of  fish. 

'  Or  dab;   the  identification  is  doubtful. 

f  Apparently  another  kind  of  mussel,  perhaps  spondylus 


pelagios  melius  pascunt,  ut  auratas  ac  dentices, 
Punicasque  et  indigenas  umbras :  verum  conchyliis 
minus  apti.  llursus  optime  saxosum  mare  nominis 
sui  pisces  nutrit,  qui  scilicet,  quod  in  petris  stabulen- 
tur,  saxatiles  dicti  sunt,  ut  merulae  turdique,  nee  mi- 
9  nus  melanuri.  Atque  ut  litorum  sic  et  fretorum 
difFerentias  nosse  oportet,  ne  nos  alienigenae  pisces 
decipiant.  Non  enim  omni  mari  potest  omnis  esse, 
ut  helops,  qui  Pamphilio  prof  undo  nee  alio  pascitur: 
ut  Atlantico  faber,  qui  et  generosissimis  piscibus 
adnumeratur,  in  nostro  Gadium  municipio  eumque 
prisca  consuetudine  ^  zeum  appellamus :  ut  scarus, 
qui  totius  Asiae  Graeciaeque  litoribus  Sicilia  tenus 
frequentissimus  exit,  nunquam  in  Ligusticum,  nee 
10  per  Gallias  enavit  ad  Hibericum  mare.  Itaque  ne  si 
capti  quidem  perferantur  in  nostra  vivaria,  diuturni 
queant  possideri.  Sola  ex  pretiosis  piscibus  muraena, 
quamvis  Tartesii  Carpathiique  pelagi,  quod  est 
ultimum,  vernacula,^  quovis  hospes  freto  peregrinum 
mare  sustinet.  Sed  iam  de  situ  piscinarum  dicen- 
dum  est. 

XVII.  Stagnum  censemus  eximie  optimum,  quod 
sic  positum  est,  ut  insequens  maris  unda  priorem 
submoveat,  nee  intra  conseptum  sinat  remanere 
veterem.  Namque  id  simillimum  est  pelago,  quod 
agitatum  ventis  assidue  renovatur,  nee  concalescere 
potest :   quoniam  gelidum  ab  imo  fluctum  revoMt  in 

1  consuetudine  Aac  :   consuetudinem  S. 
*  vemacuia  c  :   vemaculo  SAa. 

"  Oblata  melanurua. 

''  Off  the  S.  coast  of  Asia  Minor, 

'  Between  Corsica  and  the  Italian  Riviera. 

**  I.e.  Gallia  Cisalpina  and  Gallia  Transalpina. 

*  Between  Spain  and  the  Balearic  Islands. 


BOOK  VIII.  XVI.  8-xvii.  I 

for  deep-sea  fish  such  as  gilt-head  and  sea-braize 
^nd  the  Carthaginian  and  our  own  Itahan  maigres, 
but  they  are  less  suitable  for  shell-fish.  On  the  other 
hand  a  rocky  sea  provides  excellent  nourishment  for 
fishes  which  bear  its  name,  that  is,  are  called  rock- 
fish  because  they  find  shelter  among  the  rocks,  such 
as  merles  and  wrasse  and  likewise  "  black  tails."  <* 
We  must  also  know  the  different  qualities  both  of  9 
shores  and  of  seas,  lest  we  be  deceived  about  foreign 
fish ;  for  every  fish  cannot  exist  in  every  sea,  the 
sturgeon  for  example,  which  feeds  in  the  depths  of 
the  Pamphylian  Sea  ''  and  nowhere  else,  and  the  dory 
in  the  Atlantic  which  in  our  municipality  of  Gades  is 
numbered  amongst  the  noblest  of  fishes  and  which 
by  an  ancient  custom  we  call  srew^,  and  the  parrot  wrasse 
which  is  produced  in  great  numbers  on  the  coasts  of 
the  whole  of  Asia  Minor  and  Greece  as  far  as  Sicily 
but  has  never  swum  into  the  Ligurian  "  sea  nor  past 
the  Gauls  **  into  the  Iberian  Sea ;  *  therefore,  even  if  10 
they  were  captured  and  conveyed  to  our  fish-ponds, 
they  could  not  long  remain  in  our  possession.  Alone 
of  the  valuable  fish  the  lamprey,  although  a  native 
of  the  Tartessian  and  the  Carpathian  Sea,  which  is 
very  far  away,  in  whatever  sea  it  finds  itself  a  guest 
can  thrive  in  strange  waters.  But  the  time  has 
come  to   speak  of  the  situation  of  fish-ponds. 

XVII.  We  consider  that  incomparably  the  best  Fish-ponds. 
pond  is  one  which  is  so  situated  that  the  incoming 
tide  of  the  sea  expels  the  water  of  the  previous  tide 
and  does  not  allow  any  stale  water  to  remain  within 
the  enclosure ;  for  a  pond  most  resembles  the  open 
sea  if  it  is  stirred  by  the  winds  and  its  waters  con- 
stantly renewed  and  it  cannot  become  warm,  because 
it  keeps  rolling  up  a  wave  of  cold  water  from  the 



partem  superiorem.     Id  autem  stagnum  vel  excidi- 
tur  ^  in  petra,  cuius  rarissima  est  occasio,  vel  in  litore 

2  construitur  opere  signino.  Sed  utcunque  fabrica- 
tum  est,  si  semper  influente  gurgite  riget,  habere  ^ 
debet  specus  iuxta  solum,  eorumque  alios  simplices, 
et  rectos,  quo  secedant  squamosi  greges,  alios  in 
cochleam  retortos,  nee  nimis  spatiosos,  in  quibus 
muraenae  delitescant ;  quamquam  nonnullis  com- 
misceri  eas  cum  alterius  notae  piscibus  non  placet : 
quia  si  rabie  vexantur,  quod  huic  generi  velut  canino 
solet  accidere,  saepissime  persequuntur  squamosos, 

3  plurimosque  mandendo  consumunt;  itineraque,  si 
loci  natura  permittit,  omni  lateri  piscinae  dari  con- 
venit.  Facilius  enim  vetus  submovetur  unda,  cum 
quacunque  parte  fluctus  urget,  per  adversam  patet 
exitus.  Hos  autem  meatus  fieri  censemus  per  imam 
consepti  partem,  si  loci  situs  ita  competit,  ut  in  solo 
piscinae  posita  libella  septem  pedibus  sublimius  esse 
maris  aequor  ostendat :  nam  piscibus  stagni  haec  in 
altitudinem  gurgitis  mensura  abunde  est.  Nee 
dubium,  quin  quanto  magis  imo  mari  venit  unda, 
tanto   sit  frigidior,   quod   est   aptissimum   nantibus. 

4  Sin  autem  locus,  ubi  vivarium  constituere  censemus, 
pari  libra  cum  aequore  maris  est,  in  pedes  novem 
defodiatur  piscina,  et  infra  duos  a  ^  summa  parte 
cuniculis    rivi    perducantur ;     curandumque    est,    ut 

^  exciditur  ac  :  excitur  SA.  *  haberi  SAac. 

*  a  oc  :  ad  SA. 

'  Cf.  Plautus,  Bud.  4.  3.  5. 


bottom  to  the  uppermost  part.  The  pond  is  either 
hewn  in  the  rock,  which  only  rarely  occurs,  or  built 
of  plaster  on  the  shore ;  but  in  whatever  way  it  is  2 
constructed,  if  it  is  kept  cold  by  the  swirl  of  water 
which  is  constantly  flowing  in,  it  ought  to  contain 
recesses  near  the  bottom,  some  of  them  simple  and 
straight  to  which  the  "  scaly  flocks  "  "  niay  retire, 
others  twisted  into  a  spiral  and  not  too  wide,  in 
which  the  lampreys  may  lurk.  Some  people,  however, 
hold  that  lampreys  should  not  be  mixed  with  fishes 
of  another  kind,  because,  if  they  are  seized  with 
madness,  which  sometimes  happens  to  this  sort  of  fish 
just  as  it  happens  to  dogs,  they  very  often  pursue 
their  scaly  companions  and  chew  them  up  and  devour 
great  numbers  of  them.  If  the  nature  of  the  ground  3 
permits,  channels  should  be  provided  for  the  water 
on  every  side  of  the  fish-pond ;  for  the  old  water  is 
more  easily  carried  away  if  there  is  an  outlet  on  the 
side  opposite  to  that  from  which  the  wave  forces  its 
way  in.  We  are  of  opinion  that  these  passages,  if 
the  lie  of  the  ground  is  suitable,  should  be  made 
along  the  lowest  part  of  the  enclosure,  so  that  a 
plummet  placed  on  the  bottom  of  the  pond  may 
show  that  the  level  of  the  sea  is  seven  feet  higher ; 
for  this  measurement  in  the  depth  of  the  water  is 
fully  enough  for  the  fish  in  the  pond,  and  there  is  no 
doubt  that,  the  greater  the  depth  of  the  sea  from 
which  the  water  comes,  the  colder  it  is,  and  this  suits 
the  swimming  fishes  very  well.  But  if  the  place  4 
where  we  think  of  constructing  the  fish-pond  is  on 
a  level  with  the  surface  of  the  sea,  the  pond  should  be 
excavated  to  the  depth  of  nine  feet,  and  two  feet 
below  the  top  streams  of  water  should  be  conducted 
along  small  channels,  and  care  must  be  taken  that 



largissime  veniant,  quoniam  modus  ille  aquae  iacentis 
infra  libram  maris  non  aliter   exprimitur,   quam  si 

5  maior  recentis  freti  vis  incesserit.  Multi  putant  in 
eiusmodi  stagnis  longos  ^  piscibus  recessus  et  flexu- 
osos  in  lateribus  specus  esse  fabricandos,  quo  sint 
opaciores  aestuantibus  latebrae.  Sed  si  recens  mare 
non  semper  stagnum  permeat,  id  facere  contrarium 
est.  Nam  eiusmodi  receptacula  nee  facile  novas 
admittunt  aquas,  et  difficulter  veteres  emittunt : 
plusque  nocet  putris  unda,  quam  prodest  opacitas. 

6  Debent  tamen  similes  velut  cellae  parietibus  ex- 
cavari,  ut  sint,  quae  protegant  refugientes  ardorem 
solis,  et  nihilominus  facile,  quam  conceperint  aquam, 
remittant.  Verum  meminisse  oportebit,  ut  rivis,  per 
quos  exundat  piscina,  praefigantur  ^  aenei  foramini- 
bus  exiguis  cancelli,  quibus  impediatur  fuga  piscium. 
Si  vero  laxitas  permittit,  e  litore  scopulos,  qui  prae- 
cipue  verbenis  ^  algae  vestiuntur,  non  erit  alienum 
per  stagni  spatia  disponere,  et  quantum  comminisci 
valet  hominis  ingenium,  repraesentare  faciem  maris, 

7  ut  clausi  quam  minime  custodiam  sentiant.  Hac 
ratione  stabulis  ordinatis  aquatile  pecus  inducemus ; 
sitque  nobis  antiquissimum  meminisse  etiam  in 
fluviatili  negotio,  quod  in  terreno  praecipitur :    Et 

1  longos  ac  :  longis  SA. 

*  praeficantur  <S  :  praeficentur  A  :  prefingetur  a  :  prae- 
figentur  c. 

^  verbenis  algae  ac :  velvenis  algae  S  :  velvenis  ac  leve 

"  It  is  doubtful  whether  verbenis  can  bear  the  meaning  of 
"  vegetation  "  in  general  and  the  reading  is  perhaps  wrong. 


BOOK  VIII.  XVII.  4-7 

the  flow  is  very  abundant,  since  the  quantity  of 
water  which  hes  below  the  level  of  the  sea  is  only 
forced  out  by  the  greater  violence  of  the  fresh  sea 
water  rushing  in.  Many  people  think  that  in  the  5 
sides  of  ponds  of  this  kind  deep  recesses  and  winding 
caves  should  be  constructed  for  the  fishes,  so  that 
there  may  be  shadier  places  of  retreat  for  them  when 
they  feel  the  heat.  But  if  a  change  of  sea  water  is 
not  continually  passing  through  the  pond,  the  result 
is  to  cause  a  contrary  condition,  for  lurking-places  of 
this  kind  do  not  easily  admit  a  change  of  water  and 
only  with  difficulty  get  rid  of  the  stale  water,  and 
more  harm  results  from  the  putrid  water  than  bene- 
fit from  the  shade.  There  ought,  however,  to  be  6 
excavated  in  the  sides  of  the  pond  what  may  be  de- 
scribed as  a  series  of  similar  cells  which  may  serve  to 
protect  the  fish  when  they  want  to  avoid  the  heat  of 
the  sun  and  yet  at  the  same  time  let  the  water,  which 
they  have  received,  easily  flow  out  again.  It  will  be 
well  to  remember  that  gratings  made  of  brass  with 
small  holes  should  be  fixed  in  front  of  the  channels 
through  which  the  fish-pond  pours  out  its  waters,  to 
prevent  the  fish  from  escaping.  If  space  allows,  it 
will  not  be  amiss  to  place  in  various  parts  of  the  pond 
rocks  from  the  sea-shore,  especially  those  which  are 
covered  with  bunches  of  sea-weed  *  and,  as  far  as  the 
wit  of  man  can  contrive,  to  represent  the  appearance 
of  the  sea,  so  that,  though  they  are  prisoners,  the  fish 
may  feel  their  captivity  as  little  as  possible. 

Having    arranged    "  stalls "    for    them    on    this  7 
principle,  we  shall  introduce  our  "  water  flock  "  into 
it,  and  it  should  be  our  prime  concern  to  recall  also  in 
our  dealings  with  rivers   the   advice  given  for  our 
business  with  dry  land :  "  And  consider  well  what  every 



quid  quaeque  ferat  regio.^  Neque  enim  si  velimus, 
ut  in  mari  non  nunquam  conspeximus,  in  vivario 
multitudinem  mullorum  ^  pascere  queamus,  cum  sit 
moUissimum  genus,  et  servitutis  indignantissimum. 

8  Raro  itaque  unus  aut  alter  de  multis  milibus  claustra 
patitur :  at  contra  frequenter  animadvertimus  intra 
septa  pelagios  greges,  inertis  mugilis  et  rapacis  lupi. 
Quare,  ut  proposueram,  qualitatem  litoris  nostri 
contemplemur ;  et  si  videmus  scopulosam,  probemus. 
Turdi  complura  genera,  merulasque  et  avidas  mus- 
telas,  turn  etiam  sine  macula  (nam  sunt  et  varii) 
lupos  includemus,  item  plautas,^  quae  maxime  pro- 
bantur,  muraenas,  et  si  quae  sunt  aliae  saxatilis 
notae,  quarum  pretia  vigent.  Nam  vile  ne  captare 
quidem,  nedum  alere  conducit.     Possunt  ista  eadem 

9  genera  etiam  litoris  arenosi  stagnis  contineri.  Nam 
quae  limo  caenoque  lita  sunt,^  ut  ante  iam  dixi,  con- 
chy liis  magis  et  iacentibus  apta  sunt  animalibus. 
Neque  est  eadem  lacus  positio,  quae  recipit  cubantes  : 
neque  ^  eadem  praebentur  cibaria  prostratis  piscibus 
et  rectis.*  Namque  soleis  ac  rhombis  et  similibus 
animalibus  humilis  in  duos  pedes  piscina  deprimitur 
in  ea  parte  litoris,  quae  profundi  recessu  '  nunquam 

10  destituitur.  Spissi  deinde  clatri  marginibus  in- 
figuntur,  qui  super  aquam  semper  emineant,  etiam 
cum  maris  aestus  intumuerit.  Mox  praeiaciuntur  in 
gyrum  moles,  ita  ut  complectantur  sinu  suo,  et  tamen 
excedant  stagni  modum.     Sic  enim  et  maris  atrocitas 

1  post  regio  add.  SA  :   oportet  si  quis  in  eo. 

*  mnlorum  coM. 

*  plautas  SA  (=  Greek  TrAcora?)  :   flutas  ac. 

*  lita  sunt  S  :  litescunt  Aac.  ^  atque  SAac. 

*  rectis  iSA  :   erectis  ac. 

'  profundo  recessu  c  :    frondi  recensu  A  :    frondi  recessu 
S  :  frondi  recente  a. 


BOOK  VIII.  XVII.  7-10 

place  will  bear."  For  we  cannot,  if  we  should  wish 
to  do  so,  feed  in  a  fish-pond  a  multitude  of  red  mullet, 
such  as  we  have  very  often  seen  in  the  sea,  since  it 
is  a  very  delicate  kind  of  fish  and  most  intolerant  of 
captivity,  and  so  only  one  or  two  out  of  many  8 
thousands  can  on  rare  occasions  endure  confinement, 
while,  on  the  contrary,  we  frequently  notice  in  closed 
watei-s  shoals  of  those  deep-sea  fish :  the  sluggish 
grey  mullet  and  the  greedy  basse.  Therefore,  as  I 
have  already  suggested,  let  us  consider  the  quality 
of  our  sea-shore  and,  if  we  find  it  rocky,  let  us  be 
content  with  it.  We  shall  imprison  in  our  ponds 
several  kinds  of  wrasse  and  sea-merles  and  greedy 
sea-weasels  and  also  basse  which  have  no  spots 
(for  there  is  also  a  mottled  kind),  also  floating 
lampreys,  which  are  much  esteemed,  and  any  other 
lampreys  of  the  rock-dwelling  kind  which  command 
a  high  price ;  for  it  does  not  pay  to  catch,  much  less 
to  keep,  anything  which  is  cheap.  These  same  kinds  9 
of  fish  can  also  be  kept  in  ponds  on  a  sandy  shore ; 
for  shores  which  are  covered  with  slime  and  mud  are, 
as  I  have  already  said,  better  suited  to  shell-fish  and 
animals  which  lie  at  the  bottom.  A  different  position 
too  is  required  for  ponds  which  harbour  those  fish 
which  lie  down,  nor  is  the  same  food  provided  for 
prostrate  as  for  upright  fish.  For  soles  and  turbots 
and  similar  creatures  a  shallow  pond  is  sunk  two  feet 
in  that  part  of  the  shore  which  is  never  left  high  and 
dry  by  ebbing  of  deep  water.  Next  close  barriers  10 
are  fixed  along  the  edges  of  the  pond,  so  that  they 
always  stand  out  of  the  water  even  when  the  tide  of 
the  sea  is  at  its  highest;  then  dams  are  thrown  up 
all  round  so  as  to  encompass  the  pond  in  their  embrace 
and  at  the  same  time  to  rise  above  its  level.     For  in 



obiectu  crepidinis  frangitur,  et  in  tranquillo  con- 
sistens  piscis  sedibus  suis  non  exturbatur,  neque 
ipsum   vivarium   repletur   algarum    congerie,    quam 

11  tempestatibus  eructat  pelagi  violentia.  Oportebit 
autem  nonnullis  locis  moles  intercidi  more  Maeandri 
parvis  sed  angustis  itineribus,  quae  quantalibet 
hiemis  saevitia  mare  sine  fluctu  transmittant. 

Esca  iacentium  mollior  esse  debet,  quam  saxatilium, 
nam  quia  dentibus  carent,  aut  lambunt  cibos,  aut 
integros    hauriunt,    mandere    quidem    non    possunt. 

12  Itaque  praeberi  convenit  tabentes  aleculas,^  et 
salibus  exesam  chalcidem,  putremque  sardinam,  nee 
minus  scarorum  ^  branchias,  vel  quicquid  intestini 
pelamis  ^  aut  lacertus  gerit :  turn  scombri,  carchari- 
que  et  elacata  *  venti'iculos  ^  et  ne  per  singula 
enumerem,  salsamentorum  omnium  purgamenta, 
quae  cetariorum  ^  officinis  everruntur,  Nos  autem 
plura  nominavimus  genera,  non  quia  cuncta  cunctis 
litoribus  exeunt,  sed  ut  ex  his  aliqua,  quorum  erit 

13  facultas,  praebeamus.  Facit  etiam  ex  pomis  viridis 
adaperta  ficus  ;  et  mitis  digitis  infractus  unedo  ;  nee 
minus  elisum  molle  sorbum,  quique  sunt  cibi  sorbilibus 
proximi,  ut  e  mulctra  recens  caseus,  si  loci  conditio 
vel  lactis  annona  permittit.  Nulla  tamen  aeque,' 
quam  praedictae  salsurae  pabula  commode  dantur, 

^  halleculas  ac  :   halleculam  SA. 
^  scaurorum  ac  :   aurorum  SA. 

*  pelamis  o  :  pelanus  c  :  palemis  SA. 

*  elacatae  edd.  :   lacte  a  :   lapte  SAc. 

*  venterculos  SAac. 

*  ceterarum  SA  :  ceterum  ac. 
'  aeque  ac  :  quae  8 A. 


BOOK  VIII.  XVII.  10-13 

this  way  the  violence  of  the  sea  is  broken  by  the 
ban-iers  of  a  bank,  and  the  fish,  keeping  in  calm  water, 
are  not  driven  out  of  their  usual  haunts  nor  is  the 
pond  itself  filled  with  a  collection  of  sea-weed  which 
the  force  of  the  sea  throws  up  in  stormy  weather. '  It  11 
will,  however,  be  necessary  that  cuts  should  be  made 
in  the  moles  at  some  points,  forming  small  but  narrow 
passages  with  meandering  course,  so  that,  however 
fierce  a  winter  storm  is  raving,  they  may  let  the 
sea-water  pass  in  without  creating  a  wave. 

The  diet  of  flat  fish  ought  to  be  softer  than  that  of  Diet  for  fish 
rock-fish,  for,  lacking  teeth,  they  either  lick  up  their 
food  or  swallow  it  whole,  being  unable  to  chew  it. 
It  is,  therefore,  fitting  that  decaying  pilchards  or  12 
over-salted  herrings  or  rotten  sardines,  also  the  gills  of 
parrot  WTasse  and  any  part  of  the  intestines  of  a 
young  tunny  or  lizard-fish,  also  the  entrails  of  a  mack- 
erel, a  dog-fish  or  a  spindle-fish,"  and,  not  to  go  into 
further  details,  the  refuse  of  any  salted  fish  which  is 
swept  out  of  fishmongers'  shops.  We  have  named 
several  kinds,  not  because  they  are  all  produced  on 
every  coast,  but  in  order  to  mention  some  of  those 
which  it  will  be  possible  to  provide.  Of  fruits  too  the  13 
green  fig  cut  open  is  suitable  and  a  ripe  arbutus-berry 
crushed  by  the  fingers,  likewise  a  soft  sorb-apple 
squeezed  out  and  any  foods  which  most  closely 
resemble  things  which  can  be  easily  swallowed,  such 
as  curds  fresh  from  the  milk-pail,  if  local  conditions 
and  the  cheap  price  of  milk  make  this  possible.  No 
food,  however,  is  so  suitable  for  giving  them  as  the 
diet  of  salt  fish  already  mentioned,  since  it  has  a 

"  The  readings  of  the  MSS.  give  no  sense  here,  but  the  na  me 
of  a  fish  is  clearly  intended  and  elacatae  is  suggested  by  the 
reading  of  a.     Warmington  suggests  elacatenis  {■qXaKaTijvos). 


14  quoniam  odorata  sunt.  Omnis  enim  iacens  piscis 
magis  naribus  escam,  quam  oculis  vestigat.  Nam 
dum  supinus  semper  cubat,  sublimiora  ^  aspectat,  et 
ea  quae  in  piano  sunt  dextra  laevaque  non  facile 
pervidet.  Itaque  cum  salsamenta  obiecta  sunt, 
eorum  sequens  odorem,  pervenit  ad  cibos. 

Ceteri  autem  saxatiles  aut  pelagici  ^  satis  ex  his, 
sed  recentibus  melius  pascuntur.  Nam  et  alecula 
modo  capta,  et  cammarus  exiguusque  gobio,  quisquis 
denique  est  incrementi  minuti  piscis,  maiorem  alit. 

15  Siquando  tamen  hiemis  saevitia  non  patitur  eius 
generis  escam  dari,  vel  sordidi  panis  ofFae,  vel  siqua 
sunt  temporis  poma  concisa  praebentur.  Ficus 
quidem  arida  semper  obicitur,  eximie  si  sit,  ut 
Baeticae  Numidiaeque  regionibus,  larga.  Ceterum 
illud  committi  non  debet,  quod  multi  faciunt,  ut 
nihil  praebeant,  quia  semetipsos  etiam  clausi  diu 
tolerare  possint.  Nam  nisi  piscis  domini  cibariis 
saginatur,  cum  ad  piscatorium  ^  forum  perlatus  est, 
macies  indicat  eum  non  esse  libero  mari  captum,  sed 
de  custodia  elatum,  propter  quod  plui'imum  pretio 

16  Atque  haec  villatica  pastio  finem  praesenti  dispu- 
tationi  *  faciat,  ne  immodico  volumine  lector  ^ 
fatigetur.  Redibimus  autem  sequenti  exordio  ad 
curam  silvestrium  pecorum,  cultumque  apium. 

^  sublimiora  S  :   sublimior  A  :   sublimius  a  :  sublimus  c. 

^  pelasci  SA^  :   pelasgi  A^  :    pelagici  ac. 

*  piscatorium  edd.  :   piscatoris  SAac. 

*  disputationi  ac  :   disputationis  SA. 
®  lector  S^ac  :  dolector  S^A. 


BOOK  VIII.  XVII.  13-16 

strong  odour ;  for  every  flat  fish  tracks  down  its  food  14 
rather  by  scent  than  by  sight.  For  lying  constantly 
on  its  back  it  looks  towards  what  is  above  it  and  does 
not  easily  see  things  which  are  on  a  level  with  itself 
on  the  right  or  left.  When,  therefore,  salted  fish  is 
put  in  its  way,  it  follows  the  scent  of  it  and  so  reaches 
its  food. 

The  other  kinds  of  fish,  namely  those  which  live 
among  the  rocks  and  in  the  open  sea,  can  quite  well 
be  fed  on  this  diet,  but  still  better  on  fresh  food.  For 
a  newly  caught  pilchard,  crayfish  or  small  goby, 
in  a  word  any  fish  of  minute  growth  serves  as  food 
for  a  larger  fish.  If,  however,  the  violence  of  the  15 
winter  does  not  allow  this  kind  of  food  to  be  given, 
bits  of  coarse  bread  or  any  fruits  that  are  in  season 
are  cut  up  and  given.  Dried  figs  indeed  are  always 
offered  to  them,  an  excellent  thing  to  do  if  they  are 
abundant  as  they  are  in  the  regions  of  Baetica  and 
Numidia.  But  the  mistake  ought  not  to  be  made, 
which  many  people  make,  of  providing  no  food  at  all 
on  the  ground  that  the  fish  can  maintain  themselves 
for  a  long  time  even  when  they  are  shut  up ;  for 
unless  a  fish  is  fattened  with  food  provided  by  its 
owner,  when  it  is  brought  to  the  fish-market,  its 
leanness  shows  that  it  has  not  been  caught  in  the 
open  sea  but  brought  out  of  a  place  of  confinement, 
and  on  this  account  a  large  sum  is  knocked  off  the 

Let  this  account  of  the  method  of  feeding  fish  on  16 
the  farm-estate  bring  our  present  discourse  to  a  close, 
lest  the  reader  be  wearied  with  the  immoderate 
length  of  this  volume.  In  the  next  book  we  will 
return  to  the  management  of  wild  stock  and  the 
culture  of  bees. 


VOL.  II.  p 




Venio  nunc  ad  tutelam  pecudum  silvestrium  et  ^ 
apium  educationem :  quas  et  ipsas,  Publi  Silvine, 
villaticas  pastiones  iure  dixerim ;  siquidem  mos 
antiquus  lepusculis  capreisque,  ac  subus  feris  iuxta 
villam  plerumque  subiecta  dominicis  habitationibus 
ponebat  vivaria,  ut  et  conspectu  suo  clausa  ^  venatio 
possidentis  oblectaret  oculos,  et  cum  exegisset  usus 
epularum,  velut  e  cella  promeretur.  Apibus  quo- 
que  dabatur  ^  sedes  adhuc  nostra  memoria  vel  in 
ipsis  villae  parietibus  excisis,  vel  in  protectis  portici- 
bus  ac  pomariis.  Quare  quoniam  tituli,  quern  prae- 
scripsimus  huic  disputationi,  ratio  reddita  est,  ea 
nunc  quae  proposuimus  singula  persequamur. 

I.  Ferae  pecudes,  ut  capreoli,  damaeque,  nee 
minus  orygum  cervorumque  genera  et  aprorum, 
modo  lautitiis  ac  voluptatibus  dominorum  serviunt, 
modo  quaestui  ac  reditibus.  Sed  qui  venationem 
voluptati  suae  claudunt,  content!  sunt,  utcunque 
competit  proximus  aedificio  loci  situs,  munire  viva- 

^  post  silvestrium  om.  et  SA. 

"  suo  clausa  ac  :  sui  clausa  A  :  sui  classa  8. 

^  dabantur  SAac. 




I  now  come  to  the  care  of  wild  cattle  and  the  Preface. 
rearing  of  bees,  which  also,  Publius  Silvinus,  I  can 
j  ustly  place  among  creatures  which  are  fed  on  the  farm, 
since  ancient  custom  placed  parks  for  young  hares, 
wild  goats  and  wild  boars  near  the  farm,  generally 
within  the  view  of  the  owner's  dwelling-place,  so  that 
the  sight  of  their  being  hunted  within  an  inclosure 
might  delight  the  eyes  of  the  proprietor  and  that 
when  the  custom  of  giving  feasts  called  for  game,  it 
might  be  produced  as  it  were  out  of  store.  Also 
within  our  own  memory  accommodation  for  bees  was 
provided  either  in  holes  cut  in  the  actual  walls  of  the 
farm-building  or  in  sheltered  galleries  and  orchards. 
So,  since  we  have  assigned  a  reason  for  the  title 
which  we  have  prefixed  to  this  discourse,  let  us  now 
proceed  to  deal,  one  by  one,  with  the  topics  which  we 
have  proposed. 

I.  Wild  creatures,  such  as  roebucks,  chamois  and  wild 
also  various  kinds  of  antelopes,  deer  and  wild  boars  creatures. 
sometimes  serve  to  enhance  the  splendour  and 
pleasure  of  their  owners,  and  sometimes  to  bring 
profit  and  revenue.  Those  who  keep  game  shut  up 
for  their  own  pleasure  are  content  to  construct  a 
park,  on  any  suitable  site  in  the  neighbourhood  of 



riuni,  semperque  de  manu  cibos  et  aquam  praebere : 
qui  vero  quaestum  reditumque  desiderant,  cum  est 
vicinum  villae  nemus  (id  enim  refert  non  procul  esse 
ab  oeulis  domini)  sine  cunctatione  praedictis  animali- 

2  bus  destinant.^  Et  si  naturalis  defuit  aqua,  vel  in- 
ducitur  2  fluens,  vel  infossi  lacus  signino  consternun- 
tur,  qui  receptam  pluviatilem  contineant.^ 

Modus  silvae  pro  cuiusque  *  facultatibus  occupatur ; 
ac  si  lapidis  et  operae  vilitas  suadeat,  haud  dubie  ^ 
caementis  et  calce  formatus  circumdatur  murus :   sin 

3  aliter,  crudo  latere  ^  ac  lute  constructus.  Ubi  vero 
neutrum  patrifamiliae  conducit,  ratio  postulat 
vacerris  includi :  sic  enim  appellatur  genus  clatrorum  : 
idque  fabricatur  ex  robore  querceo,  vel  subereo. 
Nam  oleae  rara  est  occasio.  Quidquid  denique  sub 
iniuria  pluviarum  magis  diuturnum  est,  pro  condi- 
tione  regionis  ad  hunc  usum  eligitur.  Et  sive  teres  ' 
arboris  truncus,  sive  ut  crassitudo  postulavit,  fissilis 
stipes  compluribus  locis  per  latus  efforatur,  et  in 
circuitu  vivarii  certis  intervenientibus  spatiis  de- 
fixus  erigitur :  deinde  per  transversa  laterum  cava  ' 
transmittuntur  ramices,  qui  exitus  ferarum  obserent. 

4  Satis  est  autem  vacerras  inter  pedes  octonos  defigere, 
serisque  transversis  ita  clatrare,  ne  spatiorum  laxitas, 
quae  foraminibus  intervenit,  pecudi  praebeat  fugam. 
Hoc  autem  modo  licet  etiam  latissimas  regiones 
tractusque  montium  claudere,  sicuti  Galliarum  nec- 

^  destinatur  SAac. 

*  si  naturalis — inducitur  om.  S. 
'  contineant  c  :   contineat  SAa. 

*  pro  cuiusque  ac  :  ut  pro  cuius  S  :   ut  pro  cuiusque  A, 

*  haud  dubie  c  :  id  haud  dubie  a  :  ita  ut  dubiis  jS^. 

*  crudo  latere  c  :  crudo  lateri  SA  :  crudeliter  a. 
''  teres  Gesner  :  teris  SA  :   veteris  ac. 

*  cuca  SA  :  cavoa  ac. 


BOOK  IX.  I.  1-4 

the  farm  buildings,  and  always  give  them  food  and 
water  by  hand.  Those  on  the  other  hand  who  look 
for  profit  and  revenue,  when  there  is  a  wood  near 
the  farm  (for  it  is  important  that  it  should  not  be  far 
out  of  sight  of  the  owner),  reserve  it  without  hesita- 
tion for  the  above-mentioned  animals,  and  if  there  2 
is  no  natural  supply  of  water,  either  running-water 
is  introduced  or  else  ponds  are  dug  and  lined  with 
mortar  to  receive  and  hold  the  rain-water. 

The  extent  of  wood  involved  is  in  proportion  to  the 
size  of  each  man's  property  and,  if  the  cheapness  of 
stone  and  labour  make  it  advisable,  certainly  a  wall 
built  with  unhewn  stone  and  lime  is  put  round  it ; 
otherwise  it  is  made  with  unburnt  brick  and  clay. 
When  neither  of  these  methods  serves  the  purpose  3 
of  the  master  of  the  house,  reason  requires  that  they 
should  be  shut  up  with  a  post  fence  ;  for  this  is  the 
name  given  to  a  certain  kind  of  lattice  made  of  oak 
or  cork-wood,  since  olive-wood  is  only  rarely  obtain- 
able ;  in  a  word,  according  to  local  conditions,  any 
kind  of  wood  is  chosen  for  this  purpose  which  resists 
injury  from  rain  better  than  any  other.  Whether  it 
be  the  round  trunk  of  a  tree  or  cleft  into  stakes,  as  its 
thickness  demands,  it  has  several  holes  bored  through 
its  side  and  is  erected  firmly  in  the  ground  at  fixed 
intervals  all  round  the  park ;  then  bars  are  put  across 
through  the  holes  in  the  sides  of  the  posts  to  prevent 
the  passage  of  the  wild  beasts.  It  is  enough  to  fix  4 
the  posts  at  intervals  of  eight  feet  and  to  fasten  them 
to  the  cross-bars  in  such  a  way  that  the  width  of 
space  which  occurs  where  holes  are  left  may  not  offer 
the  animals  a  means  of  escape.  In  this  manner  you 
can  even  enclose  very  wide  regions  and  tracts  of 
mountains,  as  the  vast  extent  of  ground  permits  in 



non  et  in  aliis  quibusdam  provinciis  locorum  vastitas 
patitur.  Nam  et  fabricandis  ingens  est  vacerris 
materiae  ^  copia,  et  cetera  in  banc  rem  feliciter 
suppetunt ;   quippe  crebris  fontibus  abundat  solum, 

5  quod  est  maxime  praedictis  generibus  salutare :  turn 
etiam  sua  sponte  pabula  feris  benignissime  sub- 
ministrat  ^  praecipueque  saltus  eliguntur,  qui  et 
terrenis  fetibus  et  arboribus  abundant.  Nam  ut 
graminibus  ita  frugibus  roburneis  opus  est  ^  :  maxime- 
que  laudantur,  qui  sunt  feracissimi  querneae  glandis 
et  iligneae,  nee  minus  cerrea,*  tum  ^  et  arbuti, 
ceterorumque  pomorum  silvestrium,  quae  diligen- 
tius  persecuti  sumus,  cum  de  cohortalibus  subus 
disputaremus.     Nam     eadem     fere     sunt    pecudum 

6  silvestrium  pabula,  quae  domesticarum.  Contentus 
tamen  non  debet  esse  diligens  paterfamilias  cibis, 
quos  suapte  natura  terra  gignit,  sed  temporibus  anni, 
quibus  silvae  pabulis  carent,  condita  messe  clausis 
succurrere,  hordeoque  alere,  vel  adoreo  farre  aut 
faba,  primumque  ®  etiam  vinaceis,  quicquid  denique 
vilissime  constiterit,  dare.  Idque  ut  '  intelligant 
ferae  praeberi,  unam  vel  alteram  domi  mansue- 
factam  conveniet  immittere,  quae  pervagata  totum 
vivarium    cunctantes    ad    obiecta    cibaria    pecudes 

7  perducat.     Nee   solum   istud   per   hiemis   penuriam 

^  vacerris  materie  c :  materiae  vacerriis  8A :  variis  materie  a. 

*  subministrat  a  :   -ant  SAc. 

^  opus  est  SA  :   opus  habet  c  :  robor  est  a. 

*  acerreae  SAa  :   ceree  c. 

*  cum  SAac. 

*  primumque  SAa  :   plurimumque  c. 
'  idque  un  c  :  ut  SA  :  itaque  ut  a. 

»  Book  VII.  Chapter  9.  §  6  ff. 

BOOK  IX.  I.  4-7 

the  provinces  of  Gaul  and  in  certain  others  ;  for  there 
is  both  a  great  abundance  of  timber  for  making  posts 
and  everything  else  which  is  needed  for  the  purpose 
is  in  abundant  supply.  The  soil  abounds  in  frequent  5 
springs,  which  is  particularly  wholesome  for  the 
above-named  kinds  of  animals  ;  then  too  it  furnishes 
wild  creatures  with  fodder  most  liberally  even  of  its  own 
accord.  Woodlands  are  chiefly  chosen  which  abound 
in  the  fruits  of  the  ground  and  also  in  trees ;  for  as 
these  creatures  have  need  of  grass,  so  too  they  re- 
quire the  fruits  of  oak-trees,  and  those  woods  are  most 
highly  commended  which  are  most  productive  of  the 
acorn  of  the  ordinary  oak  and  of  the  evergreen  oak 
and  likewise  of  the  Turkey-oak,  also  of  the  fruit  of  the 
strawberry-tree  and  the  other  wild  fruits  which  we 
described  in  great  detail  when  we  were  discussing 
farm-yard  pigs.*  For  the  fodder  of  wild  cattle  is 
almost  the  same  as  that  of  domestic  animals. 

Nevertheless  the  careful  head  of  a  household  ought  6 
not  to  be  content  with  the  foods  which  the  earth 
produces  by  its  own  nature,  but,  at  the  seasons  of  the 
year  when  the  woods  do  not  provide  food,  he  ought 
to  come  to  the  help  of  the  animals  which  he  has  con- 
fined with  the  fruits  of  the  harvest  which  he  has 
stored  up,  and  feed  them  on  barley  or  wheat-meal  or 
beans,  and  especially,  too,  on  grape-husks ;  in  a 
word,  he  should  give  them  whatever  costs  the  least. 
Also  in  order  that  the  wild  creatures  may  understand 
that  provision  is  being  made  for  them,  it  will  be  a 
good  plan  to  send  among  them  one  or  two  animals 
which  have  been  tamed  at  home,  and  which,  roaming 
through  the  whole  park,  may  direct  the  hesitating 
creatures  to  the  fare  offered  to  them.  It  is  advisable  7 
that  this  should  be  done  not  only  during  the  scarce 



fieri  expedit,  sed  cum  etiam  fetae  partus  ediderint, 
quo  melius  educant  ^  natos.  Itaque  custos  vivarii 
frequenter  speculari  debebit,  si  iam  elFetae  sint,  ut 
manu  datis  sustineantur  frumentis.  Nee  vero  pati- 
endus  est  oryx,  aut  aper,  aliusve  quis  ferus  ultra 
quadrimatum  senescere.  Nam  usque  in  hoc  tempus 
capiunt  incrementa,  postea  macescunt  senectute. 
Quare    dum    viridis    aetas    pulchritudinem    corporis 

8  conservat,  acre  mutandi  ^  sunt.  Cervus  tamen  com- 
pluribus  annis  sustineri  potest.  Nam  diu  iuvenis 
possidetur,  quod  aevi  longioris  vitam  sortitus  est. 
De  minoris  autem  incrementi  ^  animalibus,  qualis  est 
lepus,  haec  praecipimus,*  ut  in  iis  vivariis,  quae 
maceria  munita  sunt,  farraginis  et  olerum,  ferae 
intubi  lactucaeque  semina  parvulis  areolis  per  diversa 
spatia  factis  iniciantur.  Itemque  Punicum  cicer,  vel 
hoc  vernaculum,^  nee  minus  hordeum,  et  cicercula 
condita  ex  horreo  promantur,  et  aqua  caelesti 
macerata  obiciantur.    Nam  sicca  non  nimis  ab  lepus- 

9  culis  appetuntur.  Haec  porro  animalia  vel  similia 
his,  etiam  silente  me,  facile  intelligitur,  quam  non 
expediat  conferre  in  vivarium,  quod  vacerris  cir- 
cumdatum  est :  siquidem  propter  exiguitatem 
corporis  facile  clatris  subrepunt,  et  liberos  nactae  * 
egressus  fugam  moliuntur. 

II.  Venio    nunc    ad    alvorum    curam,    de    quibus 
neque  diligentius  quidquam  praecipi  potest,  quam  ab 

^  educant  SA  :   -ent  ac. 

2  acre  mutandi  ac  :  remutandi  A  :  remuttendi  S. 

'  incrementis  SAac. 

*  praecipiemus  SAac. 

*  vernaculo  SAac. 

*  nacte  Aac  :  nancte  8. 

o  See  Book  I.  1.  13  and  note. 


BOOK  IX.  I.  7-II.  I 

season  of  winter  but  also  when  those  which  were  with 
young  have  brought  them  forth,  so  that  they  may 
rear  them  better.  And  so  the  park-keeper  will  have 
frequently  to  be  on  the  watch  and  see  if  they  have 
borne  their  young,  in  order  that  their  strength  may 
be  sustained  by  cereals  given  them  by  hand.  But 
neither  the  antelope  nor  the  wild  boar  nor  any  other 
wild  creature  should  be  allowed  to  live  to  a  greater 
age  than  four  years.  For  up  to  that  time  they 
advance  in  growth,  after  it  they  grow  old  and  lean ; 
and  so  they  should  be  turned  into  cash  while  a 
vigorous  time  of  life  preserves  their  bodily  comeli- 
ness. The  deer,  however,  may  be  kept  for  many  8 
years,  for  it  long  remains  young  in  your  possession, 
because  it  has  been  allotted  a  life  of  longer  duration. 
But  as  regards  animals  of  lesser  growth,  such  as  the 
hare,  our  advice  is  that,  in  those  parks  surrounded  by  a 
wall,  the  seeds  of  mixed  cereals  and  of  the  pot-herbs, 
wild  endive  and  lettuce,  should  be  thrown  upon  small 
beds  of  earth  made  at  different  intervals  apart.  Also 
the  Carthaginian  and  our  own  native  chick-pea,  and 
barley  too  and  chickling  should  be  produced  out  of 
store  and  put  before  them  after  having  been  soaked 
in  rain-water ;  for  dry  food  is  not  much  sought  after 
by  hares.  Moreover,  it  is  easily  understood  even  9 
without  my  mentioning  it,  concerning  these  animals 
and  others  like  them,  how  inexpedient  it  is  to  intro- 
duce them  into  a  park  which  is  surrounded  by  railings, 
since  owing  to  the  small  size  of  their  bodies  they  can 
easily  creep  under  the  bars  and,  having  obtained  free 
exit,  manage  to  escape. 

II.  I  come  now  to  the  management  of  bee-hives.  Bees. 
about    which    no    instructions    can    be    given    with 
greater  care  than  in  the  words  of  Hyginus,''  more 



Hygino  iam  dictum  est,  nee  ornatius  quam  Vergilio, 
nee  elegantius  quam  Celso.  Hyginus  veterum 
auctorum  placita  ^  secretis  dispersa  monimentis 
Industrie  collegit :  Vergilius  poetieis  floribus  illu- 
minavit :    Celsus  utriusque  memorati  adhibuit  mo- 

2  dum.  Quare  ne  attemptanda  quidem  nobis  fuit 
haec  disputationis  materia,  nisi  quod  consummatio 
susceptae  professionis  banc  quoque  sui  partem  de- 
siderabat,  ne  universitas  inchoati  operis  nostri,  velut 
membro  aliquo  reciso,  mutila  ^  atque  imperfecta  ^ 
conspiceretur.  Atque  ea,  quae  Hyginus  fabulose 
tradita  de  originibus  apum  non  intermisit,  poeticae 
magis    licentiae    quam    nostrae    fidei    concesserim. 

3  Nee  sane  rustico  dignum  est  sciscitari,  fuerit  ne 
mulier  pulcherrima  specie  Melissa,*  quam  luppiter  in 
apem  convertit,  an  (ut  Euhemerus  poeta  dicit) 
crabronibus  et  sole  genitas  apes,  quas  nymphae 
Phryxonides  educaverunt,  mox  Dictaeo  specu  lovis  ^ 
extitisse  nutrices,  easque  pabula  munere  dei  sortitas 
quibus  ipsae  parvum  ^  educaverant  alumnum.  Ista 
enim,  quamvis  non  dedeceant  poetam,  summatim 
tamen  et  uno  tantummodo  versiculo  leviter  attigit 
Vergilius,  cum  sic  ait : 

Dictaeo  caeli  regem  pavere  sub  antro. 

^  placita  ac  :   plagita  SA . 

^  mutila  SA  :   mutilata  ac. 

^  imperfecta  ac  :  in  infectu  SA. 

*  mellisam  SA  :  mellissa  a  :   melisa  (?)  c. 
^  iovis  ac  :  io  quis  SA. 

*  ipse  parvum  ac  :  ipsa  et  arvom  SA. 

'  See  Book  I.  1.  14  and  note. 


BOOK  IX.  II.  1-3 

ornately  than  by  Vergil,  or  more  elegantly  than  by 
Celsus.*  Hyginus  has  industriously  collected  the 
opinions  of  ancient  authors  dispersed  in  their 
different  writings  ;  Vergil  has  embellished  the  subject 
with  the  flowers  of  poetry ;  and  Celsus  has  applied 
the  method  of  both  the  above-mentioned  authors.  2 
Therefore,  we  ought  never  to  have  even  attempted  to 
discourse  on  this  subject,  did  not  the  fulfilment  of 
the  promise  which  we  made  call  for  the  treatment  of 
this  part  of  our  subject  also,  lest  the  body  of  the 
work  begun,  looked  at  as  a  whole,  should  appear 
mutilated  and  imperfect,  as  if  a  limb  had  been  cut  off. 
The  tradition  of  the  fabulous  origin  of  the  bees  which 
Hyginus  has  not  passed  over  I  would  rather  attribute 
to  poetic  licence  than  submit  to  the  test  of  our  belief; 
nor  indeed  is  it  a  fit  question  for  a  husbandman  to  3 
ask  whether  there  ever  existed  a  woman  of  surpassing 
beauty  called  Melissa,  whom  Jupiter  changed  into  a 
bee,  or  whether  (as  Euhemerus  ^  the  poet  says)  the 
bees  were  bred  from  hornets  and  the  sun,  and  that  the 
nymphs,  the  daughters  of  Phryxon,''  reared  them, 
and  that  soon  after  they  became  the  nurses  of  Jupiter 
in  the  Dictaean  Cave  <^  and  that,  by  the  gift  of  the 
god,  they  had  allotted  to  them  the  food  with  which 
they  themselves  had  reared  their  little  foster-child. 
Upon  this  story,  though  not  unworthy  of  a  poet, 
Vergil  touched  briefly  and  lightly  in  a  single  line  when 
he  said : 

'Neath  Dicte's  cave  they  fed  the  king  of  heaven.^ 

^  A  Greek  writer  who  flourished  about  300  B.C.  and  wrote 
a  work  Hiera  Anagraphe,  which  rationalized  mythology  and 
which  was  translated  into  Latin  by  Ennius. 

'  This  name  is  not  otherwise  mentioned  in  Latin  literature. 

<*  In  Crete.     «  Georg.  IV.  152.  Dicta  is  Mount  Sethia  in  Crete. 



4  Sed  ne  illud  quidem  pertinet  ad  agricolas,  quando 
et  in  qua  regione  primum  natae  sint :  utrum  in 
Thessalia  sub  Aristaeo,  an  in  insula  Cea,  ut  scribit 
Euhemerus,  an  Erechthei  temporibus  in  monte 
Hymetto,  ut  Euthronius ;  an  Cretae  Saturni  tempori- 
bus, ut  Nicander :  non  magis  quam  utrum  examina, 
tanquam  cetera  videmus  animalia,  concubitu  subo- 
lem  procreent,  an  heredem  generis  sui  floribus 
eligant,  quod  affirmat  noster  Maro :    et  utrum  evo- 

5  mant  liquorem  mellis,  an  alia  parte  reddant.  Haec 
enim  et  his  similia  magis  scrutantium  rerum  naturae 
latebras,  quam  rusticorum  est  inquirere.  Studiosis 
quoque  literarum  gratiora  sunt  ista  in  otio  legentibus, 
quam  negotiosis  agricolis :  quoniam  neque  in  opere 
neque  in  re  familiari  quidquam  iuvant. 

III.  Quare  revertamur  ad  ea,  quae  alveorum  cul- 
toribus  magis  apta  sunt  quot  ^  genera  sunt  apium  et 
quid  2  ex  his  optimum.^  Peripateticae  sectae  con- 
ditor  Aristoteles  in  iis  libris,  quos  de  animalibus 
conscripsit,  apium  *  examinum  genera  complura 
demonstrat,  earumque  alias  ^  vastas  sed  glomerosas, 

1  quot  SA'^  :    quod  AK 

^  quid  serif  si :   quod  A  :   quot  S. 

*  quot — optimum  om.  ac. 

*  apium  sive  c  :  om.  SAa. 
^  aliaque  SAac. 

"  Son  of  Apollo  and  Cyrene,  also  said  to  have  planted  the 
first  olive-tree. 

*  Cea,  or  in  Greek  Ceos,  an  island,  one  of  the  Cyclades, 
near  Cape  Sunium. 

"  A  mountain  in  Attica  near  Athens. 

"*  Mythical  king  of  Athens. 


BOOK  IX.  II.  4-III.  I 

But  it  does  not  even  concern  husbandmen  when  and  4 
in  what  country  bees  first  came  into  existence,  whether 
in  Thessaly  under  Aristaeus,"  or  in  the  island  of 
Cea,**  as  Euhemerus  writes,  or  on  Mount  Hymettus  " 
in  the  time  of  Erechtheus,'^  as  Euthronius  «  says,  or 
in  Crete  in  the  time  of  Saturn,  as  Nicander  /  says. 
All  this  no  more  concerns  farmers  than  the  question 
whether  the  swarms  of  bees  produce  their  offspring, 
as  we  see  the  other  animals  do,  by  copulation,  or 
whether  they  pick  up  the  heir  of  their  race  from  the 
flowers,  as  our  own  poet  Maro  ^  affirms,  and  whether 
they  vomit  the  liquid  honey  from  their  mouths  or 
yield  it  from  some  other  part.  The  inquiry  into  these  5 
and  similar  questions  concerns  those  who  search  into 
the  hidden  secrets  of  nature  rather  than  husband- 
men. They  are  subjects  more  agreeable  to  the 
students  of  literature,  who  can  read  at  their  leisure, 
than  to  farmers  who  are  busy  folk,  seeing  that  they 
are  of  no  assistance  to  them  in  their  work  or  in  the 
increase  of  their  substance. 

III.  Therefore  let  us  return  to  topics  which  are  The  differ- 
more  suitable  to  those  who  have  charge  of  bee-hives,  ^ees  an/  ° 
namely,   how   many   kinds   of  bees   there   are    and  7"^^^  's 
which  of  them  is  the  best.     Aristotle,  the  founder  of 
the  Peripatetic  School,  in  the  books  which  he  wrote 
about  animals,*  shows  that  there  are  several  kinds 

'  This  name  is  not  otherwise  mentioned  in  Latin  literature. 
We  should  perhaps  read  Euphonius ;  two  agricultural  writers 
of  this  name  are  mentioned  by  Varro  (I.  1.  8),  one  of  Athens 
and  the  other  of  Amphipolis. 

■^  Physician,  poet  and  grammarian  of  Colophon  in  Asia 
Minor;  he  flourished  about  150  B.C.  His  Theriaca  and 
Alexipharmaca  have  survived. 

"  Vergil,  Georg.  IV.  197  ff. 

*  Hist.  anim.  V.  22  (553".  22  S.). 



easdemque  nigras  et  hirsutas   apes   habent :    alias  ^ 
minores  quidem,  sed  aeque  ^  rotundas  et  fusci  ^  coloris 

2  horridique  pili :  alias  *  magis  exiguas,  nee  tarn 
rotundas,  sed  obesas  tamen  et  latas,  coloris  melius- 
culi :  nonnullas  ^  minimas  gracilesque,  et  acuti  alvi, 
ex  aureolo  varias  atque  leves  :  eiusque  ^  auctoritatem 
sequens  Vergilius,  maxim e  probat  parvulas,  oblongas, 
leves,  nitidas, 

Ardentes  auro,  et  paribus  lita  corpora  guttis, 

moribus    etiam    placidis.      Nam     quanto    grandior 

3  apis,  atque  etiam  rotundior,  tanto  peior.  Si  vero 
saevior,  maxime  pessima  est.  Sed  tamen  iracundia 
notae  melioris  apium  facile  delenitur  '  assiduo  inter- 
ventu  eorum  qui  curant,^  Nam  cum  saepius  tractan- 
tur,^  celerius  mansuescunt,  durantque  si  diligenter 
excultae  sunt,  in  annos  decern ;  nee  uUum  examen 
banc  ^^  aetatem  potest  excedere,  quamvis  in  demor- 
tuarum  locum  quotannis  pullos  substituant.  Nam 
fere   decimo   ad  internecionem   anno  gens   universa 

4  totius  alvei  consumitur.  Itaque  ne  hoc  in  toto  fiat 
apiario,  semper  propaganda  erit  soboles,  obser- 
vandumque  vere  cum  se  nova  profundent  examina, 
ut  excipiantur,  et  domiciliorum  numerus  augeatur. 
Nam  saepe  morbis  intercipiuntur,  quibus  quemad- 
modum  mederi  oportet,  suo  loco  dicetur. 

^  alias  Aac  :   alia  S. 
"  aeque  ac  :   neque  8 A. 

*  fusci  SA  :   infusci  ac. 

*  alia  SA  :  alas  a  :   alias  c. 

*  nonnullas  ac  :   nonnulla  SA. 

*  eiusque  ac  :   eius  SA. 

'  delenitur  serif  si  :   delinitur  ac  :   denitur  8  A. 

*  curant  ac  :   currant  AS. 

*  tractantur  ac  :   tractatur  SA. 
^^  hanc  Aac  :   hac  8. 

BOOK  IX.  in.  1-4 

of  swarms  of  bees,  some  of  them  having  bees  huge  and 
globular  in  shape  and  at  the  same  time  black  and 
hairy ;  others  smaller  but  equally  round  and  of  a  2 
dusky  colour  and  with  bristling  hairs;  others  still 
smaller  but  not  so  round,  but  nevertheless  fat  and 
broad  and  of  rather  a  better  colour ;  some  very  small 
and  slender  with  bellies  which  end  in  a  point,  striped 
of  a  golden  colour  and  quite  smooth.  Vergil, 
following  Aristotle  as  his  authority,  approves  most  of 
bees  which  are  very  small,  oblong,  smooth  and  shining, 

Burning  with  gold,  their  bodies  stained  with  spots 
of  equal  size," 

calm,  too,  in  disposition  ;  for  the  larger  and  rounder  a 
bee  is,  the  worse  it  is,  and  if  it  is  unusually  fierce,  it  is  3 
by  far  the  worst  kind  of  all.  However,  the  irascibility 
of  the  better  kind  of  bees  is  easily  soothed  by  the 
frequent  intervention  of  those  who  look  after  them ; 
for  when  they  are  often  handled,  they  quickly  become 
tame.  If  they  are  carefully  looked  after,  they  live 
for  ten  years ;  but  no  swarm  can  exceed  this  age, 
even  if  young  stock  is  substituted  yearly  in  place  of 
those  which  have  died ;  for  usually  in  the  tenth  year 
all  the  population  of  the  whole  hive  is  destroyed  and 
exterminated.  In  order,  therefore,  that  this  may  4 
not  be  the  fate  of  the  whole  apiary,  fresh  stock  must 
be  continually  propagated  and  care  must  be  taken  in 
the  spring,  when  the  fresh  s-v^'^rms  issue  forth,  that 
they  are  intercepted  and  the  number  of  dwelling- 
places  increased;  for  bees  are  often  overtaken  by 
diseases.  The  methods  by  which  these  ought  to  be 
cured  will  be  dealt  with  in  their  proper  places. 

-  Georg.  IV.  99. 



IV.  Interim  per  has  notas,  quas  iam  diximus, 
probatis  apibus  destinari  debent  pabulationes,  eaeque 
sint  seeretissimae,  at  ut  ^  noster  praecipit  Maro, 
viduae  ^  pecudibus,  aprico  et  minime  procelloso  caeli 
statu : 

Quo  neque  sit  ventis  aditus ;  nam  pabula  venti 
Ferre   domum  prohibent :    neque  oves  haedique 

Floribus  insultent,  aut  errans  bucula  campo 
Decutiat  rorem,  et  surgentes  atterat  herbas. 

2  Eademque  regio  fecunda  sit  fruticis  exigui,  et 
maxime  thymi  aut  origani,  tum  etiam  thymbrae,  vel 
nostratis  cunilae,  quam  satureiam  ^  rustici  vocant. 
Post  haec  frequens  sit  incrementi  maioris  surculus, 
ut  rosmarinus,'*  et  utraque  cytisus.  Est  enim  sativa 
et  altera  suae  spontis.  Itemque  semper  virens  pinus, 
et  minor  ilex  :  nam  prolixior  ab  omnibus  improbatur. 
Ederae  quoque  non  propter  bonitatem  recipiuntur, 

3  sed  quia  praebent  plurimum  mellis.  Arborum  ^  vero 
sunt  probatissimae,  rutila  atque  alba  ziziphus,  nee 
minus  tamarices,®  tum  etiam  amygdalae,  persicique, 
ac  pyri,  denique  pomiferarum  pleraeque,  ne  singulis 
immorer.  Ac  silvestrium  commodissime  faciunt  glan- 
difera  robora,  quin  etiam  terebinthus,  nee  dissimilis 
huic  lentiscus  '  ac  tiliae.    Solae  ^  ex  omnibus  nocentes 

^  ut  et  SAac. 

*  viduae  ac  :  vide  SA. 

'  satureiam  ac  :  satyram  etiam  S  :  satyratis  A. 

*  marinum  SAac. 

*  arborum  SAa  :   arbores  c. 

*  tamarices  ecld.  :   amaracus  SAac. 

'  post  lentiscus  add.  et  odorata  cedrus  Aac  :  om.  S. 

*  solae  A  :  sole  ac  :  sola  <S'. 



BOOK  IX.  IV.  1-3 

IV.  Meanwhile,  when  you  have  chosen  your  bees  Feedin?- 
in  accordance  with  the  points  which  we  have  just  bws^and*"^ 
mentioned,  feeding-grounds  ought  to  be  assigned  to  ^'^'°^  '^ 
the  bees  of  which  you  approve.     These  should  be  as 
retired  as  possible  and,  as  our  Maro*  directs,  void  of 
cattle  and  with  a  sunny  aspect  as  little  as  possible 
exposed  to  storms, 

Where  winds  may  not  approach  ;  for  winds  prevent 
The    bees    from    bearing    home    their    food;    nor 

Nor  frisky  kids  must  trample  down  the  flowers, 
Nor  heifers  wandering  o'er  the  plain  shake  off 
The  dews  or  crush  the  rising  blades  of  grass. 

The  region  should  also  be  rich  in  small  clumps,  2 
especially  thyme  and  marjoram  and  also  in  Greek 
savory  and  our  own  Italian  savory,  which  the 
country-folk  call  saiureia.  Next  let  there  be  plenty 
of  shrubs  of  larger  growth,  such  as  rosemary  and 
both  kinds  of  trefoil  (for  there  is  one  variety  which  is 
sown  and  another  which  grows  of  its  own  accord), 
also  the  ever-green  pine  and  the  lesser  holm-oak  (for 
the  taller  variety  is  universally  condemned).  Ivy, 
too,  is  admitted  not  for  its  other  good  qualities  but 
because  it  provides  a  large  quantity  of  honey.  Of  3 
trees  the  following  are  very  highly  commended,  the 
red  and  white  jujube-trees,  likewise  tamarisks,  also 
almond-trees  and  peach-trees  and  pear-trees,  in  a 
word,  so  as  not  to  waste  time  in  naming  each  kind,  the 
majority  of  the  fruit-bearing  trees.  Of  woodland  trees 
the  most  suitable  are  the  acorn-bearing  oaks,  also 
terebinths  and  mastic-trees,  which  closely  resemble 
them,  and  lime-trees.     Of  all  the  trees  of  this  class 

«  Vergil,  G^eor^.  IV.  8-12. 



4  taxi  repudiantur.  Mille  praeterea  semina  vel  crudo 
cespite  virentia,  vel  subacta  sulco,  flores  amicissimos 
apibus  creant,  ut  sunt  in  virgineo  ^  solo  frutices  amelli, 
caules  acanthini,  scapus  asphodeli,  gladiolus  narcissi. 
At  in  hortensi  lira  consita  nitent  Candida  lilia,  nee  his 
sordidiora  leucoia,^  turn  puniceae  ^  rosae  luteolaeque, 
et  Sarranae  violae,  nee  minus  caelestis  luminis 
hyacinthus,   Corycius   item  Siculusque   bulbus   croci 

5  deponitur,  qui  coloret  odoretque  mella.*  lam  vero 
notae  vilioris  innumerabiles  nascuntur  herbae  cultis 
atque  pascuis  regionibus,  quae  favorum  ceras  exu- 
berant :  ut  vulgares  lapsanae,  nee  his  pretiosior 
armoracia,  rapistrique  olus,  et  intubi  silvestris  ac 
nigri  papaveris  flores,  tum  agrestis  pastinaca,  et 
eiusdem  nominis  edomita,  quam  Graeci  ara^uAtvor^ 

6  vocant.  Verum  ex  cunctis,  quae  proposui,  quaeque 
omisi  temporis  ^  compendia  sequens  (nam  inexputa- 
bilis  erat  numerus)  '  saporis  praecipui  mella  reddit 
thymus.^  Eximio  deinde  proximum  thymbra,  ser- 
pyllumque  et  origanum.  Tertiae  notae,  sed  adhue 
generosae,  marinus  ^  ros  et  nostras  cunila,  quam  dixi 
satureiam.  Mediocris  deinde  gustus  tamaricis  ^"  ac 
ziziphi  flores,  reliquaque,  quae  ^^  proposuimus,  cibaria. 

7  Sed   ex   sordidis    deterrimae    notae    mel    habetur  ^^ 

^  virgineo  SAac  :   irriguo  edd. 

*  sordidiora  leucoia  ac  (inmarg.  A)  :  sordido  la  reucolatum 

*  puniceae  edd.  :   punice  SAac. 

*  mella  ac  (in  marg.  A)  :   om.  S. 

*  oTa<j)vXivov  A  marg.  :  aTa<}>vaii.  non  A  :  aTa<f>vXfi  non  S. 

*  temporis  c  :   temponira  SAa. 

'  erat  numenis  ac  :  et  enumeri  SA. 

*  thymus  ac  :   thymum  SA. 

*  marinum  SAac. 

^^  tamaricis  edd.  :   amarachinia  SA  :    amaranchini  ac. 
^^  reliqua  quae  SAa  :  reliquaque  c. 

BOOK  IX.  IV.  3-7 

yews  only  are  excluded  as  being  hurtful.  Moreover  4 
a  thousand  seeds,  which  flourish  in  uncultivated  turf 
or  are  turned  up  in  the  furrow,  produce  flowers  which 
are  much  loved  by  bees,  for  example  shrubs  of 
starwort  *  in  virgin  soil,  stalks  of  bear's  foot,*  stems  of 
asphodel  and  the  sword-like  leaf  of  the  narcissus. 
White  lilies  sown  between  the  furrows  in  the  garden 
make  a  brilliant  show  and  the  gilliflowers  have  no 
less  pure  a  colour;  then  there  are  red  and  yellow 
roses  and  purple  violets  and  sky-blue  larkspur ;  also 
the  Corycian  <=  and  Sicilian  saffron-bulbs  are  planted 
to  give  colour  and  scent  to  the  honey.  Moreover,  5 
countless  herbs  of  a  baser  kind  spring  up  on  culti- 
vated land  and  pasture  which  supply  an  abundance 
of  wax  for  the  honey-combs,  such  as  the  common 
charlock  and  the  horse-radish,  which  is  no  more 
precious,  the  mustard-herb,  and  flowers  of  wild 
endive  and  black  poppy,  also  the  field  parsnip,  and  the 
cultivated  variety  which  bears  the  same  name  and 
which  the  Greeks  call  staphylinos  (carrot).  But  of  6 
all  the  plants  which  I  have  suggested  and  of  those 
which  I  have  not  mentioned  so  as  to  save  time  (for 
their  number  could  not  be  computed),  thyme  yields 
honey  with  the  best  flavour ;  the  next  best  are  Greek 
savory,  wild  thyme  and  marjoram.  In  the  third 
class,  but  still  of  high  quality,  are  rosemary  and  our 
Italian  savory,  which  I  have  called  satureia.  Next 
the  flowers  of  the  tamarisk  and  the  jujube-tree  and 
the  other  kinds  of  fodder  which  I  suggested  have  only 
a  mediocre  flavour.     The  honey  which  is  considered  7 

"  Aster  amellus.  *  Acanthus  mollis. 

'  Corycus  was  in  Cilicia  in  southern  Asia  Minor. 

1*  habetur  c  :   habentur  SAa. 



nemorense,  quod  sparto  atque  arbuto  ^  provenit : 
villaticum,  quod  nascitur  in  oleribus.^  Et  quoniam 
situm  pastionum  atque  etiam  genera  pabulorum 
exposui,  nunc  de  ipsis  receptaculis  et  domiciliis 
examinum  loquar. 

V.  Sedes  apium  collocanda  est  contra  brumalem 
meridiem  procul  a  tumultu,  et  coetu  hominum  ac 
pecudum,  nee  calido  loco,  nee  frigido :  nam  utraque 
re  infestantur.  Haec  autem  sit  ima  parte  vallis,  et 
ut  vacuae  cum  prodeunt  pabulatum  apes,  facilius 
editioribus  advolent,  et  collectis  utensilibus  cum 
onere  per  proclivia  non  aegre  devolent. 

Si  villae  situs  ita  competit,  non  est  dubitandum 
quin  aedificio  iunctum  apiarium  maceria  circum- 
demus,  sed  in  ea  parte,  quae  tetris  latrinae  ster- 
2  quiliniique  et  a  balinei  libera  est  odoribus.  Verum  ^ 
si  positio  repugnabit,  nee  maxima  tamen  incommoda 
congruent,*  sic  quoque  magis  expediet  sub  oculis 
domini  esse  apiarium.  Sin  autem  cuncta  fuerint 
Inimica,  certe  vicina  vallis  occupetur,  quo  saepius 
descendere  non  sit  grave  possidenti.  Nam  res  ista 
maximam  fidem  desiderat ;  quae  quoniam  rarissima 
est,  interventu  domini  tutius  custoditur.     Neque  ea 

1  arbusto  SAac. 

^  post  oleribua  add.  et  stercorosis  herbis  a  :  om.  SA  :  et 
stercoris  herbis  c  {in  marg.)  A. 

'  veTum  A^ac  :   vel  et  <S  :   vellet^*. 
*  congruent  ^*oc  :   congluent  aS^  ^ 

BOOK  IX.  IV.  7-v.  2 

of  the  poorest  quality  is  the  woodland  honey  which 
comes  from  dirty  feeding-grounds  and  is  produced 
from  broom-trees  and  strawberry-trees,  and  the 
farm-house  honey  which  comes  from  vegetables.  Now 
that  I  have  described  the  situation  of  the  feeding- 
grounds  and  also  the  various  kinds  of  food,  I  will  next 
speak  of  the  arrangement  for  receiving  and  housing 
the  swarm. 

V.  A  position  must  be  chosen  for  the  bees  facing  On  the  best 
the  sun  at  midday  in  winter,  far  from  the  noise  and  the  an"apia^!°'^ 
assemblage  of  men  and  beasts  and  neither  hot  nor 
cold,  for  bees  are  troubled  by  both  these  conditions. 
It  should  be  situated  in  the  bottom  of  a  valley,  that 
the  empty  bees,  when  they  go  forth  to  feed,  may  be 
able  more  easily  to  fly  up  to  the  higher  ground,  and 
also,  when  they  have  collected  what  they  require, 
they  may  fly  with  their  burden  on  a  down-hill  course 
without  any  difficulty. 

If  the  situation  of  the  farm  permits,  we  ought  not 
to  hesitate  to  join  the  apiary  to  a  building  and 
surround  it  with  a  wall,  but  it  must  be  on  the  side  of 
the  house  which  is  free  from  the  foul  odours  which 
come  from  the  latrines,  the  dunghill  and  the  bath- 
room. If,  however,  this  position  has  drawbacks,  but  2 
yet  the  worst  disadvantages  are  not  all  present,  even 
under  these  conditions  it  will  be  more  expedient  for 
the  apiary  to  be  under  the  master's  eye.  If,  how- 
ever, everything  is  unfavourable,  at  all  events  a 
valley  should  be  pitched  upon  close  at  hand,  so  that 
the  owner  may  be  able  to  go  down  rather  often 
and  visit  it  without  grave  inconvenience ;  for  in 
bee-keeping  perfect  honesty  is  necessary,  and  since 
this  is  very  rare,  it  is  better  secured  by  the  inter- 
vention of  the  master.     Not  only  is  an  overseer  who 



curatorem  fraudulentum  tantum,  sed  etiam  immun- 
dae  segnitiae  perosa  est.  Aeque  enim  dedignatur, 
si  minus  pure  habita  est,  ac  si  tractetur  fraudulenter. 

3  Sed  ubicumque  fuerint  alvearia  ^  non  editissimo 
claudantur  muro.  Qui  si  metu  praedonum  sublimior 
placuerit,  tribus  elatis  ab  humo  pedibus,  exiguis  in 
ordinem  fenestellis  apibus  sit  pervius :  iungaturque 
tugurium,  quod  et  custodes  habitent,  et  quo  ^  con- 
datur  instrumentum  :  sitque  maxime  repletum  prae- 
paratis  alveis  ^  ad  usum  novorum  examinum,  nee 
minus  herbis  salutaribus,  et  siqua  sunt  alia,  quae 
languentibus  adhibentur. 

4  Palmaque  vestibulum  aut  ingens  oleaster  obum- 

Ut  cum  prima  novi  *  ducent  examina  reges, 
Vere  suo,  ludetque  favis  emissa  iuventus  : 
Vicina  invitet  decedere  ripa  calori, 
Obviaque  hospitiis  teneat  frondentibus  arbos. 

Tum  perennis  aqua,  si  est  facultas,  inducatur,  vel 

6  extracta  ^  manu  detur,  sine  qua  neque  favi  neque 

mella  nee  pulli  denique  figurari  queunt.     Sive  igitur, 

ut  dixi,  praeterfluens   unda  vel  putealis   canalibus 

1  alvearia  A'ac  :  albaria  SA^, 

*  quo  om.  SAac. 

'  alveis  A^ac  :   alubia  SA. 

*  prima  novi  edd.  :    vere  novo  SAae, 

*  extracta  SA^ :  extructo  A'ao. 


BOOK  IX.  V.  2-5 

is  fraudulent  abhorrent  to  the  business  but  also  one 
whose  laziness  causes  filthy  conditions ;  for  bee- 
keeping revolts  alike  against  a  lack  of  cleanliness 
and  against  fraudulent  management. 

Wherever  the  hives  are  placed,  they  should  not  be  3 
enclosed  within  very  high  walls.  If,  through  fear  of 
robbers,  a  rather  lofty  w^all  is  thought  desirable, 
passages  through  it  should  be  made  for  the  bees  in 
the  form  of  a  row  of  little  windows  three  feet  above 
the  ground,  and  there  should  be  an  adjoining  cottage 
in  which  the  keepers  may  live  and  the  apparatus 
may  be  stored.  The  store-house  should  be  chiefly 
occupied  by  hives  ready  for  the  use  of  new  swarms 
and  also  by  health-giving  herbs  and  any  other 
remedies  which  may  be  applied  to  bees  when  they 
are  sick. 

And  let  a  palm  or  vast  wild-olive  tree  4 

O'ershade  the  porch,  that  when  new  kings  lead 

The    infant    swarms    and   the  young   bees    m^ake 

In  their  own  spring,  from  honey-combs  set  free ; 
Then  let  the  neighbouring  bank  invite  retreat 
From  mid-day  heat,  and  let  the  sheltering  tree 
Hold  them  in  leafy  hospitality." 

Next  let  ever-flowing  water,  if  it  is  available,  be  5 
introduced  or  drawn  by  hand  and  provided,  without 
which  neither  combs  nor  honey  nor  even  young 
bees  can  be  formed.  Whether,  therefore,  as  I 
have  said,  it  be  running  water  which  has  been 
conveyed  in  channels  or  well-water,  it   should  con- 

<•  Vergil,  Georg.  IV.  20  ff. 



immissa  fuerit,  virgis  ac  lapidibus  aggeretur  apium 

Pontibus  ut  crebris  possint  consistere,  et  alas 
Pandere  ad  aestivum  solem,  si  forte  morantis 
Sparserit,  aut  praeceps  Neptuno  immerserit  Eurus. 

6  Conseri  deinde  circa  totum  apiarium  debent 
arbusculae  incrementi  parvi,  maximeque  propter 
salubritatem  (nam  sunt  etiam  remedio  languentibus) 
cytisi,  turn  deinde  casiae  atque  pini  et  rosmarinus :  ^. 
quin  etiam  cunilae  et  thymi  frutices,  item  violarum, 
vel  quaecunque  ^  utiliter  deponi  patitur  qualitas 
terrae.  Gravis  et  tetri  odoris  non  solum  virentia  sed 
et  quaelibet  res  prohibeantur,  sicuti  cancri  nidor, 
cum  est  ignibus  adustus,  aut  odor  palustris  caeni. 
Nee  minus  vitentur  cavae  rupes  aut  vallis  argutiae, 
quas  Graeci  vocant  rjX^^^S-^ 

VI.  Igitur  ordinatis  sedibus,  alvearia  *  fabricanda 
sunt  pro  conditione  regionis.  Sive  ilia  ferax  est 
suberis,  baud  dubitanter  utilissimas  alvos  °  faciemus 
ex  corticibus,  quia  nee  hieme  frigent,^  nee  candent 
aestate ;  sive  ferulis  exuberat,  iis  quoque,  quod  sunt 
naturae  corticis  similes,  aeque  commode  vasa 
texuntur.  Si  neutrum  aderit,  opere  textorio '  sali- 
cibus    connectentur :     vel    si    nee    haec    suppetent, 

1  marinum  SAac. 

2  quaecunque  A^ac  :   quae  SA^. 
'  rjxovs  om.  ac. 

*  alvearia  ac  :   albaria  SA. 

*  alvos  A^c  :  albos  SA'^  :  alveos  a. 
'  frigent  SAa  :   rigent  c. 

'  opere  textorio  edd.  :    opererio  S  :    operario  Aa  :    opere 
vitorio  c. 

BOOK  IX.  V.  5-vi.  I 

tain  heaps  of  sticks  and  stones  for  the  use  of  the 

That  upon  frequent  bridges  they  may  rest 
And  spread  their  wings  to  catch  the  summer  sun, 
If  swift  east  winds  have  caught  them  loitering 
And  rained  on  them  or  plunged  them  in  the  deep." 

Next,  round  the  whole  apiary,  little  trees  of  small  6 
growth  ought  to  be  planted  and  in  particular  shrub- 
trefoils  on  account  of  their  health-giving  properties 
(for  they  are  a  remedy  for  bees  when  they  are  list- 
less) ;  also  wild  cinnamon  and  pines  and  rosemary, 
and  clumps  of  marjoram  and  thyme  and  violets  and 
whatever  else  the  nature  of  the  ground  allows  to  be 
profitably  planted.  Not  only  growing  things  but  also 
anything  whatsoever  which  has  a  disagreeable  and 
noisome  odour  should  be  kept  away  from  the  apiary, 
such  as  the  smell  of  a  crab  when  it  is  burnt  on  the 
fire  or  the  odour  of  mud  taken  from  a  marsh.  Like- 
wise let  hollow  rocks  and  shrill  noises  produced  by 
valleys,  which  the  Greeks  call  echoes,  be  avoided. 

VI.  When,  therefore,  the  sites  have  been  arranged,  On  the 
beehives   must  be   constructed  in   accordance   with  beeUve*s. 
local  conditions.     If  the  place  is  rich  in  cork-trees,  . 

we  shall  certainly  make  the  most  serviceable  hives 
from  their  bark,  because  they  are  neither  cold  in 
winter  nor  hot  in  summer ;  or  if  it  grows  plenty  of 
fennel-stalks,  with  these  too,  since  they  resemble 
the  nature  of  bark,  receptacles  can  be  quite  as  con- 
veniently made  by  weaving  them  together.  If 
neither  of  these  materials  is  at  hand,  the  hives  can  be 
made  by  plaiting  withies  together ;  or,  if  these  are 
not  available  either,  they  will  have  to  be  made  with 

"  Vergil,  Oeorg.  IV,  27  ff. 



ligno  cavae  ^  arboris  aut  ^  in  tabulas  desectae  fabrica- 

2  buntur.  Deterrima  est  conditio  fictilium,  quae  et 
accenduntur  aestatis  vaporibus,  et  gelantur  hiemis 
frigoribus.  Reliqua  sunt  alvorum  genera  duo,  ut 
vel  ex  fimo  fingantur,^  vel  lateribus  extruantur : 
quorum  alterum  iure  damnavit  Celsus,  quoniam 
maxime  est  ignibus  obnoxium ;  alterum  probavit, 
quamvis  incommodum  eius  praecipuum  non  dissimu- 
laverit,  quod,  si  res  postulet,  transferri  non  possit. 

3  Itaque  non  assentior  ei,  qui  putat  nihilo  minus  eius 
generis  habendas  esse  alvos :  neque  enim  solum  id 
repugnat  rationibus  domini,  quod  immobiles  sint,  cum 
vendere  aut  alios  agros  instruere  velit ;  (hoc  enim 
commodum  pertinet  ad  utilitatem  solius  patris- 
familias)  sed,  quod  ipsarum  apium  causa  ^  fieri  debet, 
cum  aut  morbo  aut  sterilitate  et  penuria  locorum 
vexatas  conveniet  ^  in  aliam  regionem  mitti,  nee 
propter  praedictam   causam   moveri   poterunt,^  hoc 

4  maxime  vitandum  est.  Itaque  quamvis  doctissimi 
viri  auctoritatem  reverebar,  tamen  ambitione  sub- 
mota,  quid  ipse  censerem,  non  omisi.  Nam  quod 
maxime  movet  Celsum,  ne  sint  stabula  vel  igni  vel 
furibus  obnoxia,  potest  vitari  opere  lateritio  circum- 
structis  alvis,  ut  impediatur  rapina  praedonis,  et 
contra  flammarum  violentiam  protegantur :  "^  easdem- 
que,  cum  fuerint  movendae,  resolutis  structurae 
compagibus,  licebit  transferre. 

^  cave  SA  :   cavatae  ac. 

*  aut  ac  :   om.  SA . 

*  fingantur  ac  :   finguntur  8 A, 

*  causa  ac  :   coriosa  SA. 

*  conveniet  SAa  :   -at  c. 

*  poterint  S  :   -ant  Aac. 
''  proteguntur  SAac. 


BOOK  IX.  VI.  1-4 

wood  of  a  tree  either  hollow  or  cut  up  into  boards. 
Those  made  of  earthenware  have  the  worst  quaUties  2 
of  all,  since  they  are  burnt  by  the  heat  of  summer 
and  frozen  by  the  cold  of  winter.  Two  kinds  of  hives 
remain  to  be  described,  those  which  are  either  made 
of  dung  or  built  of  bricks.  Celsus  was  right  in  con- 
demning the  former  because  it  is  very  liable  to  catch 
fire;  the  latter  he  approved,  although  he  made  no 
secret  of  its  chief  disadvantage,  namely,  that  if 
occasion  should  arise,  it  cannot  be  moved  to  another 
site.  I  do  not  agree  with  him  who  thinks  that  hives  3 
of  this  kind  ought  to  be  used  in  spite  of  this  draw- 
back, for  it  is  not  only  against  the  interests  of  the 
owner  that  they  should  be  immovable  when  he  wants 
to  sell  them  or  furnish  another  site  with  hives  (for 
these  considerations  concern  the  convenience  of  the 
owner  alone),  but  the  question  arises  as  to  what  ought 
to  be  done  for  the  sake  of  the  bees  themselves,  when 
it  is  advisable  that  they  should  be  sent  to  another 
district  because  they  are  suffering  from  disease  or 
from  the  barrenness  and  poverty  of  the  locality  and  yet 
cannot  be  moved  for  the  reason  mentioned  above — 
a  state  of  affairs  which  ought  above  all  things  to  be 
avoided.  So,  though  holding  in  respect  the  4 
authority  of  a  learned  man,  yet,  without  seeking  to 
set  myself  up  against  him,  I  have  not  omitted  to 
express  my  own  opinion.  For  Celsus'  chief  anxiety, 
lest  the  bees'  quarters  should  be  exposed  to  fire  or 
thieves,  can  be  avoided  by  building  a  brick  wall  round 
the  hives  to  prevent  the  plundering  of  robbers  and 
to  give  protection  against  the  violence  of  fire,  and, 
when  the  hives  have  to  be  moved  it  will  be  possible  to 
take  apart  the  framework  of  the  structure  and  move 
the  hives  elsewhere. 



VII.  Sed  quoniam  plerisque  videtur  istud  opero- 
sum,  qualiacunque  vasa  placuerint,  coUocari  debe- 
bunt.  Suggestus  lapideus  extenditur  per  totum 
apiarium  in  ^  tres  pedes  altitudinis  ^  extructus,  isque 
diligenter  opere  tectorio  levigatur,  ita  ne  ascensus 
lacertis,    aut    anguibus,    aliisve    noxiis    animalibus 

2  praebeatur.  Superponuntur  deinde,  sive,  ut  Celso 
placet, lateribus  facta  domicilia,sive,ut  nobis,  alvearia, 
praeterquam  a  tergo  ^  circumstructa  :  seu,  quod  paene 
omnium  in  usu  est,  qui  mode  diligenter  ista  curant, 
per  ordinem  vasa  disposita  ligantur,  vel  laterculis, 
vel  caementis,  ita  ut  singula  binis  parietibus  angustis 
contineantur,  liberaeque  frontes  utrimque  sint.  Nam 
et  qua  procedunt,  nonnunquam  patefaciendae  sunt,* 
et  multo  magis  a  tergo,  quia  subinde  curantur  ex- 

3  amina.  Sin  autem  nulli  parietes  alvis  intervenient, 
sic  tamen  collocandae  erunt,  ut  paulum  altera  ab 
altera  distet,  ne,^  cum  inspiciuntur,  ea,  quae  in 
curatione  tractatur,  haerentem  sibi  alteram  concutiat, 
vicinasque  apes  conterreat,  quae  omnem  motum 
imbecillis  ut  cereis  ®  scilicet  operibus  suis  tamquam 
ruinam  timent.  Ordines  quidem  vasorum  superin- 
structos  in  altitudinem  tres  esse  abunde  est,  quoniam 
summum   sic   quoque   parum   commode   curator   in- 

4  spicit.  Ora  cavearum,  quae  praebent  apibus  vesti- 
bula,  proniora  sint  quam  terga,  ut  ne  influant  imbres, 

^  in  ac  :  per  SA. 

*  post  altitudinis  add.  totidemque  crassitudinis  ac  :  om.  SA. 

*  ante  tergo  add.  et  frontibus  iSAa  :  om.  edd. 

*  sunt  Aac  :   sint  S. 
^  nee  SAac. 

*  cereis  ac  :   ceteris  SA. 


BOOK  IX.  VII.  1-4 

VII.  But  since  most  people  regard  all  this  as  involv-  On  the 
ing  too  much  trouble,  whatever  kind  of  receptacles  beehives. 
take  their  fancy  will  have  to  be  arranged  thus.  A 
bank  made  of  stones  built  three  feet  high  is  stretched 
across  the  apiary  and  carefully  smoothed  over  with 
plaster,  so  that  no  chance  of  climbing  it  may  be 
offered  to  lizards  and  snakes  or  other  harmful 
creatures ;  then  on  the  top  of  it  are  placed  either  2 
bee-houses  made  with  bricks,  which  Celsus  prefers, 
or,  as  we  prefer,  hives  walled  round  except  at  the 
back ;  or  else — and  this  is  the  practice  of  almost  all 
those  who  are  careful  in  these  matters — receptacles 
arranged  in  a  row  are  fastened  together  either  with 
small  bricks  or  with  unhewn  stones  in  such  a  way 
that  each  is  contained  within  two  narrow  walls  and 
the  two  sides,  at  the  back  and  at  the  front,  are 
left  free ;  for  the  sides  on  which  they  issue  forth 
have  sometimes  to  be  opened  and  this  is  especi- 
ally necessary  at  the  back  because  the  swarms 
have  to  be  attended  to  from  time  to  time.  If 
there  are  no  partitions  between  the  hives,  they  3 
will,  nevertheless,  have  to  be  so  placed  as  to  be  at  a 
little  distance  from  one  another,  so  that,  when  they 
are  being  inspected,  one  which  is  handled  in  the 
course  of  being  attended  to  may  not  shake  another 
which  is  closely  joined  to  it,  and  alarm  the  neigh- 
bouring bees,  which  are  afraid  of  every  movement 
as  threatening  ruin  to  their  structures  which  are 
frail,  being  of  wax.  It  is  quite  enough  to  have  three 
rows  of  hives  one  above  the  other,  since  even  so  the 
man  who  looks  after  them  cannot  very  conveniently 
inspect  the  top  row.  The  fronts  of  the  hives,  which  4 
afford  entries  for  the  bees,  should  slope  down  more 
than  their  backs,  so  that  the  rain  may  not  flow  in, 



et  si  forte  tamen  incesserint,^  non  immorentur, 
sed  per  aditum  effluant.  Propter  quos  convenit 
alvearia  porticibus  supermuniri ;  sin  aliter,  luto  Pu- 
nico  frondibus  inlimatis  adumbrari,  quod  tegmen  cum 
frigora  et  pluvias,  turn  et  aestus  arcet.  Nee  tamen 
ita  nocet  huic  generi  calor  aestatis  ut  hiemale  frigus.^ 
Itaque  semper  aedificium  sit  post  apiarium,  quod 
Aquilonis    excipiat    iniuriam,    stabulisque    praebeat 

5  teporem.  Nee  minus  ipsa  domicilia,  quamvis  aedificio 
protegantur,^  obversa  tamen  ad  hibernum  orientem 
componi  debebunt,  ut  apricum  habeant  apes  matu- 
tinum  egressum,  et  sint  experrectiores.  Nam  frigus 
ignaviam  creat ;  pi'opter  quod  etiam  foramina, 
quibus  exitus  aut  introitus  datur,  angustissima  esse 
debent,  ut  quam  minimum  frigoris  admittant :  eaque 
satis  est  ita  forari,  ne  possint  ^  capere  plus  unius  apis 
incrementum.  Sic  nee  venenatus  stellio,  nee  obscae- 
num  scarabaei^  vel  papilionis  genus,  lucifugaeque 
blattae,  ut  ait  Maro,  per  laxiora  spatia  ianuae  favos 

6  populabuntur.  Atque  utilissimum  est  pro  frequentia 
domicilii  duos  vel  tres  aditus  in  eodem  operculo 
distantes  inter  se  fieri  contra  fallaciam  lacerti,  qui 
velut  custos  vestibuli  ^  prodeuntibus  inhians  '  apibus 
affert    exitium,    eaeque    pauciores    intereunt,    cum 

^  incesserit  SA  :  ingesserint  ac. 

*  calor  aestatis  ut  hiemale  frigus  Gesner  ex  Palladii  citatione  : 
caloris  ut  hiemalitus  SA  :  caloris  ut  hiemis  alitus  a  :  caloris 
aut  hiemis  estus  c. 

'  protegantur  ac  :   -untur  SA. 

*  possint  ac  :  possit  SA. 
^  searabei  c  :   -ri  SAa. 

*  vestibuli  SAac. 

'  inhians  ac  :  in  hanc  SA. 

"  The  text  here  is  doubtful  but  the  sense  clear. 
»  Vergil,  Oeorg.  IV.  243. 


BOOK  IX.  VII.  4-6 

and  that,  if  by  chance  it  does  find  its  way  in,  it  may 
not  remain  there  but  flow  out  through  the  entrance. 
Also,  on  account  of  the  rain,  the  hives  should  be 
protected  above  with  colonnades,  or,  failing  these, 
they  should  be  overshadowed  by  green  foliage 
daubed  over  with  Carthaginian  clay,  forming  a 
covering  which  keeps  off  both  the  cold  and  rain  and 
also  the  heat.  However  the  heat  of  summer  is  not 
so  harmful  to  this  kind  of  creature  as  the  cold  of 
winter,"  and  so  there  should  always  be  a  building 
behind  the  apiary  to  intercept  the  violence  of  the 
north  wind  and  provide  warmth  for  the  hives. 
Likewise  the  bees'  dwelling-places,  although  they  5 
are  protected  by  buildings,  ought  to  be  so  arranged 
as  to  face  the  south-east,  in  order  that  the  bees 
may  enjoy  the  sun  when  they  go  out  in  the 
morning  and  may  be  more  wide-awake ;  for  cold 
begets  sloth.  For  the  same  reason,  too,  the  holes 
through  which  they  go  in  and  out  ought  to  be  very 
narrow,  so  as  to  admit  as  little  cold  as  possible ; 
indeed  it  is  enough  that  they  should  be  so  bored 
that  they  cannot  admit  the  bulk  of  more  than  one  bee 
at  a  time.  Thus  neither  the  poisonous  gecko  nor  the 
foul  race  of  beetles  and  butterflies  and  the  cock- 
roaches that  shun  the  day-light,  as  Maro  says,^  will  not 
lay  waste  the  honey-combs  by  having  too  wide  an 
entrance  to  pass  through.  It  is  also  a  most  useful  6 
device  to  have  made  in  proportion  to  the  number  of 
bees  in  the  hive,  two  or  three  entrances  in  its  outer 
covering  at  a  distance  from  one  another  to  defeat 
the  craftiness  of  the  lizard,  which  standing  like  a 
door-keeper  at  the  entry,  with  open  mouth,  brings 
destruction  upon  the  bees  as  they  come  forth,  and 
fewer  of  them  perish  when  they  are  at  liberty  to 


VOL.  II.  Q 


licet  1    vitare   pestis    obsidia   per    aliud   volantibus  ^ 

VIII.  Atque  haec  de  pabulationibus,  domiciliisque  ^ 
et  sedibus  eligendis  abunde  diximus :  quibus  pro- 
visis,  sequitur  ut  examina  desideremus.  Ea  ^  porro 
vel  aere  parta,  vel  gratuita  contingunt.  Sed  quas 
pretio  comparabimus,  scrupulosius  praedictis  com- 
probemus  notis,  et  earum  frequentiam  prius  quam 

2  mercemur,  apertis  alvearibus  consideremus :  vel  si 
non  fuerit  inspiciendi  facultas,  certe  id  quod  con- 
templari  licet,  notabimus :  ^  an  in  vestibule  ianuae 
complures  consistant,  et  vehemens  sonus  intus 
mui-murantium  exaudiatur.  Atque  etiam  si  omnes 
intra  domicilium  silentes  forte  conquiescent,  labris 
foramini  aditus  admotis,  et  inflato  spiritu  ex  respon- 
dente  earum  subito  ^  fremitu  poterimus  aestimare 
vel  multitudinem,  vel  paucitatem. 

3  Praecipue  autem  custodiendum  est,  ut  ex  vicinia 
potius,  quam  peregrinis  regionibus  pctantur,  quo- 
niam  solent  caeli  novitate  lacessiri.  Quod  si  non 
contingit,  ac  necesse  habuerimus  longinquis  itineri- 
bus  advehere,  curabimus '  ne  salebris  solicitentur, 
optimeque  noctibus  collo  portabuntur.  Nam  diebus 
requies  danda  est,  et  infundendi  sunt  grati  apibus 

4  liquores,  quibus  intra  clausum  alantur.  Mox  cum 
perlatae  domum  fuerint,  si  dies  supervenerit,  nee 

^  licet  c  :  liceant  SA  :  liceat  a. 

2  volantibus  S  :   ulantibus  A  :   vadentibus  ac. 

*  domiciliisque  Sa  :   domiciliis  et  c  :   domicilibusque  A. 

*  ea  ac  :   om.  8A. 

^  notabimus  ac  :  notavimus  SA. 

*  subito  ac  :  sumito  SA. 

'  curabimus  c  :   curavimus  SA  :   om.  a. 


BOOK  IX.  VII.  6-vni.  4 

avoid  the  pest  which  lies  in  wait  for  them  by  flying 
out  by  another  passage. 

VIII.  We  have  now  said  enough  about  the  choice  Onthepur- 
of  feeding-grounds,  dwelling-places  and  their  sites,  and^he  ''^^ 
These  having  been  provided,  the  next  things  that  taking  of 

^  n  \.  Til  .  swarms. 

we  require  are  swarms  or  bees.  Ihese  come  to  us 
either  by  purchase  or  without  being  paid  for.  Those 
which  we  are  going  to  buy  we  shall  test  with  particu- 
lar care  by  means  of  the  points  already  mentioned,  and 
we  must  consider  how  numerous  they  are  before  we 
purchase  them,  by  opening  the  hives  ;  or  if  there  are  2 
no  facilities  for  inspecting  them,  we  shall  at  any  rate 
take  note  of  what  we  are  allowed  to  see,  namely, 
whether  a  goodly  number  of  bees  are  standing  in  the 
entrance-porch  and  whether  a  loud  noise  is  to  be 
heard  of  bees  buzzing  inside.  Also  if  it  so  happens 
that  they  are  all  silent  and  at  peace  within  their 
dwelling-place,  we  shall  be  able  to  estimate  their 
great  or  small  number  from  the  sudden  noise  on  the 
part  of  the  bees  as  a  result  of  our  applying  our  lips  to 
the  hole  by  which  they  enter  and  blowing  into  it. 

But  we  must  be  particularly  careful  that  the  3 
swarms  are  brought  from  the  neighbourhood  rather 
than  from  distant  regions,  since  they  are  usually 
irritated  by  a  change  of  climate.  But  if  this  is 
impossible  and  we  are  obliged  to  convey  them  over 
long  distances,  we  shall  be  careful  that  they  are  not 
disturbed  by  the  roughness  of  the  road,  and  they  will 
be  best  carried  on  the  shoulders  and  at  night ;  for 
they  must  be  given  rest  in  the  day-time,  and  liquids 
which  they  like  must  be  poured  into  the  hives,  so  that 
they  may  be  fed  while  remaining  shut  up.  Then  4 
when  they  have  arrived  at  their  destination,  if  day- 
light has  come  on,  the  hive  must  be  neither  opened 



aperiri  nee  collocari  oportebit  alvum,  nisi  vesperi, 
ut  apes  placidae  mane  post  totius  requiem  ^  noctis 
egrediantur ;  specularique  debebimus  ^  fere  triduo, 
numquid  universae  se  profundant.  Quod  cum  faciunt, 
fugam  meditantur.  Ea  remediis  quibus  debeat 
inhiberi,  mox  praecipiemus. 

5  At  quae  dono  vel  aucupio  contingunt,  minus 
scrupulose  probantur :  quamquam  ne  sic  quidem 
velim  nisi  optimas  possidere,  cum  et  impensam  et 
eandem  operam  custodis  postulent  bonae  atque 
improbae :  et  quod  ^  maxime  refert,^  non  sunt 
degeneres  intermiscendae,  quae  infament  generosas. 
Nam  minor  fructus  mellis  respondet,  cum  segniora 

6  interveniunt  examina.  Verumtamen  quoniam  inter- 
dum  propter  conditionem  locorum  vel  mediocre  pecus 
(nam  malum  nullo  quidem  modo)  parandum  est, 
curam  vestigandis  examinibus  hac  ratione  adhibe- 

7  bimus.  Ubicunque  saltus  sunt  idonei,  mellifici,  nihil 
antiquius  apes,  quam,  quibus  utantur,  vicinos  eligunt 
fontes.  Eos  itaque  convenit  plerumque  ab  hora 
secunda  obsidere,  specularique  quae  turba  sit 
aquantium.  Nam  si  paucae  admodum  circumvolant 
(nisi  tamen  complura  capita  rivorum  diductas  faciunt 
rariores)  intelligenda  est  earum  penuria,  propter 
quam  locum  quoque  non   esse  mellificum  suspica- 

8  bimur.     At  si  commeant  frequentes,  spem  quoque 

1  requiem  oc  :   quiem  SA. 

*  debebimus  SA  :   debemus  ac. 
^  quod  ac  :   quoque  SA. 

*  refert  Aac  :  referunt  S. 

BOOK  IX.  VIII.  4-8 

nor  placed  in  position  until  evening  conies,  so  that 
the  bees  may  go  forth  quietly  in  the  morning  after  a 
whole  night's  rest,  and  we  shall  need  to  watch  care- 
fully for  about  three  days  to  see  whether  they  all 
sally  forth  in  a  body;  for  when  they  do  this,  they 
are  meditating  escape.  We  will  presently  prescribe 
what  remedies  we  ought  to  apply  to  prevent  this. 

Bees  which  come  to  us  by  gift  or  by  capture  are  5 
accepted  less  scrupulously,  although  even  in  these 
circumstances  I  would  not  care  to  possess  any  but  the 
best,  since  good  and  bad  bees  require  the  same  ex- 
penditure and  the  same  labour  on  the  part  of  their 
keeper;  also  (and  this  is  especially  important)  in- 
ferior bees  should  not  be  mixed  with  those  of  high 
quality,  since  they  bring  discredit  upon  them ;  for  a 
smaller  yield  of  honey  rewards  your  efforts  when  the 
idler  swarms  take  part  in  the  gathering  of  it.  Never-  6 
theless,  since  sometimes,  owing  to  local  conditions, 
an  indifferent  set  of  bees  has  to  be  procured  (though 
never  on  any  account  should  a  bad  one  be  acquired), 
we  shall  exercise  care  in  seeking  out  swarms  by  the 
following  method.  Wherever  there  are  suitable  7 
woodlands  where  honey  can  be  gathered,  there  is 
nothing  that  the  bees  would  sooner  do  than  make 
choice  of  springs  near  at  hand  for  their  use.  It  is 
a  good  plan,  therefore,  usually  to  frequent  these 
springs  from  the  second  hour  onwards  and  watch 
how  many  bees  come  to  them  for  water.  For  if  only 
a  few  are  flying  about  (unless  there  are  several  sources 
of  water  which  attract  them  and  cause  them  to  be 
more  widely  dispersed)  we  must  conclude  that  there 
is  a  scarcity  of  them,  which  will  make  us  suspect  that 
the  place  will  not  produce  much  honey.  But  if  they  8 
come  and  go  in  large  numbers,  they  inspire  greater 



aucupandi  examina  maiorem  faciunt ;  eaque  sic 
inveniuntur.  Primum  quam  longe  sint  explorandum 
est,  praeparandaque  ^  in  hanc  ^  rem  liquida  rubrica : 
qua  cum  festucis  illitis  contigeris  apium  terga  fontem 
libantium,  commoratus  ^  eodem  loco  facilius  re- 
deuntes  agnoscere  poteris  ;  ac  si  non  tarde  id  *  facient, 
scies  eas  in  vicino  consistere :  sin  autem  serius,  pro 
9  morae  tempore  ^  aestimabis  distantiam  loci.  Sed 
cum  animadverteris  celeriter  redeuntes,  non  aegre 
persequens  iter  volantium  ad  sedem  perduceris 
examinis.  In  iis  autem  quae  longius  meare  vide- 
buntur,  solertior  adhibebitur  cura,  quae  talis  est. 
Arundinis  internodium  cum  suis  articulis  exciditur, 
et  terebratur  ab  latere  talea^  per  quod  foramen 
exiguo  melle  vel  defruto '  instillato,  ponitur  iuxta 
fontem.  Deinde  cum  ad  odorem  dulcis  liquaminis 
complures  apes  irrepsei'unt,^  tollitur  talea,  et 
apposito  ^  foramini  pollice  non  emittitur,  nisi  una, 
quae  cum  evasit,  fugam  suam  demonstrat  obser- 
vanti :  atque  is,  dum  sufficit,  persequitur  evolantem. 
10  Cum^"  deinde  conspicerepossit^^  apem,tumi2  alteram 
emittit :  et  si  eandem  petit  ^^  caeli  partem,  vestigiis 
prioribus  inhaeret.  Si  minus,  aliam  atque  aliam 
foramine    adaperto    patitur    egredi ;     regionemque 

'  praeparandumque  SAac. 

"  hac  SA  :   hanc  ac. 

'  comraoratur  SAc  :  -os  a. 

*  id  ac  :  in  SA. 

^  tempoiis  SAac. 

*  alba  ter  et  alia  S  :  alvatere  talea  A  :  ab  latere  talea  a  : 
ab  latera  talea  c. 

'  defriti  SA  :  defruto  ac. 

*  irrepserunt  ac  :   inperserunt  SA. 

*  apposito  ac  :   imposito  SA. 
1"  cum  ac  :  om.  SA. 

^^  desit  oc:  possitS^. 


BOOK  IX.  viii.  8-IO 

hopes  of  our  catching  swarms  of  them ;  and  the 
following  is  the  method  of  finding  them.  First  we 
must  try  to  discover  how  far  away  they  are,  and 
for  this  purpose  liquid  red-ochre  must  be  prepared ; 
then,  after  touching  the  backs  of  the  bees  with  stalks 
smeared  with  this  liquid  as  they  are  drinking  at  the 
spring,  waiting  in  the  same  place  you  will  be  able 
more  easily  to  recognize  the  bees  when  they  return. 
If  they  are  not  slow  in  returning,  you  will  know  that 
they  dwell  in  the  neighbourhood ;  but  if  they  are 
late  in  doing  so,  you  will  calculate  the  distance  by 
the  period  of  their  delay.  If  you  notice  them  return-  9 
ing  quickly,  you  will  have  no  difficulty  in  following 
the  course  of  their  flight  and  will  be  led  to  where 
the  swarm  has  its  home.  As  regards  those  who 
apparently  go  farther  away,  a  more  ingenious  plan 
will  be  adopted,  as  follows.  The  joint  of  a  reed  with 
the  knots  at  either  end  is  cut  and  a  hole  bored  in  the 
side  of  the  rod  thus  formed,  through  which  you 
should  drop  a  little  honey  or  boiled-down  must. 
The  rod  is  then  placed  near  a  spring.  Then  when  a 
number  of  bees,  attracted  by  the  smell  of  the  sweet 
liquid,  have  crept  into  it,  the  rod  is  taken  away  and 
the  thumb  placed  on  the  hole  and  one  bee  only 
released  at  a  time,  which,  when  it  has  escaped,  shows 
the  line  of  its  flight  to  the  observer,  and  he,  as  long 
as  he  can  keep  up,  follows  it  as  it  flies  away.  Then,  10 
when  he  can  no  longer  see  the  bee,  he  lets  out 
another,  and  if  it  seeks  the  same  quarter  of  the 
heavens  he  persists  in  following  his  foi'mer  tracks. 
Otherwise  he  opens  the  hole  and  allows  them  to 

^2  apem  turn  ac  :  apertum  SA. 
12  petit  ac  :  cepit  SA. 



notat,  in  quam  plures  revolent,  et  eas  persequitur, 
donee  ad  latebram  perducatur  examinis. 

Quod  sive  est  abditum  specu,  fumo  elicietur,  et 
cum  erupit,  aeris  strepitu  coercetur.  Nam  statim 
sono  territum  vel  in  frutice  vel  in  editiore  silvae  fronde 
considet,  et  a  vestigatore  praeparato  vase  ^  recon- 

11  ditur.  Sin  autem  sedem  habet  arboris  cavae,  et  aut 
extat  ramus,  quem  obtinent,  aut  sunt  in  ipsius 
arboris  trunco,^  tunc,  si  ^  mediocritas  patitur,  acutis- 
sima  serra,  quo  celerius  id  fiat,  praeciditur  primum 
superior  pars,  quae  ab  apibus  vacat ;  deinde  inferior, 
quatenus  videtur  inhabitari.  Tum  recisus  utraque 
parte  mundo  vestimento  contegitur,  quoniam  hoc 
quoque  plurimum  refert,  ac  si  quibus  rimis  hiat  illitis 
ad  locum  perfertur :  relictisque  *  parvis,  ut  iam  dixi, 
foraminibus,^  more    ceterarum   alvorum  collocatur.^ 

12  Sed  indagatorem  convenit  matutina  tempora  ves- 
tigandi  eligere,  ut  spatium  diei  habeat,  quo  exploret 
commeatus  apium.  Saepe  enim,  si  serius  coepit  eas 
denotare,  etiam  cum  in  propinquo  sunt,  iustis  operum 
peractis  se  recipiunt,  nee  remeant  ad  aquam :  quo 
evenit  ut  vestigator  ignoret,  quam  longe   a  fonte 

*  vase  ac  :  vaso  8 A. 

-  in  ipsius  arboris  trunco  edd.  :    aut  ipsius  truncis  (trucis 
A)  SA  :   aut  ipsius  trunci  c  :   ipsius  trunci  a. 

*  in  eo  sunt  SA  :  si  in  eo  ca. 

*  relictisque  ac  :   relictis  SA. 

*  foraminibus  ac  :   certaminibus  iS  :  certaminis  A. 
"  coUocatur  ac  :  -antur  SA. 

BOOK  IX.  VIII.  10-12 

emerge  one  after  another,  and  marks  the  direction 
in  which  most  of  them  fly  home,  and  pursues 
them  until  he  is  led  to  the  lurking-place  of  the  swarm. 
If  it  is  hidden  in  a  cave,  the  swarm  will  be  driven 
out  with  smoke,  and  when  it  has  sallied  forth,  it  is 
checked  by  the  noise  of  brass  being  beaten ;  for, 
terrified  by  the  sound,  it  will  immediately  settle  on 
a  shrub  or  on  a  higher  kind  of  foliage,  that  of  a  tree, 
and  is  enclosed  in  a  vessel  prepared  for  the  purpose  by 
the  man  who  has  tracked  down  the  bees.  But  if  the  11 
swarm  has  its  home  in  a  hollow  tree  and  either  the 
branch  which  the  bees  occupy  stands  out  from  the 
tree  or  they  are  inside  the  trunk  of  the  tree  itself, 
then,  if  the  small  size  of  the  branch  or  trunk  allows, 
first  the  upper  part,  which  is  empty  of  bees,  is  cut 
thi'ough  with  a  saw  which  should  be  very  sharp  so 
that  the  operation  may  be  more  quickly  carried  out, 
and  then  the  lower  part  so  far  as  it  seems  to  be 
inhabited.  Then,  when  it  has  been  cut  off  at  both 
ends,  it  is  covered  with  a  clean  garment  (for  this  too 
is  very  important),  and  if  there  are  any  gaping  holes," 
they  are  daubed  over,  and  it  is  carried  to  the  place 
where  the  bees  are  kept,  and,  small  holes  being  left 
in  it,  as  I  have  said,  it  is  put  in  position  like  the  rest 
of  the  hives.  The  seai'cher  for  swarms  should  12 
choose  the  morning  for  his  search,  so  that  he  may 
have  the  whole  day  to  spy  out  the  comings  and 
goings  of  the  bees.  For  often,  if  he  is  too  late  in 
beginning  to  observe  them,  when  they  have  finished 
their  usual  tasks,  they  go  home  and  do  not  return  to 
the  water,  even  though  they  are  near  at  hand,  with 
the  result  that  the  man  who  is  searching  for  them 
does  not  know  how  far  away  the  swarm  is  from  the 

"  I.e.  in  the  vessel. 



13  distet  examen.  Sunt  qui  per  initia  veris  apiastrum, 
atque,  ut  ille  vates  ait, 

Trita  melisphylla  et  cerinthae  ignobile  gramen, 

aliasque  colligant  similes  herbas,  quibus  id  genus 
animalium  delectatur,  et  ita  alvos  perfricent,  ut  odor 
et  succus  vasis  inhaereat :  quae  deinde  mundata 
exiguo  melle  respergant,  et  per  nemora  non  longe  a 
fontibus  disponant,  eaque  cum  repleta  sunt  exami- 

14  nibus,  domum  referant.  Sed  hoc  nisi  locis,  quibus 
abundant  apes,  facere  non  expedit.  Nam  saepe  vel 
inania  vasa  nacti,  qui  forte  praetereunt,  secum  au- 
ferunt :  neque  est  tanti  vacua  perdere  complura,  ut 
uno  vel  altero  potiare  ^  pleno.  At  in  maiore  copia, 
etiam  si  multa  ^  intercipiuntur,  plus  est  quod  in  re- 
pertis  apibus  acquiritur.  Atque  haec  est  ratio 
capiendi  silvestria  examina. 

IX.  Deinceps  talis  altera  est  vernacula  retinendi.^ 
Semper  quidem  custos  sedule  circumire  debet  alvea- 
ria.  Neque  enim  ullum  tempus  est,  quo  non  curam 
desiderent ;  sed  cam  postulant  diligentiorem,  cum 
vernant  et  exundant  novis  fetibus,  qui  nisi  curatoris 
obsidio  protinus  excepti  sunt,  difFugiunt.  Quippe  talis 
est  apium  natura,  ut  pariter  quaeque  plebs  generetur 
cum  regibus ;  qui  ubi  evolandi  vires  adepti  sunt, 
consortia  dedignantur  vetustiorum,  multoque  magis 

^  potiare  ac  :   patiore  SA. 
*  si  multa  Sa  :  simulata  Ac. 

'  post  retinendi  add.  quem  ad  modum  vernacula  nova 
examina  observentur  et  in  alvos  condantur  SA  :  om.  ac. 

»  Vorgil,  Oeorg.  IV.  63. 

BOOK  IX.  VIII.  I2-IX.  I 

fountain.     There  are  some  people  who  during  the  13 
early  spring  collect  wild  parsley  and,  in  the  words  of 
the  great  poet, 

Bruised  balm  and  wax-flower's  lowly  greenery," 

and  other  similar  herbs  in  which  this  kind  of  creatures 
takes  delight,  and  rub  the  hives  thoroughly  with 
them,  so  that  the  scent  and  juice  stick  to  them; 
then,  after  cleaning  them,  they  sprinkle  them  with 
a  little  honey  and  place  them  here  and  there  in  the 
woods  not  far  from  the  springs  and,  when  they  are 
full  of  swarms,  they  carry  them  back  home.  It  is  14 
not,  however,  expedient  to  do  this  except  in  places 
where  there  is  an  abundance  of  bees,  because  it  often 
happens  that  chance  passers-by,  finding  the  hives 
empty,  carry  them  off  with  them,  nor  is  the  possession 
cf  one  or  two  full  of  bees  enough  to  compensate  for 
the  loss  of  several  empty  hives.  But  where  bees  are 
more  plentiful,  even  if  many  hives  are  carried  off, 
their  loss  is  made  up  by  the  bees  which  are  obtained. 
Such  is  the  method  of  catching  wild  swarms  of  bees. 

IX.  Next  there  is  another  method  of  retaining  the  The  treat- 
swarms    produced    from    our    own    apiaries.     The  bred  in  the^^ 
keeper  ought  always  diligently  to  go  round  the  hives,  ^^P*' 
for  there  is  no  time  when  they  do  not  need  his  care 
but  they  demand  still  more  careful  attention  when 
the  bees  feel  the  approach  of  spring  and  the  hives 
overflow  with  new  offspring,  which,  unless  they  are 
promptly  intercepted  by  the  constant  watchfulness 
of  the  keeper,  fly  off  in  different  directions.     For  such 
is  the  nature  of  bees  that  each  brood  of  ordinary  bees 
is  generated  together  with  its  king  and,  when  they 
have   acquired  enough  strength  to  fly  away,  they 
despise  the  society  of  their  elders  and  even  more  the 




imperia  :   quippe  cum  rationabili  generi  ^  mortalium, 
turn  magis  egentibus  consilii  mutis  ^  animalibus,  nulla 

2  sit  regni  societas.  Itaque  novi  duces  procedunt  cum 
sua  iuventute,  quae  uno  aut  altero  die  in  ipso  domi- 
cilii vestibulo  glomerata  consistens,  egressu  suo 
propriae  desiderium  sedis  ostendit ;  eaque  tanquam  ^ 
patria  contenta  est,  si  a  procuratore  *  protinus 
assignetur.     Sin  autem  defuit  custos,  velut  iniuria 

3  repulsa  ^  peregrinam  regionem  petit.  Quod  ne  fiat, 
boni  curatoris  est  vernis  temporibus  observare  ® 
alvos  '  in  octavam  fere  diei  horam,  post  quam  ^  non 
temere  se  nova  proripiunt  agmina ;  ^  eorumque^" 
egressus  diligenter  custodiat.  Nam  quaedam  solent, 
cum  subito  evaserunt,  sine  cunctatione  se  proripere. 

4  Poterit  exploratam  fugam  praesciscere  vespertinis 
temporibus  aurem  singulis  alveis  admovendo.  Si- 
quidem  fere  ante  triduum,  quam  eruptionem  facturae 
sint,  velut  militaria  ^^  signa  moventium  tumultus  ac 
murmur  exoritur :  ex  quo,  ut  verissime  dicit  Ver- 

Corda  licet  vulgi  praesciscere  namque  morantes 
Martius  ille  aeris  rauci  canor  increpat,^^  gt  vox 
Auditur  fractos  sonitus  imitata  tubarum. 

^  genere  SAac. 

*  mutis  ac  :  muti  S  :  multa  A. 
'  tanquam  SA  :  velut  ac. 

*  procurator  S  :   procurator!  A  :   procurati  c. 

*  repulsa  c  :  -am  SAa,. 
^  observari  SA  :  -e  ac. 
'  alveos  ac  :    alvis  SA. 

*  postquam  horam  SAac. 

*  agmina  ac  :   -e  SA. 


BOOK  IX.  IX.  1-4 

orders  which  they  give  ;  for  as  the  human  race,  which 
possesses  reason,  allows  no  partnership  of  the  kingly 
power,  much  less  do  the  dumb  animals  who  are  lack- 
ing in  understanding.  Therefore  the  new  chieftains  2 
come  forth  with  their  following  of  young  bees,  which, 
remaining  in  a  mass  for  one  or  two  days  at  the  very 
entrance  of  their  abode,  by  their  coming  out  show 
their  desire  for  a  home  of  their  own,  and  if  the  man  in 
charge  immediately  assigns  it  to  them,  are  as  content 
with  it  as  if  it  were  their  native  place.  If,  however, 
the  keeper  has  been  away, they  make  for  some  strange 
region  as  if  they  had  been  driven  away  unjustly.  To  3 
prevent  this,  it  is  the  duty  of  a  good  overseer  in 
spring-time  to  keep  an  eye  upon  the  hives  until  about 
the  eighth  hour  of  the  day  (after  which  the  new 
battalions  of  bees  do  not  take  to  impetuous  flight), 
and  carefully  watch  their  departures,  for  some  of  them, 
when  they  have  broken  out,  usually  immediately  rush 
away.  He  will  be  able  to  find  out  beforehand  their  4 
decision  to  escape  by  putting  his  ear  to  each  of  the 
hives  in  the  evening ;  for  about  three  days  before 
they  intend  to  break  out  an  uproar  and  buzzing  arises 
like  that  of  an  army  setting  out  on  the  march.  From 
this,  as  Vergil  very  truly  says. 

You  can  foreknow  the  purpose  of  the  herd ; 
The  martial  roar  of  the  hoarse  brass  reproves 
The  loiterers,  and  a  voice  is  heard  whose  notes 
The  broken  sound  of  trumpets  imitates." 

"  Oeorg.  IV.  70  ff. 

^^  eoque  ut  eorumque  egressus  c  :    eoque  regressus  8A  : 
eorumque  egressus  eoque  regressus  a. 
11  mili taria  iS^ac  :  milia^SM. 
1*  increpat  ac  :   invocat  SA. 



5  Itaque  maxime  observari  debent,  quae  istud 
faciunt,  ut  sive  ad  pugnam  eruperint,  nam  inter  se 
tanquam  civilibus  bellis,  et  cum  alteris  quasi  cum 
exteris  gentibus  proeliantur,  sive  fugae  causa  se 
proripuerint,  praesto  sit  ad  utrumque  casum  paratus  ^ 

6  custos.  Pugna  quidem  vel  unius  inter  se  dissidentis 
vel  duorum  examinum  discordantium  facile  compesci- 
tur  :  nam  ut  idem  ait, 

Pulveris  exigui  iactu  compressa  quiescit : 

aut  aqua  mulsea  ^  passove,  aut  aliquo  liquore  simili^ 
respersa,'*  videlicet  familiari  dulcedine  saevientium 
iras  mitigante.  Nam  eadem  mire  etiam  dissidentes 
reges  conciliant.  Sunt  enim  saepe  plures  unius 
populi  duces,  et  quasi  procerum  seditione  plebs  in 
partes  diducitur :  quod  frequenter  fieri  prohibendum 
est,    quoniam    intestine    bello    totae    gentes    consu- 

7  muntur.  Itaque  si  constat  principibus  gratia,  manet  ^ 
pax  incruenta.  Sin  autem  saepius  acie  dimicantes 
notaveris,  duces  seditionum  interficere  curabis : 
dimicantium  vero  proelia  praedictis  remediis  se- 
dantur.  Ac  deinde  cum  agmen  glomeratum  in 
proximo  frondentis  arbusculae  ramo  consederit, 
animadvertito,  an  totum  examen  in  speciem  unius 
uvae  dependeat :  idque  signum  erit  aut  unum  regem 

^  paratus  Sac  :  -os  A. 

^  aqua  mulsea  SA  :   aqua  mulsa  a  :   aut  mulsa  c  :   mulso 

'  simili  ac  :  simplici  SA. 

*  respersa  SA  :   -am  ac. 

*  maneat  SAac. 

«  Georg.  IV.  87. 

BOOK  IX.  IX.  5-7 

The  bees,  therefore,  which  behave  like  this  ought  5 
especially  to  be  kept  under  obsei-vation,  so  that, 
whether  they  sally  forth  to  battle  (for  they  wage  a 
kind  of  civil  war  amongst  themselves  and  as  it  were 
foreign  wars  with  other  swarms)  or  break  out  in  order 
to  escape,  the  keeper  may  be  at  hand,  ready  for  either 
event.  Fighting  either  of  the  bees  of  one  swarm  6 
quarrelling  amongst  themselves  or  of  two  swarms  at 
variance  with  one  another  is  easily  quelled;  for,  as 
the  same  poet  says, 

By  casting  of  a  little  dust  the  strife 
Is  stayed  and  laid  to  rest," 

or  else  by  sprinkling  over  them  honey-water  or 
raisin-wine  or  some  similar  liquid,  that  is  to  say  the 
sweet  taste  of  things  familiar  to  them,  abates  their 
wrath.  The  same  expedients  too  are  wonderfully 
efficacious  for  reconciling  king-bees  when  they  are 
at  enmity  ;  for  there  are  often  several  leaders  of  one 
people,  and  the  common  herd  is  as  it  were  divided 
into  factions  by  the  quarrels  of  its  chiefs.  This  must 
be  prevented  from  happening  often,  since  whole 
nations  are  destroyed  by  civil  war.  And  so,  if  good  7 
feeling  exists  between  the  princes,  peace  continues 
and  no  blood  is  shed.  If,  however,  you  have  often 
noticed  them  fighting  a  pitched  battle,  you  will  take 
care  to  put  to  death  the  leaders  of  the  factions ;  but 
when  they  are  actually  fighting,  their  battles  can  be 
calmed  by  the  above-mentioned  remedies.  Next, 
when  a  host  of  bees  has  settled  in  a  mass  on  the 
neighbouring  branch  of  a  leafy  shrub,  you  should 
take  notice  whether  the  whole  swarm  hangs  down 
in  the  form  of  a  single  bunch  of  grapes.  This  will 
be  a  sign  either  that  there  is  only  one  king-bee  in  it 



inesse,  aut  certe  plures  bona  fide  reconciliatos ;  quos 
sici  patieris,2  dum  in  suum  revolent  ^  domicilium. 
8  Sin  autem  duobus  aut  etiam  compluribus  velut  uberi- 
bus  diductum  *  fuerit  examen,  ne  dubitaveris  et 
plures  proceres  et  adhuc  iratos  esse.  Atque  in  iis 
partibus,  quibus  maxime  videris  apes  glomerari, 
requirere  duces  debebis.  Itaque  succo  praedicta- 
rum  herbarum,  id  est,  melissophylli  vel  apiastri  manu 
illita,  ne  ad  tactum  diffugiant,  leviter  inseres  digitos, 
et  diductas  apes  scrutaberis,  donee  auctorem  pugnae 

X.  Sunt  autem  hi  reges  maiores  paulo  et  oblongi 
magis  quam  ceterae  apes,  rectioribus  cruribus,  sed 
minus  amplis  pinnis,  pulchri  coloris  et  nitidi,  levesque 
ac  sine  pile,  sine  spicule,  nisi  quis  forte  pleniorem 
quasi  capillum,  quem  in  ventre  gerunt,  aculeum 
putat,  quo  et  ipso  tamen  ad  nocendum  non  utuntur. 
Quidam  etiam  infusci  atque  hirsuti  reperiuntur, 
quorum  pro  habitu  damnabis  ingenium. 

2      Nam  duo  sunt  regum  facies,  ita  corpora  plebis. 
Alter  erit  maculis  auro  squalentibus  ardens 

insignis  et  ore 
Et  rutilis  clarus  squamis. 

^  quos  sic  om.  SAac. 

*  patieris  a  :   paterisque  SA  :   petierunt(?)  c. 
'  revolet  SAac. 

*  deductum  ac  :  ductum  SA. 


BOOK  IX.  IX.  7-x.  2 

or,  at  any  rate,  that,  if  there  are  several,  they  are 
reconciled  and  on  good  terms  with  one  another,  in 
which  case  you  will  leave  them  as  they  are  until  they 
fly  back  to  their  abode.  If,  however,  the  swarm  is  8 
divided  into  two  or  even  more  clusters,  you  need 
have  no  doubt  that  there  are  several  chiefs  and  that 
they  are  still  in  an  angry  mood,  and  you  will  have  to 
search  for  the  leaders  in  the  parts  of  the  clusters 
where  you  see  the  bees  most  closely  massed  to- 
gether. Having,  then,  smeared  your  hand  with 
the  juice  of  the  herbs  already  named,  that  is, 
balm  and  wild  parsley,  lest  they  fly  away  at 
your  touch,  you  will  gently  insert  your  fingers 
and,  after  separating  the  bees  from  one  another, 
you  will  search  until  you  find  the  author  of  the 

X.  Now  the  king-bees  are  slightly  larger  and  more  The  king 
oblong  in  shape  than  the  other  bees,  with  straighter  ^^' 
legs  but  less  ample  wings,  of  a  beautiful  shining  colour 
and  smooth,  without  any  hair,  and  stingless,  unless  one 
regards  as  such  the  coarser  hair-like  object  growing 
on  their  belly,  of  which,  however,  they  do  not  make 
use  to  inflict  a  hurt.  Some,  too,  are  found  of  a  dusky 
colour  and  hairy,  of  whose  disposition  you  will  form 
an  unfavourable  opinion  judging  from  their  bodily 

As  two-fold  are  the  features  of  the  kings,  2 

So  are  the  bodies  of  their  subjects;  one 

Will  gleam  with  markings  rough  with  gold,  and 

With  ruddy  scales,  and  of  a  comely  mien." 

"  Parts  of  Vergil,  Oeorg.  IV.  91-7. 



Atque  hie  maxime  probatur,  qui  est  melior :    nam 
deterior,  sordido  sputo  similis,  tarn  foedus  est, 
quam  pulvere  ab  alto 
Cum  venit  et  sicco  terram  spuit  ore  viator, 

Et,  ut  idem  ait, 

Desidia  latamque  trahens  inglorius  alvum. 
Omnes  igitur  duces  notae  deterioris 

Dede  neci,  melior  vacua  sine  regnet  in  aula. 

3  Qui  tamen  et  ipse  spoliandus  est  alis,  ubi  saepius 
cum  examine  suo  conatur  eruptione  facta  profugere. 
Nam  velut  quadam  compede  retinebimus  erronem 
ducem  detractis  alis,  qui  fugae  destitutus  praesidio, 
finem  regni  non  audet  excedere,  propter  quod  ne 
ditionis  quidem  suae  populo  permittit  longius  evagari. 
XI.  Sed  nonnunquam  idem  necandus  est,  cum 
Vetus  alveare  numero  apium  destituitur,  atque  in- 
frequentia  eius  alio  ^  examine  ^  replenda  est. 
Itaque  cum  primo  vere  in  eo  vase  nata  est  pullities, 
novus  rex  eliditur  ^  ut  multitudo  sine  discordia  cum 
parentibus  suis  conversetur.  Quod  si  nuUam  pro- 
geniem  tulerint  favi,  duas  *  vel  tres  alvorum  plebes 

"  in  unum  contribuere  licebit,  sed  prius  respersas  dulci 
Hquore :   tum  demum  includere,  et  posito  cibo,  dum 

^  alio  scripsi  :  aliquo  codd. 
^  examine  ac  :   -a  SA. 
^  eligitur  SAac. 
*  duas  ac  :   dius  SA. 


Book  ix.  x.  2-xi.  t 

That  is  why  this  one  is  especially  approved,  being  super- 
ior ;  for  the  inferior  kind,  like  dirty  spittle,  is  as  foul  as 

The  wayfarer  who  comes  from  depth  of  dust 
And  from  his  parched  mouth  the  dirt  spits  forth :  <* 

And  as  the  same  writer  says, 

With  sloth  inglorious  his  wide  paunch  he  drags.* 

Therefore  all  the  leaders  of  the  baser  kind 

Give  them  to  death,  and  let  the  better  prince 
Rule  in  the  empty  hall." 

Nevertheless  he  too  must  be  despoiled  of  his  wings,  3 
when  he  oft-times  attempts  to  break  out  with  his 
swarm  and  fly  away  ;  for,  if  we  strip  him  of  his  wings, 
we  shall  keep  the  vagrant  chieftain  as  though  in 
fetters  chained,  who,  deprived  of  the  resource  of 
flight,  ventures  not  to  leave  the  confines  of  his  realm 
and,  for  this  reason,  does  not  allow  even  the  people 
under  his  sway  to  wander  further  than  he  is  able. 

XI.  But  sometimes  the  king-bee  has  to  be  put  to  How  to 
death  when  an  old  hive  falls  short  of  its  proper  com-  proper  Mm 
plement  of  bees,  and  its  want  of  numbers  must  be  pi'-m^nt  of 
made  up  from  another  swarm.     Therefore,  when  in 
the  early  spring  a  young  brood  is  born  in  the  hive, 
the  new  king-bee  is  squeezed  to  death,  so  that  the 
multitude  of  bees  may  live  with  their  parents  without 
discord.     But  if  the  combs  have  produced  no  offspring, 
it  will  be  open  to  you  to  bring  together  the  population 
of  two  or  three  hives  into  one,  but  only  after  they 
have  been  sprinkled  with  sweet  liquid ;  then  you  can 
shut  them  up  and,  after  placing  food  for  them,  keep 

•  Parts  of  Vergil,  Oeorg.  IV.  96  f. 
*  lb.  94.  «  lb.  90. 



conversari   consuescant,  exiguis   spiramentis   relictis 

2  triduo  fere  clausas  habere.  Sunt  qui  seniorem  potius 
regem  submoveant,  quod  est  contrarium  :  quippe  tur- 
ba  vetustior,  velut  quidam  senatus,  minoribus  parere 
non  censent,  atque  imperia  validiorum  contumaciter 

3  spernendo  ^  poenis  ac  mortibus  afficiuntur.^  IIU 
quidem  incommodo,  quod  iuniori  ^  examini  solet 
accidere,  cum  antiquarum  apium  relictus  a  nobis  rex 
senectute  defecit,  et  tanquam  domino  mortuo  familia 
nimia  licentia  discordat,  facile  occurritur.  Nam  ex 
iis  alvis,  quae  plures  habent  principes,  dux  unus 
eligitur:  isque  translatus  ad  eas,  quae  sine  imperio 
sunt,  rector  constituitur. 

Potest  autem  minore  molestia   in    iis    domiciliis, 
quae    aliqua    peste   vexata    sunt,   paucitas    apium 

4  emendari.  Nam  ubi  cognita  est  clades  frequentis 
alvi,  si  quos  habet  favos,  oportet  considerare :  turn 
deinde  cerae  eius  quae  semina  pullorum  continet, 
partem  recidere,  in  qua  regii  generis  proles  animatur. 
Est  autem  facilis  conspectu,  quoniam  fere  in  ipso 
fine  cerarum  velut  papilla  uberis  apparet  eminentior 
et   laxioris    fistulae  *   quam    sunt   reliqua   foramina, 

6  quibus  popularis  notae  pulli  detinentur.  Celsus 
quidem  ^  affirmat  in  extremis  favis  transversas  fistulas 
esse,  quae  contineant  regios  pullos.  Hyginus  quo- 
que  auctoritatem  Graecorum  sequens  ncgat  ex 
vermiculo,*  ut  ceteras  apes,  fieri  ducem,  sed  in 
circuitu  favorum  paulo  maiora,  quam  sunt  plebeii 

^  spernendo  SAa  :  -os  c. 

*  afficiuntur  c  :   afficitur  SA  :   afBciunt  a, 
'  iuveniori  SA  :   iuniori  a^;. 

*  apparet  eminentior  et  laxioris  ac  :   om.  SA. 
^  quidem  ac  :   quae  quidam  SA. 

*  vermiculo  Oesner  :  vernaculo  SAac. 


BOOK  IX.  XI.  1-5 

them  enclosed  for  about  three  daySj  leaving  only 
small  breathing-holes,  until  they  are  accustomed  to 
live  together.  There  are  some  people  who  prefer  2 
to  get  rid  of  a  king-bee  that  is  old,  but  this  is  harmful ; 
for  the  crowd  of  older  bees,  who  form  a  kind  of  senate, 
do  not  think  fit  to  obey  the  juniors  and,  through 
obstinately  despising  the  orders  of  those  who  are 
stronger  than  themselves,  are  visited  with  punish- 
ment and  death.  The  trouble,  indeed,  which  usually  3 
befalls  a  younger  swarm,  when  the  king  of  the  old 
bees  whom  we  have  left  in  power  has  failed  through  old 
age  and  wild  discord  arises  through  lack  of  control  (just 
as  happens  in  a  family  when  its  head  dies),  can  easily 
be  met.  For  one  leader  is  chosen  from  those  hives 
which  have  several  chiefs  and  is  transferred  to  those 
which  have  no  one  to  govern  them,  and  set  up  as  ruler. 
In  those  quarters  which  are  afflicted  by  some  pesti- 
lence the  lack  of  bees  can  be  remedied  with  less 
trouble ;  for  when  the  disaster  to  the  crowded  hive  4 
is  recognized,  you  must  examine  any  combs  which  it 
contains.  You  must  then  next  cut  away,  from  the  wax 
which  holds  the  seeds,  that  part  in  which  the  offspring 
of  the  kingly  race  comes  to  life.  It  is  easy  to  see  this, 
since  almost  at  the  very  end  of  the  wax  there  appears 
as  it  were  the  nipple  of  a  breast  projecting  some- 
what and  with  a  wider  cavity  than  the  rest  of  the 
holes,  in  which  the  young  bees  of  the  common  kind 
are  enclosed.  Celsus  indeed  declares  that  there  are  5 
transverse  cavities  in  the  outermost  combs  which 
contain  the  royal  progeny.  Hyginus,  too,  following 
the  authority  of  the  Greeks,  says  that  the  ruler  is  not 
formed,  like  the  rest  of  the  bees,  from  a  small  worm, 
but  that,  on  the  circumference  of  the  combs,  straight 
holes  are  to  be  found  somewhat  larger  than  those 



seminis,  inveniri  recta  foramina  repleta  quasi  sorde 
rubri  coloris,  ex  qua  protinus  alatus  rex  figuretur. 

XII.  Est  et  ilia  vernaculi  examinis  cura,  si  forte 
praedicto  tempore  facta  eruptione  ^  patriam  2  fasti- 
diens^  sedem  longiorem  fugam  denuntiavit.  Id 
autem  significat,  cum  sic  apis  evadit  vestibulum,  ut 
nulla  intra  revolet,  sed  se  confestim  levet  sublimius. 

2  Crepitaculis  aeris  *  aut  testarum  plerumque  vulgo 
iacentium  terreatur  fugiens  iuventus :  eaque  vel 
pavida  cum  repetierit  alvum  maternam,  et  in  eius 
aditu  glomerata  pependerit,  vel  statim  se  ad  proxi- 
mam  frondem  contulerit,  protinus  custos  novum 
loculamentum  in  hoc  praeparatum  perlinat  intrin- 
secus  praedictis  herbis :  deinde  guttis  mellis  resper- 
sum  admoveat :    tum  manibus,  aut  etiam  trulla  con- 

3  gregatas  apes  recondat :  atque,  uti  debet,  adhibita 
cetera  cura,  diligenter  compositum  et  illitum  vas 
interim  patiatur  in  eodem  loco  esse,  dum  advespe- 
rascat.     Primo  deinde  crepusculo  transferat,  et  re- 

4  ponat  in  ordinem  reliquarum  alvorum.  Oportet 
autem  etiam  vacua  domicilia  collocata  in  apiariis 
habere.  Nam  sunt  nonnulla  examina,  quae  cum 
processerint,^  statim  sedem  sibi  quaerant  in  proximo, 
eamque  ^  occupent  quam  vacantem  reperiunt.  Haec 
fere  acquirendarum,  atque  etiam  retinendarum 
apium  traditur  cura. 

^  eruptione  ac  :   -em  SA. 
*  patriam  ac  :   -ae  SA. 
^  post  fastidiens  add.  sedens  SA. 
aeris  c  :   eris  SA  :   aereis  a. 


aeiis  c  :    ens  oj±  :    aereis  a. 

*  processerint  A  :   -unt  Sac. 

•  eaque  SA  :  eandemque  a  :  eadcmque 

BOOK  IX.  XI.  5-xii.  4 

which  hold  the  bees  of  common  birth,  filled  with  a 
kind  of  dirt  of  a  red  colour  from  which  the  winged 
king-bee  is  immediately  formed. 

XII.  Care  must  also  be  taken  of  the  home-bred  How  to 
swarm,  if  by  chance,  taking  a  dislike  to  their  paternal  swarm^and 
abode,  they  break  forth  at  the  time  already  mentioned  prevent  it3 
and  announce  their  intention  of  taking  a  more  distant 
flight.  This  the  swarm  intimates  when  the  bees  so 
completely  avoid  the  entrance  to  the  hive  that  not 
a  single  one  flies  back  again  into  it,  but  immediately 
rises  high  into  the  sky.  The  young  bees  who  are  2 
escaping  should  be  frightened  by  the  rattling  of  brass 
or  potsherds,  which  are  usually  to  be  found  lying 
about ;  and  when  in  their  alarm  they  have  returned 
to  the  maternal  hive  and  hang  in  a  mass  at  the 
entrance  to  it  or  betake  themselves  immediately  to 
the  nearest  foliage,  the  keeper  should  immediately 
besmear  the  inside  of  a  new  receptacle  prepared  for 
the  purpose  with  the  herbs  mentioned  above,  and 
then,  after  sprinkling  it  with  drops  of  honey,  bring  it 
near  and  gather  the  mass  of  bees  together  with  his 
hands  or  with  a  scoop ;  and,  after  taking  every  3 
proper  precaution,  he  should  let  the  hive,  after  it 
has  been  carefully  adjusted  and  besmeared  inside, 
remain  in  the  same  place  until  evening  begins  to  fall. 
Then  at  first  twilight  he  should  remove  it  and  replace 
it  in  a  row  with  the  other  hives.  But  you  should  also  4 
have  empty  hives  placed  in  the  apiary ;  for  there  are 
some  swarms  which,  as  soon  as  they  have  come  forth, 
immediately  seek  a  home  for  themselves  nearby 
and  occupy  one  which  they  find  empty.  You  now  have 
a  practically  complete  account  of  the  measures  to  be 
taken  for  acquiring  bees  and  keeping  them  in  your 



XIII.  Sequitur  ut  morbo  vel  pestilentia  laboranti- 
bus  remedia  desiderentur.  Pestilentiae  rara  in 
apibus  pernicies,  nee  tamen  aliud,  quam  quod  in 
cetero  peeore  praeeepimus,  quid  fieri  possit  ^  reperio, 
nisi  ut  longius  alvi  transferantur,  Morborum  autem 
facilius  et  causae  dispiciuntur,  et  inveniuntur  medi- 

2  cinae.  Maximus  autem  annuus  ^  earum  labor  est 
initio  veris,  quo  tithymali  floret  frutex,  et  quo  ^ 
amara  ulmi  semina  sua  promunt.  Nam  quasi  novis 
pomis,  ita  his  primitivis  floribus  illectae  avide  vescun- 
tur  post  hibernam  famem,  alioqui  *  citra  satietatem  ^ 
tali  non  ^  nocente  cibo  :  quo  "^  cum  se  afFatim  repleve- 
runt,  profluvio  alvi,  nisi  celeriter  succurritur,  intere- 
unt.  Nam  et  tithymalus  maiorum  quoque  anima- 
lium  ventrem  solvit,  et  proprie  ulmus  apium.  Eaque 
causa  est,  cur  in  regionibus  Italiae,^  quae  sunt  eius 
generis  ^  arboribus  consitae,  raro  frequentes  durent 

3  apes.  Itaque  veris  principio  si  medicates  cibos 
praebeas,  iisdem  remediis  et  provideri  ^^  potest,  ne 
tali  peste  vexentur,  et  cum  iam  laborant,  sanari. 
Nam  illud  quod  Hyginus  antiquos  secutus  auctores 
prodidit,  ipse  non  expertus  asseverare  non  audeo :  ^^ 

4  volentibus  tamen  licebit  experiri,     Siquidem  prae- 

^  possit  Sac  :   potest  A. 

*  maximus  autem  annuus  Schneider :  maximumque  vel 
minimum  annuus  S  :   maximusque  vel  minimus  annuus  Aa. 

'  et  quo  (quos  a)  amara  ulmi  ac  :    quo  samaras  ulmis  iS'^. 

*  alioqui  SA  :  alioquin  ac.     *  sacietatem  S  :  satietatem  Aac. 

*  non  om.  SAac.  '  quo  om.  SAac. 

*  in  regionibus  Italiae  ac  :   in  geniobus;  taliae  SA. 

*  generis  SAac.  ^^  provideri  ac  :   -ere  SA, 
*  ^  audeo  SA  :   audet  ac. 

'  Minor  troubles,  distinct  from  pestilentia,  which  is  what  is 
now  called  '  bee-pest '  or  '  foul  brood.' 

*  Now  called  '  dysentery.' 


BOOK  IX.  XIII.  1-4 

XIII.  The  next  thing  is  that  remedies  are  needed  for  Kemodies 
those  which  are  suffering  from  disease  or  pestilence,  diseases  of 
The  ruinous  disease  of  pestilence  '  is  rare  in  bees,  nor  '''^®^- 
can  I  find  anything  which  ought  to  be  done  other 
than  what  we  have  prescribed  in  the  case  of  the  other 
animals  (except  that  the  hives  should  be  moved 
far  away)  ;  but  the  causes  of  common  ailments  "  in 
bees  are  more  easily  diagnosed  and  remedies  found 
for  them.  The  most  serious  is  their  annual  distemper  2 
at  the  beginning  of  spring,  Avhen  the  spurge-bush 
flowers  and  the  elms  put  forth  their  bitter  blossoms  ;  for 
as  by  fresh  apples,  so  are  they  allured  by  these  early 
flowers  and  eat  greedily  of  them  after  their  winter 
hunger,  such  food  not  being  hurtful  when  not  eaten 
beyond  satiety,  but  when  they  have  gorged  them- 
selves abundantly  with  it,  they  die  from  a  flux  of  the 
belly,  unless  help  is  quickly  given.  For  spurge 
produces  looseness  of  the  bowels  in  the  larger 
animals  also,  but  elm  has  this  effect  particularly  on 
bees.  This  is  the  reason  why  bees  rarely  continue 
numerous  in  the  districts  of  Italy  which  are  planted 
with  trees  of  this  kind.  And  so  at  the  beginning  of  3 
spring,  if  you  supply  them  with  medicated  food,  by 
means  of  the  same  remedies  it  is  possible  both  to 
provide  against  their  being  troubled  by  plague  * 
of  this  kind  and  also  to  cure  them  when  they  are 
already  suffering  from  it.  Now  I  myself  do  not 
venture  to  insist  on  the  treatment  which  Hyginus, 
following  ancient  authorities,  has  recorded,  since  I  have 
not  tried  it ;  but  it  is  open  to  those  who  wish  to  do  so 
to  test  it.  For  his  instructions  are  :  when  a  plague  of  4 
this  kind  has  attacked  the  bees,  and  the  bodies  are 
found  for  dead  in  heaps  under  the  honeycombs,  lay 
them  aside  in  a  dry  place  through  the  winter,  and,  at 



cipit  apium  corpora,  quae  cum  eiusmodi  pestis  in- 
cessit,  sub  favis  acervatim  enectae  ^  reperiuntur, 
sicco  loco  per  hiemem  reposita  circa  aequinoctium 
vernum,  cum  dementia  diei  suaserit,  post  horam 
tertiam  in  solem  proferre,  ficulneoque  cinere  obruere. 
Quo  2  facto,  affirmat  intra  duas  horas  cum  vivido 
halitu   caloris    animatae   sunt,   resumpto   spiritu,   si 

5  praeparatum  vas  obiciatur,  irrepere,  Nos  magis  ne 
intereant,  quae  deinceps  dicturi  sumus,  aegris  ex- 
amiinibus  exhibenda  ^  censemus.  Nam  vel  grana 
mali  Punici  ^  tunsa  et  vino  Amineo  conspersa,^  vel 
uvae  passae  cum  rore  Syriaco  ^  pari  mensura '' 
pinsitae  et  austero  vino  insuccatae  ^  dari  debent : 
vel  si  per  se  ista  frustrata  sunt,  omnia  eadem  acquis 
ponderibus  in  unum  levigata,  et  fictili  vase  cum 
Amineo   vino   infervefacta,   mox    etiam   refrigerata, 

6  ligneis  canalibus  apponi.  Nonnulli  rorem  ^  marinum 
aqua  mulsa  decoctum,  cum  gelaverit,  imbricibus 
infusum  praebent  libandum.  Quidam  bubulam  vel 
hominis  urinam,  sicut  Hyginus  affirmat,  alvis  appo- 

7  nunt.  Nee  non  etiam  ille  morbus  maxime  est  con- 
spicuus,  qui  horridas  contractasqiie  carpit,  cum  fre- 
quenter aliae  mortuarum  corpora^**  domiciliis  efferunt, 
aliae  intra  tecta,  ut  in  publico  luctu,  maesto  silentio 
torpent.     Id  cum  accidit,  arundineis  infusi  canalibus 

'  enectae  Aac  :   -r  S.  *  qui  SA  :   quo  ac. 

^  ad  exhibenda  SAac.  *  Punici  ac  :   -a  SA. 

^  consparsam  SA  :   consparsa  a  :   conspersa  c. 

*  sutorio  SAac.  '  mensura  SAac. 

*  insucatae  ac  :  inaucae  SA. 

*  ros  ac  :   roboro  SA. 
^°  corpora  ac  :   -is  SA. 


BOOK  IX.  xiii.  4-7 

about  the  time  of  the  spring  equinox,  when  the  mild- 
ness of  the  day  invites  us,  bring  them  out  into  the 
sunshine,  after  the  third  hour,  and  cover  them  with 
fig-wood  ashes.  If  this  is  done,  he  declares 
that  within  two  hours,  brought  to  life  by  the 
quickening  breath  of  the  heat,  they  begin  to 
breathe  again  and  crawl  into  a  vessel  provided 
for  this  purpose,  if  it  is  placed  in  their  way.  We  5 
rather,  that  they  may  not  perish,  are  of  opinion 
that  the  diet,  which  we  will  forthwith  describe,  should 
be  put  before  the  swarms  when  they  are  sick.  For 
they  ought  to  be  given  either  seeds  of  pomegranate, 
bruised  and  sprinkled  with  Aminean  *  wine,  or 
raisins  with  an  equal  quantity  of  Syrian  sumach  ^ 
and  soaked  in  rough  wine ;  or,  if  these  are 
without  effect  taken  separately,  all  the  same  in- 
gredients should  be  pounded  in  equal  quantities  into 
a  single  mass  and  boiled  in  an  earthenware  vessel  with 
Aminean  wine  and  then  allowed  to  cool  right  away 
and  placed  before  the  bees  in  wooden  troughs.  Some  6 
people  boil  rosemary  in  honey-water  and,  when  it 
has  cooled,  pour  it  into  troughs  and  give  it  to  the 
bees  to  sip.  Others  put  the  urine  either  of  oxen  or 
of  human  beings  near  the  hives,  as  Hyginus  declares. 
Moreover  also,  that  disease  is  particularly  remarkable  7 
which  makes  them  hideous  and  shrunken  and  consumes 
them,  when  some  often  carry  out  from  their  abodes 
the  bodies  of  those  which  have  died,  while  others 
remain  listless  within  their  dwellings  in  sad  silence, 
as  though  in  time  of  public  mourning.     When  this 

"  From  a  district  of  Picenum  (Vergil,  Oeorg.  II.  97). 

*  Ros  or,  more  correctly,  rJms  Syriacvs  is  said  by  Pliny, 
N.H.  XIII.  §  55,  to  be  used  as  a  drug,  which  shows  that 
Syriacus  is  the  right  reading  here. 



offeruntur  cibi,  maxime  dococti  mellis,  et  cum  galla  ^ 
vel  arida  rosa  detriti.  Galbanum  etiam,  ut  eius 
odore    medicentur,    incendi    convenit,    passoque     et 

8  defruto  vetere  fessas  sustinere.  Optima  tamen  facit 
amelli  radix,  cuius  est  frutex  luteus  purpureus  flos : 
ea  cum  vetere  Amineo  vino  decocta  exprimitur,  et 
ita  liquatus  eius  succus  datur.  Hyginus  quidem  in 
eo  libro,  quern  de  apibus  scripsit,  Aristomachus, 
inquit,  hoc  modo  succurrendum  laborantibus  ex- 
istimat :  primum,  ut  omnes  vitiosi  favi  tollantur,  et 
cibus  ex  ^  integro  recens  ponatur ;   deinde  ut   fumi- 

9  gentur.  Prodesse  etiam  putat  apibus  vetustate 
corruptis  examen  novem  contribuere,  quamvis  peri- 
culosum  sit,  ne  seditione  consumantur,  verumtamen 
adiecta  multitudine  laetaturas.^  Sed  ut  Concordes 
maneant,  earum  apium,  quae  ex  alio  domicilio  trans- 
feruntur,  quasi  peregrinae  plebis  ^  submoveri  reges  ^ 
debent.®  Nee  tamen  dubium,  quin  frequentissimorura 
examinum  favi,  qui  iam  maturos  habent  pullos, 
transferri,  et  subici  paucioribus  debeant,  ut  tanquam 

10  novae  prolis  adoptione  domicilia  confirmentur.  Sed 
et  id  '  cum  fiet.  animadvertendum  est,  ut  eos  favos 
subiciamus,  quorum  pulli  iam  sedes  suas  adaperiunt, 

1  galla  ac  :  galle  SA. 

-  cuius  et  SA  :  cibus  ex  a  :  om.  c. 

'  laetaturas  scrijpsi  :   laetatura  Aac  :  letatur  8. 

*  plebis  ac  :   plebes  SA. 
^  reges  ac  :  regi  SA. 

*  debent  SA  :   dobere  ac. 

'  et  id  a  :  sed  id  c  :  sedsitiS'x4. 

"  See  note  on  p.  260. 

*  Of  Soli  in  Cyprus,  who,  •with  Philiscus  of  Thasos,  wrote  a 
book  on  bees  (Pliny,  N.H.  XI.  §  9), 

BOOK  IX.  XIII.  7-10 

happens  food  is  offered  them  poured  into  troughs 
made  of  reeds,  especially  boiled  honey  pounded  up 
with  an  oak-apple  or  a  dried  rose.  It  is  also  a  good  8 
plan  to  burn  galbanum,°'  that  they  may  be  cured  by 
its  odour,  and  to  keep  up  their  strength,  when  they 
are  exhausted,  with  raisin-wine  and  boiled-down 
must.  The  root  of  the  starwort,  the  bushy  part  of 
which  is  yellow  and  its  flower  purple,  has  the  best 
effect  of  all ;  it  is  boiled  with  old  Aminean  wine  and 
pressed  and  then  the  juice  is  strained  and  given  as  a 
remedy.  Hyginus  indeed,  in  the  book  which  he 
wrote  about  bees,  says  :  "  Aristomachus  ^  is  of  opinion 
that  help  ought  to  be  brought  to  bees  which  are  sick 
in  the  following  manner :  first,  all  the  diseased  combs 
should  be  removed  and  entirely  fresh  food  placed  for 
the  bees,  and  then  they  should  be  fumigated."  He  9 
thinks  also  that  it  is  beneficial  to  add  a  new  swarm 
to  the  bees  who  are  wasted  by  old  age,  although 
there  is  a  danger  that  they  may  be  destroyed  by 
sedition,  nevertheless  they  are  likely  to  rejoice  be- 
cause their  number  is  increased.  But  that  they  may 
remain  in  a  state  of  concord,  the  kings  of  those  bees 
which  are  being  transferred  from  another  hive 
ought  to  be  put  out  of  the  way  as  rulers  of  an  alien 
people.  There  is,  however,  no  doubt  that  the 
honey-combs  of  the  most  populous  swarms,  which 
have  young  bees  already  matured  in  them,  ought  to 
be  transferred  and  made  subject  to  the  less  populous 
swarms  that  their  families  may  be  strengthened  by 
the  adoption,  as  it  were,  of  fresh  progeny.  But,  10 
when  this  is  going  to  be  done,  we  must  remember  to 
put  in  the  care  of  the  old  swarm  those  honey-combs 
in  which  the  young  ones  are  already  opening  their 
cells  and  putting  out  their  heads  and  eating  away 



et  velut  opercula  foraminum  obductas  ceras  erodunt  ^ 
exerentes  capita.  Nam  si  favos  immaturo  ^  fetu 
transtulerimus,    emorientur   pulli,   cum   foveri   desi- 

11  erint.  Saepe  etiam  vitio  quod  ^  Graeci  cfiayedaLvav^ 
vocant,  intereunt.  Siquidem  cum  sit  haec  apium 
consuetude,  ut  prius  tantum  cerarum  confingant, 
quantum  putent  explere  se  ^  posse,  non  nunquam 
evenit,  consummatis  ®  operibus  cereis,  ut,  dum  exa- 
men  conquirendi '  mellis  causa  longius  evagatur, 
subitis  imbribus,  aut  turbinibus  in  silvis  opprimatur, 
et  maiorem  partem  plebis  amittat :  quod  ubi  factum 
est,  reliqua  ^  paucitas  favis  complendis  non  sufficit ; 
tuncque  vacuae .cerarum  partes^  computrescunt,!*^  et 
vitiis  paulatim  serpentibus,  corrupto^^  melle,  ipsae 

12  quoque  apes  intereunt.  Id  ne  fiat,  vel  duo  populi 
coniungi  debent,  qui  possint  adhuc  integras  ceras 
explere :  vel  si  non  est  facultas  alterius  examinis, 
ipsos  favos,  ante  quam  putrescant,  vacuis  partibus 
acutissimo  ferro  liber  are.  Nam  hoc  quoque  refert, 
ne  admodum  ^^  hebes  ^^  ferramentum  (quia  non  facile 
penetret)  vehementius  impressum  favos  sedibus 
suis  commoveat :  quod  si  factum  est,  apes  domici- 
lium  derelinquunt. 

13     Est  et  ilia  causa  interitus,  quod  interdum  continuis 
annis  plurimi  flores  proveniunt,  et  apes  magis  melli- 

*  erodunt  ac  :   produnt  S:   produn  A. 
^  immaturo  ac  :   -os  SA. 

^  quod  ac :  om.  SA . 

*  (ftaythaivav  A^  :    ^ayihevav  S  :    om.  ac. 
^  se  om.  SA. 

*  consumatis  ac  :   cum  summas  S  :   consummas  A. 
'  conquirendi  ac  :   -is  SA. 

*  roliqua  ac  :  aliqua  SA.  *  partes  om.  S. 

'"  cum  putrescant  c  :  partescum  iS  :  patescunt  A  :   pates- 
cant  a. 

^1  corrupto  ac  :   -a  SA.  '*  admotum  SAac. 


BOOK  IX.  xm.  10-13 

the  wax  which  was  laid  upon  the  top  as  a  kind  of 
covering  for  their  holes.  For  if  we  transfer  the 
honey-combs  when  the  brood  has  not  come  to 
maturity,  the  young  bees  will  die  when  they  cease 
to  be  kept  warm.  For  they  often  die  of  a  distemper 
which  the  Greeks  call  phagedaina.'^  For  since  it  is  11 
the  habit  of  bees  to  construct  beforehand  as  many 
cells  as  they  think  they  can  fill,  it  sometimes  happens 
that,  when  their  waxen  structures  are  finished,  the 
swarm,  while  it  is  roaming  too  far  afield  in  search  of 
honey,  is  overwhelmed  in  the  woods  by  sudden 
showers  and  whirlwinds  and  loses  most  of  the  ordinary 
bees.  When  this  has  happened,  the  few  that  remain 
are  not  enough  to  fill  the  combs  and  then  the  empty 
parts  of  the  wax  cells  become  rotten,  and  since  diseases 
gradually  creep  in,  the  honey  becomes  corrupted  and 
the  bees,  too,  themselves  die.  To  prevent  this,  either  12 
the  populations  of  two  hives  ought  to  be  united,  so 
that  they  can  fill  the  waxen  cells  which  are  still  sound, 
or,  if  a  second  swai'm  is  not  available,  we  must  remove 
the  honey-combs  from  the  uninhabited  parts,  before 
they  go  rotten,  with  a  very  sharp  knife.  For  it  is 
very  important  also  that  a  very  blunt  iron  tool,  be- 
cause it  does  not  easily  penetrate,  should  not  be 
pressed  with  great  force  and  dislodge  the  honey- 
combs from  their  places ;  for  if  this  has  happened, 
the  bees  desert  their  abode. 

There  is  also  this  cause  of  mortality  among  bees  13 
that  sometimes  very  many  flowers  come  up  during 
several  continuous  years  and  the  bees  are  more  eager 

"  Pliny  (N.H.  XXVI.  §11)  says  that  this  word  has  two  mean- 
ings, either  (1)  a  rodent  cancer  or  (2)  voracious  hunger.  The 
first  is  certainly  the  meaning  here. 

^^  hebes  (Sac  :  hsihes  A. 



ficiis  quam  fetibus  student.  Itaque  nonnulli, 
quibus  minor  est  harum  rerum  scientia,  magnis  ^ 
fructibus  delectantur,  ignorantes  exitium  apibus 
imniinere,  quoniam  et  nimio  fatigatae  opere  plurimae 
pereunt,  nee  ullis  iuventutis  supplementis  con- 
14  frequentatae  novissime  reliquae  intereunt.  Itaque 
si  tale  ver  incessit,  ut  et  prata  et  arva  ^  floribus 
abundent,  utilissimum  est  tertio  quoque  die  exiguis 
foraminibus  relictis  per  quae  non  ^  possint  exire 
alvorum  exitus  praecludi,*  ut  ab  opere  ^  mellifico 
avocatae,  apes  quoniam  non  sperent  se  posse  ceras 
omnes  liquoribus  stipare,  fetibus  expleant.  Atque 
haec  fere  sunt  examinum  vitio  laborantium  remebia. 
XIV.  Deinceps  ilia  totius  anni  cura,  ut  idem 
Hyginus  commodissime  prodidit.  Ab  aequinoctio 
primo  quod  mense  Martio  circa  viii  calendas  Aprilis 
in  octava  parte  Arietis  conficitur,  ad  exortum  Ver- 
giliarum  dies  verni  temporis  habentur  duodequin- 
quaginta.  Per  hos  primum  ait  apes  curandas  esse 
adapertis  alveis,  ut  omnia  purgamenta,  quae  sunt 
hiberno  tempore  congesta,  eximantur,  et  araneis, 
qui  favos  corrumpunt,  detractis  fumus  immittatur 
factus  incenso  bubulo  fimo.^  Hie  enim  quasi  quadam 
2  cognatione  generis  maxime  est  apibus  aptus.  Ver- 
miculi  quoque,  qui  tineae  vocantur,  item  papiliones 

*  magis  SAac. 

*  ut  etiam  prata  parva  a  :   et  ut  prata  et  arva  c  :    et  iam 
parva  SA. 

*  non  om.  SAac. 

*  praecludit  A. 

*  ab  opere  ac  :  alveo  fere  SA. 

*  fimo  Aac  :  fimi  S. 


BOOK  IX.  xiii.  13-XIV.  2 

to  make  honey  than  to  produce  offspring.  And  so 
some  people,  whose  knowledge  of  these  matters  is 
defective,  are  delighted  at  the  large  production  of 
honey,  not  being  aware  of  the  destruction  which  is 
threatening  the  bees ;  for,  exhausted  by  too  much 
labour,  very  many  of  them  are  perishing  and,  as  their 
numbers  are  not  being  increased  by  the  addition  of 
young  stock,  the  rest  at  last  die  off.  And  so,  if  such  14 
a  spring  comes  on  that  both  the  meadows  and  the 
cornfields  abound  in  flowers,  it  is  most  expedient 
every  third  day  to  close  the  exits  from  the  hives 
(small  openings  having  been  left  through  which  the 
bees  cannot  pass),  so  that,  called  from  the  activity  of 
making  honey,  since  they  have  no  hope  of  being  able 
to  fill  up  the  waxen  cells  with  liquid  honey,  they  may 
fill  them  with  offspring.  Such  then  in  general  are 
the  remedies  for  swarms  suffering  from  some  dis- 

XIV.  Next  comes  the  management  of  bees  The  man- 
throughout  the  year  according  to  the  excellent  ble^^°*  "* 
system  set  forth  by  the  same  Hyginus.  From  the 
first  equinox,  which  takes  place  about  the  twenty- 
fourth  of  March  in  the  eighth  degree  of  the  Ram, 
until  the  rising  of  the  Pleiads,  there  are  reckoned  to 
be  the  forty-eight  days  of  spring.  During  these  days, 
he  says,  the  bees  ought  to  receive  attention  for  the 
first  time  by  opening  the  hives,  so  that  all  filth,  which 
has  collected  during  the  winter  season,  may  be  re- 
moved, and,  after  the  spiders,  which  rot  the  honey- 
combs, have  been  got  rid  of,  the  hives  may  be 
fumigated  with  smoke  produced  by  burning  ox-dung ; 
for  this  smoke  is  particularly  well  suited  to  bees  as  if 
some  affinity  existed  between  it  and  them.  The  little 
worms  also  which  are  called  moth-caterpillars  and  also  2 


VOL.  II.  R 


enecandi  sunt :  quae  pestes  plerumque  favis  adhae- 
rentes  decidunt,  si  fimo  medullam  bubulam  misceas, 
et  his  incensis  ^  nidorem  admoveas.  Hac  cura  per  id 
tempus  quod  diximus  examina  firmabuntur,  eaque 
fortius  operibus  inservient. 

3  Verum  maxime  custodiendum  est  curatori,  qui 
apes  nutrit,  cum  alvos  tractare  debebit,  uti  pridie 
castus  ab  rebus  venereis,  neve  temulentus,^  nee  nisi 
lotus  ad  eas  accedat,  abstineatque  omnibus  redolenti- 
bus  esculentis,^  ut  sunt  salsamenta,  et  eorum  omnia 
liquamina ;    itemque   fetentibus    acrimoniis    alii    vel 

4  ceparum  ceterarumque  *  rerum  similium.  Duode- 
quinquagesimo  ^  die  ab  aequinoctio  verno,  cum  fit 
Vergiliarum  exortus  circa  v  idus  Maias,  incipiunt 
examina  viribus  et  numero  augeri.  Sed  et  iisdem 
diebus  intereunt  quae  paucas  et  aegras  apes  habent ; 
eodemque  tempore  progenerantur  in  ^  extremis 
partibus  favorum  amplioris  magnitudinis  quam  sunt 
ceterae  apes,  eosque  nonnulli  putant  esse  reges. 
Verum  quidam  Graecorum  auctores  oXarpovs  '  appel- 
lant ab  eo,  quod  exagitent,  neque  patiantur  examina 
conquiescere.     Itaque  praecipiunt  eos  enecari. 

5  Ab  exortu  Vergiliarum  ad  solstitium,  quod  fit 
ultimo  mense  lunio  circa  octavam  partem  Cancri,  fere 
examinant  alvi :  quo  tempore  vehementius  custodiri 
debent,  ne  novae  soboles  diffugiant.     Tumque  per- 

^  incensis  ac  :  impensis  SA. 

^  temulentus  Ac  :   temulentis  a  :    temolestus  S. 

'  estulentis  a  :  esculentis  c  :  exculentis  S  :  excultis  A, 

*  ceterarumque  ac  :    om.  Ac. 

*  unde  quinquagesimo  SAac. 

*  in  oc  :  et  SA. 

^  olarpovs  SA  :   om,  ac, 

■  Gadflies  or  horseflies. 

BOOK  IX.  XIV.  2-5 

the  developed  moths  must  be  killed.  These  pests  which 
generally  adhere  to  the  honey-combs  fall  off,  if  you 
mix  ox's  marrow  with  dung  and,  after  setting  the 
mixture  on  fire,  bring  the  smell  of  burning  near 
them.  As  a  result  of  this  precaution  the  swarms  will 
be  strengthened  during  the  period  which  we  have 
mentioned  and  will  apply  themselves  to  their  work 
with  more  vigour. 

But  very  great  care  must  be  taken  by  the  man  in  3 
charge,  who  feeds  the  bees,  when  he  must  handle 
the  hives,  that  the  day  before  he  has  abstained  from 
sexual  relations  and  does  not  approach  them  when 
drunk  and  only  after  washing  himself,  and  that  he 
abstain  from  all  edibles  which  have  a  strong  flavour, 
such  as  pickled  fish  and  all  the  liquids  which  accom- 
pany them,  and  also  fi'om  the  acrimonious  stench  of 
garlic  and  onions  and  all  other  similar  things.  On  the  4 
forty-eighth  day  after  the  vernal  equinox,  when  the 
rising  of  the  Pleiads  takes  place  about  the  8th  of  May, 
the  swarms  begin  to  increase  in  strength  and  number ; 
but  in  the  same  period  of  days  the  swarms  also  which 
contain  few  and  sickly  bees  die  off,  and  at  the  same 
time  in  the  extremities  of  the  honey-combs  bees  are 
born  of  larger  size  than  the  rest,  which  some'people 
think  are  king-beec.  Some  writers  among  the 
Greeks,  however,  call  them  oistroi"'  from  the  fact 
that  they  excite  the  swarms  and  do  not  allow  them 
any  rest ;  therefore  they  recommend  that  they  should 
be  killed. 

From  the  rising  of  the  Pleiads  to  the  solstice,  which  5 
takes  place  at  the  end  of  June  in  about  the  eighth 
degree  of  the  Crab,  the  hives  generally  swarm.     This 
is  a  time  at  which  they  must  be  very  strictly  watched, 
so  that  the  young  brood   may   not   escape.     Then, 



acto  solstitio  usque  ad  ortum  Caniculae,  qui  fere  dies 
triginta  sunt,  pariter  ^  frumenta  et  favi  demetun- 
tur.2  Sed  hi  quemadmodum  ^  tolli  debeant,  mox 
dicetur,  cum  de  confectura  mellis  praecipiemus. 

6  Ceterum  hoc  eodem  tempore  progenerari  posse 
apes  iuvenco  perempto,  Democritus  et  Mago  *  nee 
minus  Vergilius  prodiderunt.  Mago  quidem  ventri- 
bus  etiam  bubulis  idem  fieri  affirmat,  quam  rationem 
diligentius  prosequi  supervacuum  puto,  consentiens 
Celso,    qui   prudentissime    ait,    non    tanto    interitu 

7  pecus  istud  amitti,  ut  sic  requirendum  sit.  Verum 
hoc  tempore,  et  usque  in  autumni  aequinoctium 
decimo  quoque  die  alvi  aperiendae  et  fumigandae 
sunt.  Quod  cum  sit  molestum  examinibus,  salu- 
berrimum  tamen  esse  convenit.  Suffitas  deinde,  et 
aestuantes  apes  refrigerare  oportet,  conspersis 
vacuis  partibus  alvorum  et  recentissimi  rigoris  aqua 
infusa :  deinde  si  quid  ablui  non  poterit,  pinnis 
aquilae  vel  etiam  cuius  libet  vastae  aUtis,^  quae  rigo- 

8  rem  habent,  emundari.  Praeterea  ut  tineae  ^  ever- 
rantur,  papiUonesque  enecentur,  qui  plerumque  intra 
alvos  morantes  apibus  exitio  sunt.  Nam  et  ceras 
erodunt,  et  stercore  suo  vermes  progenerant,  quos 

9  alvorufta  tineas  appellamus.  Itaque  quo  tempore 
malvae  florent,  cum  est  earum '  maxima  multitude, 
si  vas  aeneum  simile  ^  miliario  vespere  ponatur  inter 

^  pariter  Aac  :  pater  et  S. 

*  demetuntur  a  :  demetiuntur  c  :  demuntur  SA. 

*  sed  hi  quern  admodum  ac  :  sed  hiem  admodum  SA. 

*  mago  ac  :  magno  SA. 

*  aiitis  ac  :  -as  SA. 

*  post  tineae  add.  si  apparuerint  c  :   om.  SAa. 
'  eanim  ac  :  eorum  AS. 

*  simile  ac  :   -em  SA. 


BOOK  IX.  XIV.  5-9 

when  the  solstice  is  passed  and  until  the  rising  of  the 
Dog-star,  a  period  of  about  thirty  days,  the  harvests 
of  the  cornfields  and  the  honey-combs  alike  are 
gathered  in.  How  the  combs  should  be  removed 
will  be  told  presently  when  we  give  instructions  for 
preparing  honey. 

Now  Democritus,  Mago  and  likewise  Vergil  have  6 
recorded  that  bees  can  be  generated  at  this  same 
time  of  year  from  a  slain  bullock.  Mago  indeed  also 
asserts  that  the  same  thing  may  be  done  from  the 
bellies  of  oxen,  but  I  consider  it  superfluous  to  deal 
in  more  detail  with  this  method,  since  I  am  in 
agreement  with  Celsus,  who  very  wisely  says  that 
there  is  never  such  mortality  among  these  creatures, 
that  it  is  necessary  to  procure  them  by  this  means. 
But  at  this  time  and  until  the  autumn  equinox,  the  7 
hives  ought  to  be  opened  and  fumigated  every  tenth 
day.  This,  though  it  annoys  the  swarm,  is  generally 
considered  to  be  very  wholesome.  Then  after  they 
have  been  fumigated  and  are  still  heated  the  bees 
ought  to  be  cooled  by  sprinkling  the  empty  parts  of 
the  hives  and  pouring  in  water  which  is  cold  because 
it  is  very  freshly  drawn :  then  when  there  is  any- 
thing which  cannot  be  washed  away,  it  must  be 
cleansed  with  the  feathers  of  an  eagle  or  of  any  other 
large  bird  which  are  of  a  stiff  quality.  Moreover  8 
caterpillars  should  be  swept  away  and  moths  killed, 
which  generally  linger  among  the  hives  and  are 
destructive  to  the  bees ;  for  they  both  gnaw  at  the 
waxen  combs  and  from  their  dung  breed  worms  which 
we  call  "  hive-moths."  Therefore,  at  the  season  9 
when  the  mallows  flower,  when  the  moths  are 
most  numerous,  if  a  bronze  vessel  of  the  shape  of  a 
milestone  is  placed  amongst  the  hives  in  the  evening 



alvos,  et  in  fundum  eius  lumen  aliquod  demittatur, 
undique  papiliones  concurrunt :  ^  dumque  circa 
flammulam  volitant,^  aduruntur,  quod  ^  nee  facile  ex 
angusto  sursum  evolare,*  nee  rursus  longius  ab  igne 
possunt  recedere,  cum  latex-ibus  aeneis  circumveni- 
antur  :   ideoque  propinquo  ardore  consumuntur. 

10  A  Canicula  fere  post  diem  quinquagesimum 
Arcturus  oritur,  cum  irroratis  floribus  thymi  et 
cunilae  thymbraeque  apes  mella  conficiunt :  idque  ^ 
optimae  'notae  enitescit  ^  autumni  aequinoctio,  quod 
est  ante  calend.  Octobris,  cum  octavam  partem 
Librae  sol  attigit,  Sed  inter  Caniculae  et  Arcturi 
exortum  cavendum  erit,  ne  apes  intercipiantur 
violentia   crabronum,   qui   ante   alvearia   plerumque 

11  obsidiantur  prodeuntibus.  Post  Arcturi  exortum 
circa  aequinoctium  Librae  (sicut  dixi)  favorum 
secunda  est  exemptio.  Ab  aequinoctio  deinde  quod 
conficitur  circa  viii  calend.  Octobris  ad  Vergiliarum 
occasum  diebus  XL,  ex  floribus  tamaricis  "^  et  silves- 
tribus  frutectis  apes  collecta  mella  cibariis  hiemis 
reponunt.  Quibus  nihil  est  omnino  detrahendum,  ne 
saepius  iniuria  contristatae  velut  desperatione  rerum 

12  profugiant.  Ab  occasu  Vergiliarum  ad  brumam, 
quae  fere  conficitur^  circa  viii  calend.  lanuarii  in 
octava  parte  Capricorni,  iam  recondito  melle  utuntur 
examina,  eoque  usque  ad  Arcturi  exortum  sustinen- 

^  concurrant  SA  :   -cnt  ac. 

*  volitent  SAac. 

*  quod  c  :    quoniam  a  :    quam  SA. 

*  evolent  SAac, 

*  idque  ac  :   atque  SA. 

'  enitescit  SAa  :  emitescit  c. 
'  tamaricis  ac  :   amaricis  SA . 

*  conficitur  ac  :  confingitur  SA. 


BOOK  IX.  XIV.  9-12 

and  a  light  lowered  to  the  bottom  of  it,  the  moths 
rush  together  from  all  sides  and,  flitting  round  the 
flame,  are  scorched  because  they  cannot  easily  fly 
upwards  from  the  narrow  space  or  retire  to  a  distance 
from  the  fire,  since  they  are  hemmed  in  by  the  brazen 
sides  of  the  vessel.  They  are,  therefore,  consumed 
by  the  burning  heat  which  is  near  them. 

About  fifty  days  from  the  rising  of  the  Dog-star  10 
is  the  rising  of  Arcturus,  at  which  time  the  bees 
make  their  honey  from  the  dew-drenched  flowers  of 
thyme  and  marjoram  and  savory.  Honey  of  the 
finest  quality  is  at  its  best  at  the  autumn  equinox, 
which  falls  before  the  first  of  October,  when  the  sun 
reaches  the  eighth  degree  of  Libra.  But  great  care 
will  have  to  be  exercised  between  the  rising  of  the 
Dog-star  and  that  of  Arcturus  that  the  bees  are  not 
surprised  by  violent  attacks  from  hornets,  which 
generally  lie  in  wait  in  front  of  the  hives  for  them  to 
come  out.  After  the  rising  of  Arcturus  about  the  11 
time  of  the  equinox,  which  takes  place  when  the  sun 
is  in  the  Balance  (as  I  have  said),  the  second  extraction 
of  honey-combs  takes  place.  Then  from  the  equinox, 
which  occurs  about  September  24:th,  until  the  set- 
ting of  the  Pleiads,  a  period  of  forty  days,  the  bees 
store  up  the  honey  which  they  have  collected  for 
winter  food  from  the  tamarisk  flowers  and  woodland 
shrubs.  Of  this  nothing  at  all  must  be  extracted, 
lest  the  bees,  disheartened  by  continual  ill-treat- 
ment and,  as  it  were,  in  despair,  should  take  to  flight. 
From  the  setting  of  the  Pleiads  till  the  winter  solstice,  12 
which  falls  about  December  23rd  in  the  eighth  degree 
of  Capricorn,  the  bees  make  use  of  the  honey  already 
stored  up  and  are  sustained  by  it  until  the  rising  of 
Arcturus.     I  am  well  acquainted  with  the  reckoning 



tur.  Nee  me  fallit  Hipparchi  ratio,  quae  docet 
solstitia  et  aequinoctia  non  octavis  sed  primis  parti- 
bus  signorum  confici.  Verum  in  hac  ruris  disciplina 
sequor  nunc  Eudoxi  et  Metonis  ^  antiquorumque 
fastus  astrologer um,  qui  sunt  aptati  ^  publicis  saeri- 
ficiis :  quia  et  notior  est  ista  vetus  agricolis  concepta 
opinio ;   nee  tamen  Hipparchi  subtilitas  pinguioribus, 

13  ut  aiunt,  rusticorum  Uteris  necessaria  est.  Ergo 
Vergiliarum  occasu  primo  statim  conveniet  aperire 
alvos,  et  depurgare  quidquid  immundi  est,  diligenti- 
usque  curare ;  quoniam  per  tempora  hiemis  non 
expedit  movere  aut  patefacere  vasa.  Quam  ob 
causam  dum  adhuc  autumni  reliquiae  sunt,^  apricis- 
simo  die  purgatis  domiciliis  opercula  intus  usque  ad 
favos  admovenda  sunt,  omni  vacua  parte  sedis  exclusa, 
quo  facilius  angustiae  cavearum  per  hiemem  con- 
calescant.  Idque  semper  faciendum  est  etiam  in  iis 
alvis,  quae  paucitate  plebis  infrequentes  sunt. 

14  Quidquid  deinde  rimarum  est  aut  foraminum,  luto 
et  fimo  bubulo  mixtis  illinemus  extrinsecus,  nee  nisi 
aditus,  quibus  commeent,  relinquemus.  Et  quamvis 
porticu  protecta  vasa  nihilo  minus  congestu  cul- 
mox'um  et  frondium  supertegemus,  quantumque  res 
patietur,    a    frigore    et    tempestatibus    muniemus. 

15  Quidam  exemptis  interaneis  occisas  aves  intus  in- 
cludunt,  quae  tempore  hiberno  plumis  suis  delites- 
centibus  apibus    praebent  teporem :    tum   etiam  si 

^  metonis  ac  :   mentonis  SA. 

2  aptati  ac  :  aptatis  5^. 

'  reliquie  sunt  c  :  relique  sunt  o  :  requiescunt  SA. 

"  See  note  on  Book  I.  1.  5. 
*  Book  I.  Preface,  §  32. 

BOOK  IX.  XIV.  12-15 

of  Hipparchus,"  which  declares  that  the  solstices  and 
equinoxes  occur  not  in  the  eighth  but  in  the  first 
degrees  of  the  signs  of  the  Zodiac  ;  however,  in  these 
rural  instructions  I  am  now  following  the  calendar  of 
Eudoxus  and  Meto  '^  and  the  old  astronomers,  which 
are  adapted  to  the  public  festivals,  because  this 
view,  accepted  in  old  times,  is  more  familiar  to 
farmers  and,  on  the  other  hand,  the  subtility  of 
Hipparchus  is  not  necessary. for  mstics  of  less  refined 
education.  On  the  first  rieiilg,  uren,  of  the  Pleiads  it  13 
will  be  advisable  immediately  to  open  the  hives  and 
clear  away  any  filth  that  there  is  and  attend  to  them 
with  particular  care,  since  during  the  winter  time  it 
is  not  expedient  to  move  or  open  the  hives.  For 
this  reason,  while  there  are  some  remains  left  of 
autumn,  on  a  very  sunny  day,  after  the  bees'  habita- 
tions have  been  cleansed,  the  covers  must  be  put  in- 
side close  to  the  honey-combs  to  prevent  there  being 
any  empty  space  within,  so  that  the  narrow  quarters  of 
the  hives  may  warm  up  more  easily  during  the 
winter.  This  must  always  be  done  also  in  those 
hives  which  are  sparsely  inhabited  through  lack  of 
bee  population. 

Next  any  chinks  or  holes  that  there  are  we  shall  14 
daub  outside  with  a  mixture  of  clay  and  ox-dung, 
and  we  shall  only  leave  entrance  by  which  they  may 
come  and  go.  Also,  although  the  hives  are  pro- 
tected by  a  porch,  we  shall  nevertheless  cover  them  by 
heaping  stalks  and  leaves  on  the  top  of  them  and 
fortify  them,  as  far  as  circumstances  allow,  against 
cold  and  bad  weather.  Some  people  kill  birds  and,  15 
after  taking  out  their  intestines,  shut  the  birds  up  in 
the  hives,  so  that  in  winter  time  they  may  provide  a 
gentle  heat  for  the  bees  which  lurk  amongst  their 



sunt  absumpta  cibaria,  commode  pascuntur  esuri- 
entes,  nee  nisi  ossa  ^  earum  relinquunt.  Sin  autem 
favi  sufficient  ^  permanent  illibatae,  nee  quamvis 
amantissimas  ^  munditiarum  oflFendunt  odore  suo. 
Melius  tamen  esse  *  nos  existimamus,  tempore 
hiberno  fame  laborantibus  ad  ipsos  aditus  in  canali- 
culis  vel  contusam  et  aqua  madefactam  ficum  aridam, 
vel  defrutum  aut  passum  praebere.  Quibus  liquori- 
bus  mundam  lanam  imbuere  oportebit,  ut  insistentes 

16  apes  quasi  per  siphonem  succum  evocent.  Uvas 
etiam  passas  cum  infregerimus,  paulum  aqua  respersas 
probe  dabimus.  Atque  his  cibariis  non  solum  hieme, 
sed  etiam  quibus  temporibus,  ut  iam  supra  dixi 
tithymalus,  atque  etiam  ulmi  florebunt,  sustinendae 

17  su